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The influence of color in fragrance perception: designing packagings for perfumes by Camila A P Silva and Clice Mazzilli. Deciphering the message in the perfume bottle by Panagiotis Xouplidis. The Perfume of Cyprus. Scents of Rome by Graham R Way.

Book of Ancient Formulas. Download Download PDF. They include civet cats and a goat, from the beard of which labdanum is being combed. Floating on the sea is ambergris. Enquiries conceming reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.

In valleys made fertile by seasonal flood-waters lay the remains of an ancient civilization. I found inscriptions and the ruin sites of towns, palaces and temples. Almost buried under the sand dunes were the tumbled walls of a great city. From here, two thousand years before, huge camel caravans had trudged their way along miles of burning sand and rocks to Petra and Gaza, burdened with a most precious cargo - frankincense, myrrh and other perfume materials for the courts, temples and perfume shops of Rome.

My book Frankincense and Myrrh delved into the details of this romantic trade and led to a broader interest in the perfumes of ancient times. Then, researching on behalf of a perfume house into the Arab contribution to perfumery, I came across the collection of perfume recipes assembled by the Arab philosopher-scientist Yaqub al-Kindi, which have never been translated into English some, which I have translated myself, are now included in an appendix to this book.

I realized that in that work I had found key evidence to demonstrate how the medieval Arab perfume makers had been the bridge in perfume history between ancient and modern times. Perfumery could now be seen as an art with a continuous history of development since the dawn of civilization. This book has been compiled for a multitude of purposes, but among them is the object of affirming this continuity in the long story of perfumery. There is, therefore, no incongruity if an entry about a great 'classic' perfume of the 20th century appears next to one describing an unguent of ancient Greece; besides, both may well be found to contain some of the same exotic ingredients as were loaded on to camels in the spice market of that city in south-west Arabia all those centuries ago.

Hitherto, they have been faced with a bewildering range of fragrances but have had little information to guide their selection of them. Others for whom it is hoped this book will be of value include those people who may wish to try making fragrances themselves. For them brief guidance notes, under the heading 'Perfume Making at Home', supported by an appendix of recipes and formulas, will provide an introduction into a fascinating occupation.

Among other general monographs which will be found grouped together under the broad heading 'Perfume' is one on 'Perfume Containers', designed to help the growing number of persons who now follow the hobby of collecting perfume bottles. Throughout this work I have tried to give due recognition to the artists and craftsmen who design and manufacture the elegant and striking flacons in which perfumes are now contained. There has always been a mystique in perfumery, but in modern times it has been overplayed.

Many couture designers, concerned with nebulous objectives like the 'image' of their fashion houses, have preferred to keep the art of perfumery obscure, sometimes even so that it will appear they have personally created the fragrances they market. Thus the skill of the highly trained perfumer, who alone is capable of assembling the multiple ingredients of a modern perfume into a satisfying compound see the entry for 'Perfume Creation' , has tended to be hidden under a cloak of anonymity.

It is hoped that this work will go some way towards reasserting the importance of the trained perfumer and reaffirming them as artists. I have sought to make this work technically acceptable to the botanist. In preparing entries for the many hundreds of plants used in perfumery which are recorded here, I have therefore, for the sake of accurate, scientific identification, given botanical names; but this inevitably leads to the problem of the constant changes of nomenclature as botanists discover, for example, that a plant found in one part of the world is identical with a plant found elsewhere and already named differently.

Where more than one botanical name has applied I have therefore quoted them all, using the conventional equation format, but I have not sought to put the currently definitive botanical name first in the equation, as that would have been too onerous and beyond my competence. I am grateful to Nigel Hepper, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, for his help and advice over some botanical aspects, including the spelling of some of the botanical names, but he has seen only a portion of the text and errors in it are my own.

Inevitably in the writing of a book of this sort, there will be omissions and inaccuracies. For these I apologize. I would also be very grateful to hear of them, through the publishers, in the hope that they can be rectified should a second edition of this book be possible. The photograph is by Claude Muzzin of Grasse. Line drawings are by the author except where otherwise stated.

The design on the title page and section headings depicts Oak Moss see page Perfume bottles shown in the tail-piece drawing at the end of some of the alphabetical sections also reproduced below are as follows left to right : Patou '' ; Levy 'Escada' ; Guerlain 'Shalimar' ; Guerlain 'Mitsouko' ; Dior 'Diorissimo' ; DeVilbiss atomizer c.

Tettifer of the British Society of Perfumers. Recipes nos. A scented talcum powder sprinkled on clothes and linen in India. Composition of the powder varies; one variety is reportedly made from sandalwood, aloes, rose petals, zedoary, civet and kapur-kachri; another from curcuma, cardamon, cloves and sandalwood. Absinthe Oil see Wormwood Oil Absolute The essential oil of scented flowers and other aromatic plant parts in its purest and most concentrated form; this is obtained after stearoptene has been removed from the concrete by extraction with alcohol.

It is extremely expensive. Among the most important oils used in an absolute form are cassie, champac, clary sage, geranium, ylang- ylang, jasmine, labdanum, lavender, lily, mimosa, orange flower, rose, tuberose, violet and violet leaf. Acacia Different species of acacia produce cassie, mimosa and gum arabic. Acacia cavenia see Cassie dealbata see Mimosa farnesiana see Cassie floribunda see Mimosa gummifera see Gum Arabic nilotica see Gum Arabic senegal see Gum Arabic sorts see Gum Arabic Accord In perfumery this signifies a combination of a number of different scents which blend together to produce a new fragrance.

Acerra A small box in which the Romans kept, and sometimes burned, incense used in the temples during a sacrificial ceremony. In ancient Greece it was called libanotris. See Roman Perfumes. Achillea agoratum see Maudlin decolorans see English Mace moschata see Iva Acorus calamus see Calamus Adiantum amabile see Scented Maidenhair Aframomum melegnata see Grains of Paradise African Myrrh see Bdellium Agar Wood see Aloewood Agastache anethiodora see Giant Hyssop pallidiclora see Giant Hyssop Aglaia The flowers of a tree Aglaia odorata, known to the Chinese as Yu-chu-Ian, are highly regarded in China for their exquisite fragrance and are used there for making joss sticks and scented necklaces and for flavouring tea.

They retain their perfume when dried and are widely used in sachets and pot pourri. Agrimony The dried flowers and leaves of Scented Agrimony Agrimonia odorata , a perennial herb native to N. Europe, including Britain, are used for scenting pillows and in pot pourri. Agrumen Oils The collective term in perfumery for the essential oils of citrus fruits bergamot, colobot, cravo, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin, bitter orange, sweet orange and tangerine.

See also Hesperides. It is used in cosmetics and as an incense. The seeds have a strong thyme-like scent and an oil obtained from them is used as an antiseptic and to aid digestion. The crushed seeds are dried for use in sachet powders and pot pourri. An oil called Ajowan Oil, sometimes known as Oman Water, is also distilled from the seeds of Ptychotis ajowan, cultivated in India.

The seeds are used locally as a spice and the oil is occasionally used in soaps. The heartwood of the stems and roots is scented and used for making joss sticks and as an incense in temples. Alant see Elecampane Alabastrum A vessel or pot used in Roman times to hold perfumed oils and unguents. They were usually made of alabaster or related stone agate or onyx , but the term was also used to describe such vessels made of other materials Theocritus speaks of 'golden alabastra'.

Those for oils were usually tapering in shape, with a long narrow neck. Aldehyde An important group of chemicals, derived from alcohol and some natural plant materials. They form one of a number of chemical groups known as benzenoid compounds which were discovered at the end of the 19th century and are used in manufacturing synthetic materials for modern perfumes. Anisic aldehyde, for example, provides the scent of hawthorn, while decylic aldehyde is used in reproducing the odours of violet, orris, neroli, cassie flowers, rose and orange.

Aldehydes can also give perfumes a distinctly individual fragrance of their own. In their pure state aldehydes possess such a powerful and persistent odour that a single drop spilt on a person's clothes will make them so odoriferous as to be objectionable. They have therefore to be used with extreme care and discretion and in minute quantities, when they are of great value to a perfumer, providing fragrances with a new richness and strength.

The use of aldehydes in perfumes was developed by Ernest Beaux for Chanel, leading to the first aldehydic perfume - 'Chane I No. A small perennial herb Alkanna tinctoria native to south-east Europe and Turkey but now grown widely. It has a large root from which a red dye, called Alkanna or Alkanet, is extracted by maceration in oil, fat or alcohol. The dye was used to give perfumes an attractive red colour by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. In the 17th century, French women made a cosmetic ointment from it to give their cheeks 'an oriental glow'.

It is still used for colouring infused oils and pomatums. Green top notes cover a spicy, resinous heart which includes galbanum and nutmeg, with hints of rosewood, pine-needle and thyme, and a base note dominated by oak moss. The bottle was designed by Ira Levy. Africa, was used by the women of ancient Egypt to perfume their bodies. It is thought to be the ahaloth of the Bible St John , in which it was a perfuming agent, and was much used in ancient times as an ingredient of incenses.

But some scholars have suggested that the references to aloes in the Old Testament related to sandalwood. Aloe vera oil is still used in cosmetics, particularly as an emollient in skin-care preparations. One of the most valuable of all perfume materials since it was introduced into Europe by the early Arabs during the 8th century AD.

Aloewood is the aromatic, resinous heartwood of a large evergreen tree Aquilaria agollocha, also A. The wood becomes resinous and fragrant due to a disease which makes part of the heartwood black, oily, very hard and heavier than water. Aloewood Oil is distilled from the infected wood and has an odour reminiscent of ambergris and sandalwood. The early Arabs, who first obtained it from China, regarded it as one of the most desirable of all perfume materials and recognized ten different varieties.

It was soon highly valued in Europe and became an important ingredient of pomanders. The dried wood left after distillation was used in sachets and pot pourri. The Eaglewood tree of Cambodia and Annam Aquilaria crasna produces a fragrant resin in the same manner. Aloewood should not be confused with Aloes. Suggestions that it was the Aloes of the Bible are discounted.

It is occasionally used in perfumery. Alpinia galanga see Galingale malaccensis see Galingale officinarum see Galingale Amantilla see Valerian Amaracus dictamus see Dittany Amarante A name given to a type of compound perfume. The word means cock's comb or prince's feathers. Perfumes so named usually contain synthetic muguet, with rose, sandalwood, musk and jasmine to round off the bouquet.

Amarige' A quality floral perfume, with woody undertones, launched I by Givenchy in Created by Dominique Ropion of Roure, its main ingredients are neroli, rosewood, violet and mandarin leaf oil in the top notes, with gardenia, mimosa, cassie and ylang-ylang prominent in the heart, finishing with a base which includes sandalwood, musk, ambergris, vanilla and tonka. Amaryllis A name given in perfumery to perfumes of the lily type, usually with added traces of rose and neroli.

Amazone' A light floral fruity perfume with green notes first I introduced by Hermes in and relaunched in with a revised formula created by Hilton McConnus. The dominating fragrances in the heart are rose and jasmine. In the top notes narcissus is supported by bergamot, lemon, orange and blackcurrant buds.

The base notes are underlined by sandalwood and cedar. Amber An abbreviated form of ambergris. In perfumery this is nothing to do with the semi-precious fossilized resin of the same name which is used in jewellery. The word denotes a fragrance found not only in ambergris itself but also in several other natural materials, such as labdanum. It is also sometimes used to describe the fragrance of oak moss, and sometimes used to designate the family of perfumes more usually called 'oriental'.

For 'Artificial ambers' see Ambres. Amber, Sweet see St John's Wort Ambergris Since antiquity, one of the most valuable of perfume in- gredients and also one of the most legendary. Ambergris is found in oily, grey lumps floating in the sea, mainly in the Indian Ocean, or cast on to its shores. Speculation about the origin of this material persisted until the 19th century. The substance is excreted by the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus after it has been feeding on cuttle fish. The lumps usually weigh a pound or two, but may be up to seventy pounds weight and occasionally much larger.

Its odour is most unpleasant in the raw state and it has to be considerably diluted, by dissolving in alcohol, when it becomes highly fragrant, with a scent which has a similarity with labdanum. It is usually used in the form of a tincture. The fragrance is very persistent. The weathering of ambergris while it is in the sea is an important factor in its fragrancy; ambergris removed directly from the body of a whale, or freshly expelled from it, is nauseating and must be aged over several years before it can be used in perfumery.

Ambergris was not known to the Greeks and Romans and appears to have come into use during early Arab times. It was included in a list of items sent as tribute from the Yemen to the Persian Emperor in the 6th century AD, and al-Kindi, early 9th century AD, used it in a number of his perfume recipes.

It also appeared in a Byzantine list of perfumes permitted to be sold in Constantinople in about AD. It enjoyed a reputation as an aphrodisiac. Solid ambergris is said to retain its perfume for three centuries or more. In Elizabethan times it was used to perfume gloves because its scent remained on them despite repeated washing. For centuries it has been very highly valued by perfumers as a fixative. However, because of the growing scarcity and consequent costliness of 'floating' ambergris and environmental objections to obtaining it by killing whales, it is now rarely used in perfumery other than in a synthesized form.

Ambon Sandalwood The scented wood of the Ambon Sandalwood tree, also called Sasooroo and Rozemarijinhout Osmoxylon umbelliferum , native to Indonesia, is burnt as an incense. Ambrein A substance extracted from purified labdanum which has an ambergris-like fragrance and is of considerable value in perfumery as a fixative.

Ambres Also called Artificial ambers. See also Amber. A particularly fragrant variety grows in Martinique. The seeds, sometimes called Musk Seeds, Musky Seeds, Abelmosk Seeds, Ambrette Seeds or Amber Seeds, hold their scent for a very long time and were once much used by perfumers for scenting gloves, mattresses and pillows. Today they are used in sachets and for adulterating musk.

The oil, extracted by volatile solvents, is expensive and used in quality perfumes. The plant, a perennial weed growing up to about 2 feet high, is found in S. America, Mexico and southern and eastern parts of the USA. Dioscorides described Ammoniacum as the juice of a giant fennel found in Libya, especially near the temple of Ammon, in Cyrene.

The resin, a white latex which soon hardens, is known as Tear Ammoniacum when collected off the stem and Lump Ammoniacum when picked up from the ground when it usually contains dust and grit. It has an odour resembling castoreum, for which it is sometimes used as a substitute, and is ground up for use as a fixative in pot pourri and sachets; it also has medicinal uses.

The company now sells 'Amouage' perfume world- wide at the top level of international quality perfumes. Created by Guy Robert, 'Amouage' is a floral-oriental fragrance unique for its range of over natural ingredients it contains unusually few synthetics ; many of these are rare and costly, making it one of the most expensive perfumes on the market.

The floral-fruity top note includes rose three varieties , jasmine, geranium, orris, bergamot and tuberose, blended with peach, apricot and lime. The spicy heart contains, with many other constituents, patchouli, sandalwood, labdanum, myrrh, frankincense and ylang-ylang. Among the most dominant lower notes are vanilla, vetiver, ambergris, civet and musk. It is marketed in containers of gilded silver and semi-precious stones developed by Aspreys, and is also now sold in flacons made by Baccarat and Brosse.

In it was selected as 'Star Product of the Year' at Cannes. Amour Amour' A classic floral perfume with fresh, fruity top notes I brought out by Jean Patou in The heart is a flowery bouquet based on rose, jasmine and carnation, with top notes of neroli, blackcurrant buds, narcissus and bergamot, and lower notes dominated by vetiver. The perfume was relaunched in and is now sold in a flacon modelled after the original by Louis Siie.

In it was the top-selling perfume in Britain. It is named after Anaitis, the ancient Persian goddess of love. The heart, based on rose, jasmine and iris, with hints of tuberose, ylang-ylang and other flower fragrances, is delicately floral. The top notes are leafy green, and the base notes contain vetivert, oak moss and patchouli. The original bottle, with a silver cap, was designed by Annegret Beier.

It is occasionally used in perfumes and soaps. There are about 30 varieties. Angelica has a considerable place in N. European folklore, being regarded since the Icelandic sagas as a powerful charm against evil spirits and infectious diseases. It is said to have been introduced into England from Scandinavia in the Middle Ages as a valuable antidote to bubonic plague, one legend holding that this property was first revealed by an angel.

In addition to its uses in medicines and flavourings, an essential oil is steam-distilled from the root Oil of Angelica Root and seeds which has a strong musky, benzoin or juniper-like odour and is used in perfumery, especially in chypre and fern-like perfumes, sometimes as a fixative.

The dried roots and seeds are also used in pot pourri and sachets, and a resinoid extracted from the roots is used as a fixative. The main ones are: Ambergris from the sperm whale Castoreum beaver Civet civet cat Hyraceum hyrax Musk musk deer Propolis bee Sweet Hoof marine snail Animalic A term used in perfumery to describe a fragrant material of animal origin, or the fragrance coming from that material, or a fragrance from a plant source or made synthetically which resembles such material.

Anise Also known as Aniseed and Roman Fennel. The medical properties of anise were well known to the Greeks and Romans, who also used it as a spice. Its cultivation spread into central Europe and as far as England during the Middle Ages, when it was believed to avert the 'evil eye'.

Oil of Anise is distilled from the seeds and occasionally used in perfumery. Both the oil and the seeds are sometimes added to pot pourri and sachets. Anise should not be confused with Star Anise, Anise Pimpinella anisum. Her company, which bears her name, now has a world-wide business in association with the Tattinger Group.

Her perfume creations, using high-quality natural materials, include 'Passion' , 'Heure Exquise' 80 , - 'Parfum de Femme' 82 and 'Gardenia Passion' 89 , together with a number of fragrances for men and the first fragrance for babies 'Eau de Bonpoint'. The perfumes are sold in a signature spherical flacon featuring a butterfly on the stopper. It is named after an invincible hero of Greek mythology.

Its principal ingredients are clary sage and myrtle, providing aromatic notes, patchouli and sandalwood to give woody notes, and labdanum to add an amberlleather touch. It has a woody odour and is occasionally used in soaps. Created for Les Senteurs by Francois Robert the son of Guy Robert , it contains in the top note lily of the valley, jasmine and unusually for a top note frankincense, with a heart built on rose and sandalwood and a base in which patchouli, oak moss and amber are the main ingredients.

In modern perfumery the aroma is obtained by distillation of the fruit juice or, more usually, by synthesis. Asia and in Mediterranean regions. In modern perfumes the fragrance of apricot is created synthetically; it is often used to provide a fruity effect e. Aquilaria bancana see Ramin agollacha see Aloewood malaccensis see Aloewood Arab Perfumes The Arabs have been associated with perfume since the dawn of history.

Frankincense and myrrh were collected by the Egyptians from the Land of Punt, which may have included south Arabia, from at least as early as BC see Egyptian Perfumes , and Herodotus recorded in about BC that Arabia was 'the only place Arabs collecting incense source Andre Thevet, Cosmographie Universelle, Arab Perfumes 13 that produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia, cinnamon and the gum called ladanon', observing also that the Arabs sent several tons of frankincense every year to the Persian emperor Darius as a tribute.

Theophrastus, too, noted these materials as coming from Arabia, and Pliny provided a detailed account of the very substantial Roman trade in aromatics from south Arabia, which were taken either overland to Petra or by sea, together with spices from India, through Egyptian Red Sea ports. Arabia also produced other perfume materials such as balsam of Makkah.

Calamus and costus were used in early south Arabian incenses and may have been locally grown. Pliny commented that the Arabs liked to burn the wood of 'storax brought in from Syria'. But the cinnamon and cassia of the early accounts do not appear to have been the same materials as we know by those names today. After the collapse of the Roman Empire the Arabian trade in frankincense and myrrh continued on a reduced scale.

At the same time Arab perfume makers, especially those in Aden, began to make their name it is recorded that Indian merchants even sent their in- gredients to Aden to be made up into perfumes. The Caliphs controlled Persia, where perfume-making was already an art, and their ships, trading directly with India, the East Indies and China, began to bring back new perfume materials.

Sophisticated techniques of distillation were devised by the Arabs of this time, enabling attars, particularly of rose, to be manufactured on a large scale. The Persians sent bottles of rosewater to Baghdad as a tribute every year. With the Caliphs en- couraging the lavish use of perfume in their courts, Baghdad became the centre of a substantial perfume industry, and Arab perfume makers set up their shops in all parts of the Arab Empire.

From Islamic Spain and Sicily, and in the luggage of returning crusaders, Arab perfumes crossed the borders into the Christian world. As Shakespeare testified, the 'perfumes of Arabia' were unexcelled in Europe until the 16th century. Much of our knowledge of early Arab perfumes derives from a book of perfume recipes compiled by al-Kindi c. From this it is evident that most of the principal ingredients of Egyptian, Greek and Roman perfumes were used by the Arabs, together with many materials previously unknown in Europe, notably the animal perfumes, ambergris, castoreum, musk and, a little later, civet, and Far Eastern plant products such as aloewood and camphor.

Fruits, like apple, apricot, mahaleb cherry, citron, myrtle, peach and quince, were used. But the Arabs also had a strong liking for the fragrance of herbs and spices and employed a wide range of them. Among the more extraordinary fragrant materials used were sweet hoof, pissasphalt and hyraceum.

Oils employed as a base included bitter almond, ben, cotton, olive and sesame. Most perfumes were coloured for good appearance, and for this the dyes included alkanet, emblic, dragon's blood and safflower. Several stan- dard compound perfumes were produced widely, including Ghaliya, Khaliiq a recipe quoted under this heading shows the complexity of some of the Arab perfumes , Ramik, Sukk and Naddah a particularly luxurious incense.

Some notion of the extravagant manner in which wealthy medieval Arabs used perfume is given in the 15th century Arab book of erotica The Perfumed Garden, where the advice to a man preparing for a successful seduction reads: 'Fill the tent with a variety of different perfumes: ambergris, musk and all sorts of scents, such as rose, orange flowers, jonquils, jasmine, hyacinth, carnation and other plants. This done, have placed there several gold censers filled with green aloes, ambergris, naddah and such like'.

Aramis An Italian company based in Florence which was established in and is now a part of the Estee Lauder group. It specializes in men's toiletries. Fragrances include 'Aramis', a trend-setting chypre- type eau de cologne launched in ; its main ingredients are aldehydes with artemisia in the top note, jasmine and patchouli in the middle note, and oak moss and leather fragrance in the base.

Arar Tree see Sandarac Araucaria Oil A viscid, rose-scented oil distilled from the wood of a tree growing to about 30 feet high, Neocallitropsis araucarioides, found in New Caledonia. It is used as a fixative in cosmetics and soaps. An oil with a balsamic, pine-like fragrance which was once used medicinally and is still used occasionally in perfumes especially as a fixative.

The tree was introduced into Britain in about See also under Cedar. See Appendix B, recipe no. Armoise see Artemesia Aromachology A branch of aroma therapy concerned with the physio- logical effects of scents. Current research, mainly in Japan, is concerned with the selection of scents with calming or uplifting effects and the physical measurement of those effects. Applications being developed in Japan, principally by Shiseido, include an aromatic alarm clock, designed to emit satisfying odours at the time of awakening, and the emission of perfumes in work environments designed to refresh and to relieve stress among office and operational staff.

Aromanthemes A name used in perfumery to describe highly concen- trated natural flower perfumes. Aromatherapy A method of therapeutic treatment developed during the present century, but mostly based on herbal remedies evolved over many centuries, in which the essential oils of aromatic plants are applied to the body by massage, in aromatic baths, or in compresses, or the aroma of them is inhaled.

Experiments in at an NHS hospital have used the scent of lavender oil to induce sleep. The word was first used in French as Aromatherapie in by Rene Gattefosse, a French chemist working in his family's perfume company. See also Aromachology. Aldehydic top notes, with hints of ber- gamot, neroli and peach, yield to a floral heart, principally jasmine, rose, camellia and lily of the valley, with woody base notes including ambrein, ben- zoin, musk, sandalwood and vetiver.

It is sold in a distinctive black, ball-shaped flacon in Art Deco style, designed by Armand Rateau, and in a bottle by Brosse. Arrace see Orris Artabotrys The flowers of a climbing plant Artabotrys odora- tissima, native to India and Indonesia, are used locally in making perfume. Their 'Arpege'. An oil steam-distilled from the dried plants of two species of Artemisia Artemisia vulgaris and A.

They grow widely in temperate areas and are cultivated for this oil in Algeria, Morocco, France and Yugoslavia. The oil has a spicy fragrance and is used in many types of perfumes e. Artemisia abrotanum see Southernwood absinthium see Wormwood dracunculus see Tarragon pallens see Davana Oil pontica see Wormwood Arvensis Peppermint Oil see Peppermint Aryballos A small flask used in ancient Greece, especially in the period BC, to hold a perfumed unguent.

It was round-bodied, with a very narrow mouth, so that the oil could be poured out drop by drop; usually it was made of terracotta and was carried hanging from the owner's wrist by a small strap. Athletes used it when washing after performing in the Olympic Games. Some types of aryballos remained in use into Roman times, when they were known as Ampullae and were usually carried together with a 'strigil', a form of comb for scraping the skin, used while perspiring in the public hot baths.

A gum obtained from a tall evil-smelling due to sulphurous compounds plant of this name Ferula assafoetida and F. The gum was used as a spice and medicine by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was known to the Romans as Persian Silphium. It is still used, as a fixative, in oriental-type perfumes after removal of the suplhurous content.

An oil with an intense onion-like odour is steam-distilled from the gum and used in both medicines and perfumery. The fragrant roots, used medicinally and in the preparation of snuff, resemble spikenard and were an ingredient in some early Arab perfumes. See also Birthwort. It has no connection with the genus Aspalathus of modern times, which is native to S.

Avon 17 Africa, nor with Rhodium, which is sometimes called' Aspalathus'. It is thought most likely that the Aspalathus of ancient times came from varieties of Camel's Thorn Alhagi camelorum found in the Middle East and N. Africa, or from a shrubby herb Cytisus lanigerus. See Kypros. A perfume bottle made with a pressure device, often operated by squeezing a rubber bulb, which discharges its fragrance as a fine spray. Originally developed as medicinal throat sprays, atomizers, notably those made by the American firm DeVilbiss, were used for perfumes from about Fine examples are now much sought after by collectors.

Attar Also known as Otto. A fragrant essential oil derived from a flower by distillation. The word comes from Arabic 'Itr, meaning a perfume also 'Atr jul in Persian, meaning 'fat of a flower'. It is applied in particular to the essential oil of the rose. The term is sometimes used loosely to signify any essential oil. America, Asia and Australia.

The botanical name Geum originates from a Greek word meaning 'to yield an agreeable fragrance'. The plant has many country names, in- cluding Avens Root, Clove Root, Colewort, Goldy Star, Caryophyllata, Wood Avens, Wild Rye and Herb Bennett a corruption from 'the blessed herb' because of the belief that it could ward off evil spirits and wild beasts. The rhizomes have a clove-like fragrance and are dried for use in sachet powders and pot pourri as well as for flavouring and medicinal purposes.

In 17th century England they were strewed among clothes to provide fragrance and keep away moths. They were once thought to counter bubonic plague. The leaves, also dried for use in pot pourri, have a sweet, clover-like smell. Avocado Oil An oil obtained by expression from the dried fruits of the Avocado tree Persea gratissima , which grows to about 20 feet high and is native to tropical America.

The tree is now cultivated widely in tropical areas. The oil is one of the most penetrating oils known. It is used in cosmetics and soaps. Avon Founded in the USA in by David McConnell, a travelling book salesman who liked to give his customers a gift of inexpensive perfume. It is now one of the largest manufacturers of fragrances, cosmetics and toiletries in the world. It opened in Britain, as Avon Cosmetics Ltd, in , selling to the mass market directly through its representatives, the 'Avon ladies'.

Avon fragrances, of which two or three new ones are introduced every year, are sold as sprays at eau de toilette concentration and include some long-standing lines such as 'Moonwind' and 'Charisma' Many of them are created for Avon by one or other of the large wholesale fragrance manufacturers see Perfume Manufacture.

The company's main headquarters and factory complex is at Suffern, in California, and a factory in Northampton manufactures products sold in Britain and Europe. In Avon entered the quality perfume market by acquiring Giorgio Beverly Hills. Aydendron rosaeodora see Linaloe Azalea The flowers of several species of Azalea, shrubs of the genus Rhododendron, are fragrant, but perfume with the fragrance of Azalea is made synthetically. A creation of the fragrance firm Naarden now Quest , its principal ingredients are lavender, with other fresh, herbaceous elements, in the top note, patchouli with some woody elements in the middle note, and amber and musk in the base note.

The bottle was designed by Pierre Dinand. Fruity, aldehydic top notes, with mandarin and bergamot, head floral middle notes, principally of jasmine, rose, ylang-ylang, iris and tuberose. The lower notes include sandalwood, vanilla and vetivert. The flacon was de- signed, as a black 'moonstone', by Serge Mansau. It was a popular base oil in ancient Egyptian perfumes, fragrant flowers or herbs being steeped in it to impart their scents.

Theophrastus described Balanos, coming either from Egypt or Syria, as the oil most used in perfumery, noting that it was a good fixative. See also Ximenia and Egyptian Perfumes. It contains some ingredients, mostly natural. Rose, jasmine and orange flower in the top note herald a middle note which includes patchouli, sandalwood and vetivert, with musk, civet and amber among the base notes. It is presented in a variety of hand-polished crystal flacons, designed by Pierre Dinand and carrying a label which repro- duces a painting by Fragonard, contained in silk-brocaded boxes.

Balsam 21 Balenciaga Parfums Balenciaga was founded by the Spanish-born Paris couturier Cristobal Balenciaga with the launching of his first perfume, 'Le Dix', in The success of this led to 'Quadrille' 55, relaunched 89 , followed by 'Cialenga' 73 , 'Michelle' 80 , 'Prelude' 82 and 'Rumba' 88 , together with men's fragrances which include 'Ho Hang' 71 and 'Eau de Balenciaga Lavande' After acquisition by the German group Hoescht, the company was in taken over by J.

Europe and S. Asia and now grows widely. Commercial Oil of Balm is usually distilled with Oil of Lemon. Once an ingredient of Carmelite Water, it is used in perfumes, toilet waters, ointments, liqueurs and furniture polishes, and the dried leaves are used in sachets and pot pourri. The plant was introduced into Britain by the Romans. It should not be confused with the Melissa plant of ancient times, used in medicine and for bees, which prob- ably carne from a Mediterranean herb Prasium majus.

The word 'balm' is an abbreviation of 'balsam' and the two words are often used synonymously; it indicates a honeyed sweetness. Balm of Gilead A balm, or balsam, referred to in the Old Testament, notably in reference to 'a company of Ishmaelites from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh For centuries this balm has been confused with Balsam of Judaea, with which it is not connected.

The plant from which it was derived is unknown; possibly it was the balsam known as Balsam of Makkah, but it may have been resin from the terebinth or lentisk. American tree, and for a shrub Cedro nella tryphylla, found in the Canary Islands, and also for some other plants with a balsamic fragrance. Balm of Gilead Buds see Tacamahac Balm of Peru see Balsam of Peru Balmain The Balmain fashion house, which now sells a wide variety of products, was opened in Paris in by Pierre Balmain , who produced his first perfume, the innovative 'Vent Vert', in the same year.

Balmain' After various ownerships, the company was pur- chased in by the Canadian businessman Erich Fayer. Balsam A viscous, resinous exudation from certain trees and shrubs, with a consistency which is thick but not solid. They have in common a vanilla- like odour.

The words Balsam and Balm are often used synonymously. The word Balsam is also used for certain flowering plants of the genus Impatiens. The oil is sweet and balsamic, with a peppery overtone. One tree may yield up to 12 gallons of oil, and the trees have even been known to burst under the pressure of the oil inside them. The oil is an excellent fixative, and is used in incenses, pomander beads and pot pourri as well as in perfumes.

A similar balsam used medicinally and sometimes in per- fumery comes from Hardwickia pinnata, native to India, and from Oxystigma mannii of tropical Africa, the balsam of which is called West African Copaiba. See also Bois d'Olhio. Balsam Fir see Canada Balsam Balsam Herb see Costmary Balsam of Judaea The botanical identity of the plant providing this balsam, by far the most valuable of all the perfume materials of the ancients, is not known.

It is usually, but incorrectly, identified with Balsam of Makkah and Balm of Gilead. Pliny stated that 'every scent ranks below the balsam'. Several classical authors have related that from as early as the time of Alexander the Great it was only known as a cultivated plant growing in Judaea, in two irrigated plantations near Jericho which belonged to the king and which Cleopatra took over from Herod after her marriage to Anthony.

Josephus held that the first seeds were brought to Solomon by the Queen of Sheba. The Romans, who subsequently expanded the cultivated area in Palestine, regarded it so highly that branches of it were carried in triumphal processions in Rome. The plant was described as a small, vine-like bush with leaves like rue, and the balsam resin, called opobalsamum, exuded slowly in tiny drops which were collected in a shell, one man taking a whole day to fill his shell.

Between them the two original plantations only produced about 40 pints of opobalsamum a year. So rare and sought after was the perfume that in the time of Theophrastus it cost more than twice its weight in silver, and in Pliny's time it was worth denarii a pint, or about times as much as the costliest frankincense. Pliny described an unguent with xylobalsamum among its ingredients. A 12th century Arab recorded that in his time one small garden of balsam bushes had survived in Egypt, but that they no longer grew in Palestine.

There is uncertain record of the existence of the perfume in the 13th century, but no subsequent account of it. Various suggestions have been made as to the identity of Balsam of Judaea, but none satisfactory, and it would appear that this most romantic of perfume plants may well have become extinct.

In Arabia the tree is known as Basham or Balasan d. For a very long time this plant has been much confused with Balsam of Judaea and Balm of Gilead, the botanical names reflecting early beliefs that these plants were all the same. Identity with Balm of Gilead is possible but not certain. The balsam produced by it had a vogue in medieval times, when it was mainly gathered from trees in the area of Makkah and when unsuccessful attempts were made to cultivate it in Egypt.

It is little used today and not at all in western perfumery. See also under Myrrh. Balsam of Peru Also called Balm of Peru. An oleo-resin with a cinnamon-like fragrance obtained, by treatment with alcohol, from the fruits and bark of a large tree Myroxylon balsamom var. The balsam from the fruit pods, which is superior, is sometimes known as Myrocarpin.

A similar balsam is also derived from the trunk of a species of Cabreu tree see Cabreu Oil. An oil is distilled from the balsam and is the substance now mostly used in perfumery e. The fragrance is vanilla-like. Balsam of Peru is a good fixative and is used in many types of perfume, making a good base for oriental-type perfumes.

It is also used in soaps, cosmetics and incenses. It has a vanilla or benzoin-like fragrance and the balsam hardens as it ages. It is a good fixative and used in incenses and perfumes e. When dissolved in a minute portion of liquor potassa the fragrance changes to that of clove-pink. Balsamic Note A term used in perfumery to describe the sweet, soft and warm fragrance of balsams and resins.

See Perfume Notes. Asia but now grown widely in tropical areas, and the Horse Banana tree M. Though called trees, these plants are large herbs. Banana Shrub Oil A banana-scented oil extracted from the flowers of the Banana Shrub Michelia fuscata , which originated in China but is now cultivated widely. It is used in scenting hair oils. A plant cultivated for its essential oil and also used in pot pourri and sachets as well as in cookery and flavouring.

The name Basil derives from the Greek meaning 'king', indicating the high esteem in which it was held. Orthodox Greeks still regard it as a holy plant. The plant is an annual, growing to about 3 feet high Ocimum basilicum and is thought to have originated in India.

It is now cultivated widely for its essential oil, obtained from the leaves. The fragrance is sharp and spicy, with some similarity to mignonette and is used in quality perfumes e. Other varieties are also found, one with a scent of citron, another with that of tarragon. An Indian species 0. The early Arab perfume makers used the oils of O. Arabian variety called 'Nabataean Basil', and of Bush Basil 0. It was once believed that a sprig of basil left under a pot would in time turn into a scorpion.

Basil Thyme see Calamint Bastard Cinnamon see Cassia Bastard Bullet Tree see Houmiri Batteuse A machine used by the perfume industry in the south of France for extracting the perfume from concretes by means of alcohol. Baur, Albert A German chemist who patented the first synthetic musk perfume, Musk Baur, in and was responsible for other formulas for synthetic musk Musk Ketone and Musk Ambrette.

See Synthetic Fragrances. A spicy fragrant oil, sometimes used in perfumery to provide a masculine note, which is steam-distilled from the leaves of the Bay tree Laurus nobilis. An example of its use in a modern quality perfume is 'Knowing'. It grows up to 25 feet high in the UK, but up to 60 feet in warmer climates. The dried leaves are used in sachets and pot pourri and as a flavouring. The Bay was much venerated in classical and biblical times, being regarded as ben- eficial to health and happiness.

The Greeks and Romans dedicated it to Apollo and to Aesculapius, the god of medicine, and used it in crowns and garlands as a symbol of victory. Throughout history it has been used as a strewing herb both for its scent and for its antiseptic pro- perties. A fat, Bay Fat, is extracted from the berries to make soap, as also is an oil known as Oil of Bays. The early Arabs used oil obtained from both the leaves and the berries in their perfumes.

Bay Pine Tree see Oyster Oil Bdellium An aromatic gum obtained from certain species of trees of the genus Commiphora once classified as Balsamodendron , which also en- compasses Myrrh and Balsam of Makkah.

Several sorts of bdellium are used in perfumery, most importantly that called Opoponax q. Other bdellium trees include C. Bdellium was known to the Romans and is referred to twice in the Old Testament, but there is still uncertainty about which of the trees were regarded in ancient times as producing bdellium and which as producing myrrh. Green top notes from thyme and clary sage introduce a floral bouquet, mainly of rose, jasmine, carnation and orange flower, with a background accord in the lower note which includes vetivert, patchouli, frankincense, myrrh, tonka, vanilla, oak moss, orris and beeswax.

The flacon was designed by Ira Levy. Beaux, Ernest Famous in perfume history as the man who created 'Chanel No. Beaux, a chemist, met 'Coco' Chanel when he was experimenting with ways of fixing aldehydes for use in perfumery. She encouraged his work and, in , he presented her with two sets of sample fragrances using aldehydes, labelled Nos and From these she chose No.

He also created 'Soir de Paris' for Bourjois. It is used in cosmetics and ointments, principally to thicken essential oils, and appears occasionally as an ingredient in perfumes e. See also Propolis and Honey. India, but now cultivated widely. The oil is clear and odourless, does not go rancid, and readily accepts other fragrances added to it, making Ben Oil an excellent base oil for per- fumes and valuable in enfleurage and maceration. It has been used in perfumery, cosmetics and medicines since the days of ancient Egypt when it was taken from the Egyptian species of the tree, M.

Pliny noted dif- ferent varieties of the tree growing in Arabia, Egypt and Ethiopia, the Arabian providing the best-quality oil and the Egyptian the highest yielding. It appeared in many of the perfumes of the early Arabs. Benckiser Following acquisitions in , this is now the largest German company in the fragrance industry. The material is present in Bitter Almond Oil, with which it is almost identical, and in some other natural oils.

Benzaldehyde is sold as an artificial almond oil. It is used in small amounts in violet and heliotrope types of perfume, and in soaps. Benzene A substance derived from coal tar, used in the manufacture of synthetic rose scents and many other artificial fragrances.

A sweet-smelling oleo-resin obtained from a number of related species of trees found in S. Asia, more especially Styrax benzoin and s. The resin from it has a storax-like fragrance. The more highly valued resin from S. Benzoin oil is extracted from the gum with alcohol or benzene. Benzoin was for long an important ingredient in pomanders and was used in incenses and soaps as well as to give 'body' to many perfumes.

Examples of its use in modern quality perfumes are 'Chamade', 'Crepe de Chine' and 'Opium'. It is an excellent fixative and is added to sachets and pot pourri. It is also an ingredient in Friar's Balsam. In perfumery it is regarded as one of the most useful synthetic materials available, being inex- pensive to produce, and is a basis of almost all jasmine perfumes.

Benzyl Alcohol An alcohol used in perfumery which occurs naturally in many essential oils, including jasmine, tuberose, wallflower and ylang- ylang. It is also synthesized chemically. In origin a N. American swamp herb Monarda didyma , this plant is now cultivated widely and grows up to 2 feet high in Britian. Flowers and leaves have a sharp flavour and fragrance similar to that of the Bergamot Orange. The oil is described as reminiscent of lavender and ambergris, and is used in perfumery and hair preparations, the dried leaves and flowers also being used in sachets and pot pourri.

America the leaves are also used as a tea. America, Asia, S. Europe and N. Africa, from the leaves of which is distilled an essential oil with a lemon and lavender-like fragrance resembling Bergamot Oil. Theophrastus noted its use in BC as an ingredient in Greek perfumes.

The oil is used in perfumery and the dried leaves in sachets and pot pourri. See also Mint. The tree, which originated in tropical Asia, is cultivated for the oil in S. Italy, Sicily and Spain and also, to an extent, in S. America and W. The name Bergamot is believed to derive from the Turkish beg-armudi, meaning 'the prince's pear', because the fruit is pear-shaped. It should not be confused with Monarda Oil extracted from the Bergamot plant. See also Bitter Orange Oil and Neroli.

Some 25 different perfume materials are mentioned in the Bible, but the identification of some of them is by no means certain. Difficulties in translating from the ancient texts have sometimes led to plants being incorrectly named e. Frankincense and myrrh feature consistently in both Old and New Testaments. Israelite women wore a sachet underneath their clothes containing myrrh and other substances, which would release their fragrance from the warmth of the wearer's body. The special appeal of myrrh is reflected in many places in the Bible, and the Book of Esther reveals that girls selected for the Persian court were prepared over a twelve-month period, 'six months with oil of myrrh and six months with sweet odours'.

Other perfume plants mentioned in the Bible include aloes, balm, calamus, camphire, cassia, cinnamon, galbanum, labdanum, myrtle, saffron, spikenard, stacte and storax, all in contexts indicating a refer- ence to them as perfume plants. Certain other plants used in perfumery, such as lily, bdellium, mint, anise, cumin and coriander, are mentioned without being related to perfume.

The rose, which is referred to fre- quently, is now thought to have covered several different flowers. A number of oils used as perfume bases are also mentioned e. Of compound perfumes, we know from Exodus that the holy anointing oil of the early Hebrews consisted of myrrh, 'cinnamon', calamus, 'cassia' and olive oil, while the holy perfume incense , 'a confection after the art of the apothecary', was made from equal parts of stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense.

Neither of these com- pounds was allowed to be used for secular purposes. The oil was also once known as Russian Leather Oil, being imported from Russia and used for scenting and preserving book leather. See also Birch Tar oil. Birch Tar Oil A thick bituminous liquid with a woody, tarry, smoky odour, obtained by distillation from the bark of the European Birch tree Common Birch tree Betula alba , which grows widely in Europe and N. It is similar to Oil of Gaultheria Wintergreen and used mainly in masculine fragrances e.

See also Birch Bud oil. America and Japan. The early Arab perfumers used it in making a base for solid perfumes. There is some evidence that it was used in ancient Egypt, principally for medicinal purposes and in con- nection with child birth. See also Asarabacca. The best is obtained from the S. It is sometimes used in perfumes today, but mainly in medicine.

Bitter Almond Oil was one of the ingredients of the famous Metopium perfume oil of ancient Egypt and was used as a base oil for scented materials see Balanos. Theophrastus noted that some of the perfume makers of ancient Greece regarded it as the best base for making unguents, although it was not very long-lasting. The early Arab perfume makers used it as a base for jasmine oil.

See Benzaldehyde. See also Bergamot Oil. The oil is mostly produced in Sicily and Italy, but also in California, W. Syphilis, some conclude. Normal deducen algunos. El envejecimiento nor- present; handsome treatment. Lo nico a price, fortune, etc. Ctait peut-tre r e p l y. P e r h a p s i t w a s m e r e l y que ocurri fue quiz que su cuerpo tena gentil simplement que son corps avait le sens that his body had a sense of de- un gran sentido del decoro: cuando el ce- 1.

Idlatra o pagano. Gentile En 2. Brioso, galn, gracioso. Estuve re- 4. Amable, corts. Je ne cessais de me I kept reminding myself that he cordndome a m mismo repetidas veces charming, obliging, comely gentle dulce tierno, dcil, suave, corts, rappeler quil avait les cheveux clairs. Its hard to remem- que Flaubert haba sido rubio. Nada ms ligero, cudadoso, pausado moderado Il est difficile de se souvenir : sur les ber: photographs make everyone fcil que olvidarlo: las fotografas hacen gracious : amable corts, gentil, bene- volente, indulgente [lenient] 40 photos tout est sombre.

La calibre which surprised even me. La medici- mdecine dalors a d tre quelque Medicine then must have been such na deba ser en aquel entonces una chose dexcitant, de dsespr et de an exciting, desperate, violent ocupacin emocionante, desesperada, 50 violent; aujourdhui ce nest plus que business; nowadays it is all pills violenta; hoy en da se reduce a pas- pilules et bureaucratie. Ou est-ce seu- and bureaucracy. Or is it just that tillas y burocracia. O acaso slo lement que le pass semble contenir the past seems to contain more ocurre que el pasado [18] parece te- plus de couleur locale que le prsent?

I ner ms color local que el presente? Jai tudi la thse de doctorat en studied the doctoral [6] thesis of Estudi la tesis doctoral de Achille, 55 mdecine dAchille, le frre de Gustaves brother Achilles it was el hermano de Gustave: su ttulo era Flaubert : elle tait intitule called Some Considerations on the Algunas consideraciones sobre el Quelques considrations sur le Moment of Operation on the Stran- momento de la operacin de la her- moment de lopration de la hernie gulated Hernia.

A fraternal nia estrangulada. Un paralelismo trangle. Un parallle fraternel : parallel: Achilles thesis later fraternal: la tesis de Achille se trans- 60 la thse dAchille devint plus tard became Gustaves metaphor. I form ms adelante en una metfora une mtaphore de Gustave : Je sens feel, against the stupidity of my de Gustave.

Ante la estupidez de mi contre la btise de mon poque des time, floods of hatred which choke poca, siento oleadas de odio que me flots de haine qui mtouffent. Il me me. Shit rises to my mouth as in asfixian. La mierda se me sube a la monte de la merde la bouche, the case of a strangulated hernia. Mais But I want to keep it, fix it, harden das.

Pero yo quiero conservarla, fi- je veux la garder, la figer, la durcir. Cela est devenu first. It made sense when I museos. Slo adquiri sentido clair quand je me suis rappel la [22] r e m e m b e r e d L e m o t s f a m o u s cuando record la famosa carica- clbre caricature de Lemot repr- cartoon of Flaubert dissecting tura de Lemot en la que Flaubert 10 sentant Flaubert en train de E m m a B o v a r y. I t s h o w s t h e aparece diseccionando a Emma dissquer Emma Bovary. On y voit novelist flourishing on the end Bovary.

El novelista agita en el ex- le romancier brandir au bout dune of a large fork the dripping t r e m o d e u n l a rg o t e n e d o r e l norme fourchette le coeur heart he has triumpha n t l y goteante corazn que acaba de dgoulinant quil a triomphalement torn from his heroines arrancar triunfalmente d e l c u e r - 15 arrach du corps de son hrone. Il body. Blande aloft 1 high up; overhead. Lcrivain en tant que lated Emma are just visible. T h e violada Emma.

Puis jai vu le perroquet. Il tait Then I saw the parrot. It sat Luego vi el loro. Estaba en una alcove nicho, hueco, hornacina, rincn, 25 install dans une petite niche, vert in a small alcove, bright green habitacioncita y era verde intenso gabinete, cuartito, glorieta; no es al- brillant et loeil veill , la tte and perky-eyed, with its head at y tena ojos despabilados, y la ca- coba bedroom perk 1 v.

Psittacus beza torcida en un ngulo briskly. Psittacus , dit linscription sur le ran the inscription on the end of interrogador. Psittacus deca la perk 3 v. Loro que percolate, make a bubbling sound in the percolator. Flaubert au muse Flaubert from the Museum of G. Flaubert tom prestado del Mu- coffee.

Excelente humor, de travail pendant la rdaction dUn work-table during the writing of de trabajo mientras escriba Un alegre, despabilado cour simple, o il sappelle Lou- Un coeur simple, where it is coeur simple, en donde recibe el lou, le perroquet de Flicit, person- called Loulou, the parrot of nombre de Loulou, el loro de 35 nage principal du conte de Flaubert.

Flicit, the principal character Flicit, principal personaje del La photocopie dune lettre de in the tale. A Xeroxed letter cuento. Una fotocopia de una carta Flaubert confirmait le fait : from Flaubert confirmed the de Flaubert confirmaba el dato: el Savez-vous qui jai devant moi, sur fact: the parrot, he wrote, had loro, escribi, permaneci en su es- ma table, depuis trois semaines? Un been on his desk for three weeks, critorio durante tres semanas, al tr- 40 perroquet empaill Jai regard attentivement et, a hundred years earlier.

I gazed at the atrs. His absoluto por su persona. Su estatua patata frita Sp de bolsa , papa fri- Sa statue tait rapice; sa maison statue was a retread; his house had era una copia; su casa haba ta LAm de bolsa avait t dtruite; ses livres been knocked down; his books s ido derribada; sus libros llevaban avaient naturellement leur propre naturally had their own life - re- naturalmente su [19] propia vida: las re- vie -les rponses qui leur sponses to them werent acciones que suscitaban no eran reac- 55 convenaient ne lui convenaient pas.

But here, in ciones suscitadas por l. Pero aqu, en Mais ici, dans ce perroquet vert tout this unexceptional green parrot, este loro verde tan nulamente extraor- fait ordinaire, prserv de faon preserved in a routine yet myste- dinario, conservado de forma rutinaria routinire et cependant mystrieuse, rious fashion, was something y al mismo tiempo misteriosa, haba il y avait quelque chose qui me which made me feel I had almost cierto elemento que me hizo sentir casi 60 faisait croire que javais presque k n o w n t h e w r i t e r.

I w a s b o t h como si hubiera conocido al escritor. Me connu fois mu et ragaillardi. En revenant de lhtel, jai achet On the way back to my hotel I Cuando iba de regreso al hotel le texte dUn coeur simple, dans une bought a student text of Un coeur compr una edicin para estudian- 65 dition pour tudiants. Vous simple. Quiz el connaissez peut-tre lhistoire. Il story. Its about a poor, uneducated lector conozca la historia. Trata de sagit dune pauvre servante sans servant-woman called Flicit, una criada pobre e inculta llamada 7.

Elle satta- others. She becomes attached, in vida por la de los dems. Siente 5 che tour tour un fianc brutal, aux turn, to a rough fianc, to her afecto, sucesivamente, por un tos- enfants de sa matresse, son neveu mistresss children, to her nephew, co novio, por los hijos de su ama, et un vieil homme qui a un cancer and to an old man with a cancer- por su propio sobrino, y por un an- casual En 1 accidental; due to chance. Tous lui sont enlevs ous arm.

All of them are casually ciano que tiene un brazo cancero- 2 not regular or permanent; fortuitement : ils meurent, ils sen taken from her: they die, or depart, so. El azar se los arrebata a todos: temporary, occasional casual tem- poral work; a casual affair. I t i s a n mueren, o se van, o sencillamente unconcerned, uninterested was very Cest une existence dans laquelle, ce existence in which, not surpris- la olvidan.

Es una existencia en la casual about it. Distradamente, a la ligera, relajada- 15 mente, rpidamente casual Es 1. Que sucede por ca- Le dernier objet dans la chane sans The final object in Flicits El ltimo objeto de esa serie sualidad, por accidente.

Aplcase a las firmas o decretos ju- Flicit, cest Loulou, le perroquet. When, Loulou, el loro. Cuando, a su debi- diciales concebidos para impedir Quand il meurt lui lcrivain. Jtais in due course, he too dies, Flicit do tiempo, tambin l muere, atentados. Perteneciente o relativo al caso. She keeps the Flicit lo hace disecar. Une confusion doc- kneeling before him. A doctrinal dillndose ante l. Logic paloma, como un loro. La lgica despreocupado; perroquet. At the end blan, cosa que no les ocurre a las ocasional les colombes.

Al final del relato muere Flicit meurt elle aussi. Ses l- There was a smile on her lips: la propia Flicit. Sus labios son- casual 1 encuentro fortuito vres souriaient. Les mouvements de The movements of her heart rean. Le contrle du ton est fonda- The control of tone is vital. El control del tono es vital. I m a g i n e z l a d i f f i c u l t Imagine the technical difficulty of Imagnese el lector la dificultad technique dcrire une histoire dans writing a story in which a tcnica que supone escribir un laquelle un oiseau mal empaill badly-stuffed bird with a ridicu- cuento en el que un pjaro mal di- avec un nom ridicule finit par lous name ends up standing in for secado y con un nombre ridculo remplacer un des personnages de la one third of the Trinity, and in termina representando una tercera 50 Trinit, et dans laquelle lintention which the intention is neither sa- parte d la Trinidad, y cuya inten- nest ni satirique, ni sentimentale, tirical, sentimental, nor blasphe- cin no es satrica, sentimental ni ni blasphmatoire.

Imaginez, en mous. Imagine further telling such blasfema. Imagnese adems que outre, quon raconte cette histoire a story from the point of view of hay que contar esa [20] historia du point de vue dune vieille an ignorant old woman without desde el punto de vista de una vieja 55 servante ignorante sans que cela making it sound derogatory or coy. Pero es que le but dUn coeur simple est simple i s q u i t e e l s e w h e r e : t h e el objetivo de Un coeur simple es ailleurs : le perroquet est un [25] parrot is a perfect and controlled completamente distinto: el loro es exemple parfait et matris du gro- example of the Flaubertian un ejemplo perfecto y controlado 60 tesque flaubertien.

On peut, si on le dsire et si on We can, if we wish and if we Podemos, si lo deseamos y si dsobit Flaubert , soumettre disobey Flaubert , submit the desobedecemos a Flaubert , some- loiseau une interprtation bird to additional interpretation. Par exemple, il y a For instance, there are adicional. Por ejemplo, hay parale- des parallles enfouis entre la vie du submerged parallels between the lismos sumergidos entre la vida del romancier vieilli prmaturment et life of the prematurely aged nov- novelista Prematuramente envejeci- 8.

Tous Flicit. Critics have sent in the Flicit. Los crticos han soltado a deux taient solitaires; tous deux ferrets. Both of them were soli- los hurones. Los dos eran personas avaient des vies marques par la tary; both of them had lives solitarias; sus dos vidas quedaron 5 perte; tous deux, bien que remplis de stained with loss; both of them, manchadas por las prdidas; los douleur, ont persvr.

Ceux qui ont though full of grief, were perse- dos, por mucho dolor que sintieran, pouss les choses plus loin ont vering. Those keen to push fueron perseverantes. Los que gus- suggr que laccident au cours things further suggest that the tan de llevar las cosas ms lejos aun duquel Flicit est renverse par une incident in which Flicit is insinan que el incidente en el que 10 malle-poste sur la route dHonfleur struck down by a mailcoach on Flicit es atropellada por una silla est une rfrence enfouie la the road to Honfleur is a de postas en la carretera de premire crise dpilepsie de submerged reference to Honfleur es una referencia sumer- Flaubert, quand il avait t terrass Gustaves first epileptic fit, gida al primer ataque epilptico de sur la route la sortie de when he was struck down on the Gustave, la vez que cay en la ca- 15 Bourg-Achard.

Je ne sais pas. I rretera, a las afueras de Bourg- Jusqu quel point une rfrence d o n t k n o w. Cunto tiene que doit-elle tre enfouie avant does a reference have to be sumergirse una referencia para no dtouffer? Mais on virtually inarticulate. But you sarse. Pero se podra discutir esta peut rtorquer que cest l que could ar gue that this is where afirmacin diciendo que aqu es 25 Loulou intervient.

Le perroquet, la Loulou comes in. The parrot, donde aparece Loulou. El loro, el bte qui parle, une des rares cratu- the articulate beast, a rare animal expresivo, un extrao ser res qui produisent des sons humains. No es Ce nest pas pour rien que Flicit sounds. Not for nothing does casual que Flicit confunda a confond le perroquet avec le Flicit confuse Loulou with the Loulou con el Espritu Santo, que 30 SaintEsprit, celui qui apporte le don Holy Ghost, the giver of es quien confiere el don de len- des langues.

Pas exactement; mais Not exactly; but you could claim that No exactamente; pero podra afirmar- 35 on peut dire que le perroquet, he is present in both of them. Flicit se que l est presente en los dos. You could say su voz. Podra decirse que el loro, que puissant, est le verbe ltat that the parrot, representing clever representa una ingeniosa vocaliza- p u r. U n u n i v e r s i t a i r e f r a n a i s vocalisation without much brain cin sin apenas seso, es la Palabra 40 dirait que cest un symbole du power, was Pure Word.

If you were Pura. Siendo ingls, crature svelte et guillerette Being English, I hasten back to the me apresuro a regresar a lo corpreo: que jai vue lHtel-Dieu. Jai corporeal: to that svelte, perky crea- a esa esbelta y despabilada criatura 45 imagin Loulou pos sur le ct ture I had seen at the Htel-Dieu. I que he visto en el Htel-Dieu.

Ima- du bureau de Flaubert et le imagined Loulou sitting on the other gin a Loulou sentado a un lado del regardant comme le reflet side of Flauberts desk and staring escritorio de Flaubert y devolvindo- taunt 1. To reproach in a mocking, m o q u e u r dun miroir de fte fo- back at him like some taunting re- le su mirada como el sarcstico re- insulting, or contemptuous raine. Pas tonnant que les trois se- flection from a funfair mirror.

No flejo de un espejo de feria. No es de manner. Mofarse de, To ridicule. To drive or incite a person by 50 maines de sa prsence parodique aient wonder three weeks of its parodic extraar que tres semanas de su taunting, Echarle en cara a alguien caus quelque irritation.

Lcrivain presence caused irritation. Is the pardica presencia provocaran irrita- algo. Acaso el escritor es mucho un peu compliqu? En los aos 60 pendant les vacances annuelles during their annual holiday at treinta del siglo xix, durante sus Tr o u v i l l e , l a f a m i l l e F l a u b e r t Trouville, the Flaubert vacaciones anuales en Trouville, rendit visite un capitaine de household regularly used to la familia Flaubert sola visitar a navire la retraite qui sappelait visit a retired seacaptain called un capitn retirado de la marina Pierre Barbey; on nous dit quil y Pierre Barbey; his menage, we mercante que se llamaba Pierre 65 avait chez lui un magnifique per- are told, included a magnificent Barbey; en su casa, nos cuentan, roquet.

En , Gustave parrot. In Gustave was haba un magnfico loro. En traversait Amibes, en route vers travelling through Antibes, on Gustave pasaba por Antibes cami- 9. The diarist dor y colocado sobre la repisa de L c r i v a i n n o t e l e s i n g u l i e r notes the strange love clearly la chimenea. El diarista seala el 10 amour, tout fait vident entre evident between man and pet. En , en In , returning from the temente al hombre y su animal.

En r e v e n a n t d O r i e n t p a r Ve n i s e , O r i e n t v i a Ve n i c e , F l a u b e r t , cuando regresaba de Orien- Flaubert entendit un perroquet heard a parrot in a gilt cage te va Venecia, Flaubert oy a un dans une cage dore crier sur le calling out over the Grand loro encerrado en una jaula dora- 15 Grand Canal en imitant un Canal its imitation of a gondo- da gritar sobre el Gran Canal su gondolier : F eh, capo die.

En lier: F eh, capo die. In imitacin de los gondoleros: F , il tait de nouveau h e w a s a g a i n i n Tr o u v i l l e ; eh, capo die. Il Jako? Fue alguno de estos p- 25 servi, en totalit ou en partie, four birds, in whole or in part, jaros, parcial o completamente, la dinspiration pour Loulou? Et the inspiration behind Loulou? Y, haba Flaubert a-t-il vu un autre And did Flaubert see another visto Flaubert a algn otro loro perroquet vivant entre et living parrot between and vivo entre y , fecha en , quand il en emprunta un [10] , when he borrowed a la que pidi prestado un loro di- 30 empaill au muse de Rouen?

Je stuffed one from the Museum secado al Museo de Rouen? Dejo laisse ces questions aux profes- of Rouen? I leave such matters estas preguntas en manos de los sionnels. Jtais assis sur mon lit I sat on my hotel bed; from Me sent en mi habitacin del 35 lhtel; dans une chambre voisine, a neighbouring room a hotel; desde una habitacin cerca- un tlphone imitait le cri telephone imitated the cry of na un telfono imitaba el grito de dautres tlphones.

Jai pens au other telephones. I thought otros telfonos. Pens en el loro que perroquet dans sa niche, moins about the parrot in its alcove permaneca en la habitacioncita, de cinq cents mtres de l. Un barely half a mile away. A cheeky apenas a unos ochocien- 40 oiseau effront qui attire laffection bird, inducing affection, even tos metros de distancia.

Quen a fait reverence. What had Flaubert Qu hizo Flaubert con Flaubert aprs avoir fini Un coeur done with it after finishing Un l c u a n d o t e r m i n Un simple? La-t-il rang dans un placard coeur simple? Did he put it coeur simple? Lo meti en un ar- et en a-t-il oubli lexistence irritante away in a cupboard and forget mario y olvid su irritante exis- 45 jusqu ce quil recherche une about its irritating existence un- tencia hasta el da en que estuvo couverture supplmentaire?

Et que til he was searching for an extra buscando otra manta para su sest-il pass quatre ans plus tard blanket? And what happened, cama? Y qu ocurri, cuatro aos quand une attaque dapoplexie la f o u r y e a r s l a t e r, w h e n a n despus, cuando una apopleja le laiss agonisant sur son canap? Did he perhaps im- Imagin quiz que planeaba so- au-dessus de lui, un gigantesque agine, hovering above him, a bre l un gigantesco loro, que esta perroquet - cette fois ce ntait pas un gigantic parrot - this time not a vez no significaba el saludo de signe de bienvenue du Saint-Esprit welcome from the Holy Ghost bienvenida del Espritu Santo sino mais dadieu au monde?

Je suis dvor de excessive. I am devoured by domina en exceso. Me devoran las comparaisons, comme on lest de comparisons as one is by lice, comparaciones como a otros los pio- 60 poux, et je ne passe mon temps and I spend my time doing noth- jos, y me paso el da aplastndolas. Les mots ve- ing but squashing them. Words A Flaubert [22] le salan las pala- naient facilement Flaubert; mais came easily to Flaubert, but he bras con facilidad; pero tambin il voyait galement linsuffisance also saw the underlying supo ver la insuficiencia subyacen- sous-jacente du Mot.

Recurdese su tris- 65 rappeler la tristesse de la dfini- Remember his sad definition te definicin en Madame Bovary: tion tire de Madame Bovary : from Madame Bovary: La palabra humana es como una La parole humaine est comme un Language is like a cracked caldera rota en la que tocamos me- De modo que se puede toiles.

Ainsi on peut aborder le move the stars to pity. So you entender al novelista de dos modos: 5 romancier dune autre faon : can take the novelist either way: o bien como un pertinaz y acabado comme un styliste obstin et per- as a pertinacious and finished estilista; o como alguien que consi- fectionniste; ou comme quelquun stylist; or as one who consid- deraba que el lenguaje es trgica- qui considre le langage tragique- ered language tragically mente insuficiente.

Los sartreanos ment insuffisant. Les sartriens pr- insufficient. Sartreans prefer prefieren la segunda alternativa: 10 frent la seconde hypothse pour the second option: for them para ellos, esa incapacidad de eux lincapacit de Loulou faire L o u l o u s i n a b i l i t y t o d o m o r e Loulou para hacer algo que no sea plus que rpter les phrases quil than repeat at second hand the repetir de segunda mano las frases entend est une confession indirecte phrases he hears is an indirect que oye es una confesin indirecta d e l c h e c d u r o m a n c i e r.

L e confession of the novelists own del fracaso del propio novelista. El propio dinerte. Sartre lui-mme reproche Sartre himself rebuked Flaubert Sartre reprendi a Flaubert por su Flaubert sa passivit, sa croyance for passivity, for belief or pasividad, por su creencia o por su collusion n. Es en el mo- empresas constructoras, obtuvieron gran- des beneficios rfrence enfouie? Le moment o The point at which you suspect mento en que se empieza a sospechar lon souponne quon lit trop de too much is being read into a que se estn leyendo ms cosas de la choses dans une histoire, cest story is when you feel most cuenta en una narracin cuando uno quand on se sent le plus vulnra- vulnerable, isolated, and se siente ms vulnerable, aislado, y 30 ble, isol et peut-tre stupide.

Un perhaps stupid. Is a critic quizs estpido. Se equivoca el cr- critique a-t-il tort de lire Loulou wrong to read Loulou as a tico que lee a Loulou como smbolo comme un symbole du Mot? I s a de la Palabra? Se equivoca o, peor lecteur a-t-il tort -ou, pire, est-il reader wrong - worse, senti- an, incurre en el pecado del senti- sentimental - de considrer ce per- mental - to think of that parrot mentalismo el lector que piensa 35 roquet de lHtel-Dieu comme un at the Htel-Dieu as an que ese loro del Htel-Dieu es un em- emblme de la voix de lcrivain?

Eso fue Cest ce que jai fait. Quizs esto me con- peut-tre rendu aussi naf que F- makes me as simple-minded as vierte en un tipo tan simple como licit. Permtaseme que cite a 45 kney, favorable mme sil est peu Hockney, benign if unspe- David Hockney, bondadoso aunque prcis, dans son autobiographie : cific, in his autobiography: poco concreto, en su autobiografa: Lhistoire ma vraiment touch et jai The story really affected me, El relato me afect de verdad, y me eu limpression que ctait un sujet and I felt it was a subject I pareci que era un tema en el que dans lequel je pouvais pntrer et que could get into and really use.

En , M. In Mr Hockney produced rio. En Mr. Hockney hizo un Hockney exposa deux gravures - une a pair of etchings: a bur- par de grabados: una versin burles- version burlesque de la vision qua l e s q u e v e r s i o n o f F l i c i t s ca de la visin que Flicit tena del Flicit de lAilleurs un singe view of Abroad a monkey Extranjero un mico que se larga qui se sauve avec une stealing away with a woman sigilosamente con una mujer col- 55 f e m m e s u r l p a u l e e t over its shoulder , and a gada en su hombro , y una tran- une scne tranquille de tranquil scene of Flicit quila escena en la que Flicit Flicit endormie avec asleep with Loulou.

Perhaps duerme al lado de Loulou. Es po- Loulou. Peut-tre en he will do some more in due sible que, con el tiempo, haga al- fera-t-il dautres. La drove out to Croisset. Rouen me fui en coche a Croisset.

Lo que antiguamente haba 65 village isol sur les berges de la merly a remote village on the sido un villorrio remoto a orillas del Seine, adoss des collines ver- banks of the Seine, Sena, contra un fondo de verdes co- doyantes, est maintenant [30] backdropped by green hills, linas, ha quedado ahora cercado por Pile- rias. Repican los martinetes, penden roulants passent au-dessus de vous drivers echo; gantries hang sobre tu cabeza los caballetes, y el et, sur le fleuve, il y a un important ov er you, and the river is thickly ro tiene un aspecto atestadamente 5 trafic.

Les poids lourds qui passent commercial. Passing lorries comercial. Los cristales del inevita- rattle hacer sonar como una carraca ; font vibrer les fentres de linvi- rattle the windows of the inevi- ble Bar Le Flaubert se estremecen batir o sacudir con ruido; desatinar, atolondrar, atarantar, aturdir, aturru- table caf Le Flaubert.

Lusine de fabrication dalcool own house. The factory for propia casa. La fbrica que extraa ca; carraca; bramadera; cascabel del partir de bl avari a t dmolie extracting alcohol from dam- alcohol del trigo malogrado fue crtalo; parla, charla; in the throat , estertor; rattlebrained, rattle-headed, son tour; et, la place, se dresse aged wheat was pulled down in tambin arrasada cuando le lleg su rattle-pated, ligero de cascos, casqui- maintenant, de faon plus approprie, its turn; and on the site there turno; y en ese mismo solar se ele- vano; voluble, voltario; rattlehead, ratttepate o rattleskull une grande fabrique de papier.

Tout now stands, more appropriately, va ahora, ms apropiadamente, una rattle 20 ce qui reste de la rsidence de a large paper-mill. De la resi- I n. It now looks que de ordinario. Ahora se encuen- sans intrt mais cest au moins shabby and pointless, but at tra en mal estado y parece intil, quelque chose.

O n t h e pero al menos es algo. Han erigido 30 lextrieur, un tronon de colonne terrace outside, a stump of junto al porche un tocn de una co- cannele, dterr Carthage, pour fluted column, dug up at Carthage, lumna acanalada, desenterrada en commmorer lauteur de Salammb.

I pushed de Salammb. Abr la puerta de un allemand sest mis aboyer et une the gate; an Alsatian began empujn; un alsaciano comenz a 35 gardienne aux cheveux blancs sest barking, and a white-haired ladrar, y una canosa gardienne se approche. Pas de blouse blanche gardienne approached. No white me acerc. Esta no llevaba bata pour elle, mais un uniforme bleu bien coat for her, but a well-cut blue blanca, sino un bien cortado unifor- coup. Tout en balbutiant mon uniform. As I cranked up my me azul.

Mientras chapurreaba mi franais, [31] je me suis rappel la French I remembered the trade- mal francs record la marca de f- 40 marque des interprtes de Carthage mark of the Carthaginian inter- brica de los intrpretes cartagineses dans Salammb : chacun portait, preters in Salammb: each, as a que aparecen en Salammb: todos comme symbole de sa profession, un symbol of his profession, has a ellos, como smbolo de su oficio, perroquet tatou sur la poitrine.

Aujourdhui, le poignet sombre du To d a y t h e b r o w n w r i s t o f t h e Actualmente, la morena mueca del 45 joueur de boules africain porte une African boule-player wears a Mao africano que jugaba a la petanca lle- dcalcomanie de Mao. Le pavillon na quune pice, The pavilion contains a El pabelln contiene una sola ha- carre, dont le plafond est single room, square with a bitacin, cuadrada y con el techo a 50 dissimul par une tenture.

Je me tented ceiling. I was reminded modo de tienda de campaa. Me acor- suis souvenu de la chambre de of Flicits room: It had the d de la habitacin de Flicit: te- Flicit elle avait lair tout la simultaneous air of a chapel and na al mismo tiempo aspecto de ca- fois dune chapelle et dun bazar. Tambin aqu apare- Ici aussi, il y avait les rencontres ironic conjunctions -trivial can las conjunciones irnicas tri- 55 ironiques - des bibelots sans int- knick-knack beside solemn relic viales baratijas al lado de solemnes rt ct des reliques sacres - du - of the Flaubertian grotesque.

Les objets The items on display were so Los objetos exhibidos estaban tan exposs taient si mal disposs que poorly arranged that I mal ordenados que muchas veces tuve jai d souvent me mettre genoux frequently had to get down on que arrodillarme para tratar de ver el 60 pour jeter un coup doeil dans les my knees to squint into the cabi- interior [24] de las vitrinas: la posi- placards : la position du dvot mais nets: the posture of the devout, cin del devoto, pero tambin la del aussi du chasseur de trsor chez les but also of the junk-shop buscador de tesoros en las brocanteurs.

Flaubert faisait owner s affection. Flaubert did de su propietaria. Flaubert hizo lo de mme en conservant des riens the same, preserving trivia fra- mismo, pues conserv tonteras que avec des souvenirs.

Ye a r s posean la fragancia del recuerdo. Le vi- down with them to dream a se sentaba un rato a soar con ellos. The visitor to the El visitante del pabelln de Croisset presque faire la mme chose : on est Croisset pavilion can almost do puede hacer casi lo mismo: los ob- 10 touch au hasard par les objets the same: the exhibits, care- jetos expuestos, colocados con tan- exposs, tals avec insouciance.

Portraits, photo- corazn. Retratos, fotografas, un en argile; des [32] pipes, un pot graphs, a clay bust; pipes, a busto de arcilla; pipas, un tarro de tabac, un coupe-papier; un encrier t o b a c c o j a r, a l e t t e r o p e n e r ; a tabaco, un abrecartas; un tintero en 15 en forme de crapaud avec une toad-inkwell with a gaping forma de sapo con la boca abierta; bouche grande ouverte; le bouddha mouth; the gold [13] Buddha el Buda de oro que el escritor tena dor qui tait pos sur le bureau de w h i c h s t o o d o n t h e w r i t e r s sobre su mesa y que jams lleg a lcrivain et qui ne la jamais irrit; desk and never irritated him; a irritarle; un rizo, ms rubio, como une boucle de cheveux, plus blonds lock of hair, blonder, naturally, es natural, que el pelo que se ve en 20 videmment que sur les photos.

Deux objets, exposs dans un ca- Two exhibits in a side cabinet Es fcil pasar por alto un par de binet, sont faciles rater : un petit are easy to miss: a small tumbler objetos que se encuentran en una gobelet dans lequel Flaubert a bu de from which Flaubert took his last vitrina lateral: un vasito en el que 25 leau pour la dernire fois quelques drink of water a few moments Flaubert bebi su ltimo trago de instants avant de mourir, et un before he died; and a crumpled agua momentos antes de morir; y un mouchoir blanc roul en boule avec pad of white handkerchief with arrugado pauelo blanco con el que lequel il sest pong le front, ce qui which he mopped his brow in se sec la frente con, quiz, el lti- a peut-tre t le dernier geste de sa perhaps the last gesture of his life.

Estos res- 30 vie. A cause de ces lments, qui Such ordinary props, which tos tan ordinarios, que parecan ex- semblaient interdire les lamenta- seemed to forbid wailing and cluir el llanto y el melodrama, me tions et le mlodrame, jai eu melodrama, made me feel I had hicieron sentir que haba estado limpression davoir assist la been present at the death of a presente en la muerte de un amigo.

Jtais presque gn friend. I was almost embarrassed: Casi me sent embarazado: tres das 35 : trois jours plus tt jtais rest three days before I had stood un- antes haba pisado, sin conmover- insensible sur une plage o de pro- moved on a beach where close me, la playa en la que murieron al- ches compagnons avaient t tus.

Per- gunos compaeros ntimos. Quiz Cest peut-tre lavantage de se faire haps this is the advantage of sea sta la ventaja que tiene trabar des amis avec ceux qui sont dj making friends with those already amistad con quienes ya han muer- 40 morts : ce quon ressent leur gard dead: your feelings towards them to: jams se enfran los sentimien- ne se refroidit jamais.

Puis je lai vu. Blotti au sommet Then I saw it. Crouched on top Entonces lo vi. Agachado en lo dune haute armoire, il y avait un of a high cupboard was another alto de un armario haba otro loro. Also bright green. Also, Tambin de color verde intenso.

I asked permission to take the simple. Ped permiso para bajar de cendre le deuxime Loulou. Je lai second Loulou down, set him care- all arriba este segundo Loulou, pos [33] soigneusement sur langle fully on the corner of a display lo pos con todo cuidado encima dune vitrine et jai enlev son globe cabinet, and removed his glass de una vitrina, y le quit la cam- 55 de verre. Comment comparer deux per- How do you compare two Cmo se establece una compara- roquets, dont lun est dj idalis parrots, one already idealised cin entre dos loros, uno de ellos idea- par la mmoire et la mtaphore, et b y m e m o r y a n d m e t a p h o r, t h e lizado ya por la memoria y la metfo- 60 dont lautre est un intrus criard?

Mi reaccin inicial fue disant que le second semblait the second seemed less pensar que el segundo [25] era moins authentique que le premier, authentic than the first, menos autntico que el primero, principalement parce quil avait mainly because it had a more sobre todo porque su aspecto era 65 lair plus doux. La tte tait plus benign air. The head was set ms bonachn.

La cabeza estaba droite sur le corps et son s t r a i g h t e r o n t h e b o d y, a n d situada en un ngulo ms recto en expression tait moins irritante its expression was less irri- relacin con el cuerpo, y su ex- Puis je me suis the Htel-Dieu. Then I la del pjaro del Htel-Dieu.

Lue- rendu compte de mon erreur : aprs realised the fallacy in this: go comprend que este razona- tout, Flaubert navait pas eu Flaubert, after all, hadnt miento era falaz: Flaubert, al fin 5 choisir entre deux perroquets; et been given a choice of par- y al cabo, no pudo elegir entre va- mme ce second perroquet, qui rots; and even this second rios loros; e incluso este segundo avait lair dune compagnie plus one, which looked the calmer loro, que pareca un compaero calme, pouvait trs bien vous taper c o m p a n y, m i g h t w e l l g e t o n ms tranquilo, poda perfectamen- sur les nerfs au bout de quelques your nerves after a couple of te ponerte nervioso al cabo de un 10 semaines.

Je me suis claims of the Htel-Dieu. I won- Htel-Dieu. Me pregunt si exista razones y pruebas de la experiencia pa- sada. Confa en s mismo o est seguro demand si quelquun connaissait la dered if somebody knew the alguien que supiera la solucin. Me y ufano de s mismo dada su experien- rponse. Je me suis demand si cela a n s w e r. I w o n d e r e d i f i t m a t - pregunt si este asunto le importaba cia pasada.

Satisfecho, alegre, conten- to, ufano. The writer s ficacin al primer loro. La voz del La voix de lcrivain - quest-ce qui voice - what makes you think it escritor Such de ser localizada tan fcilmente? Tal 25 localiser aussi facilement? Tel tait was the rebuke offered by the era la rplica que me haba dado el le reproche avanc par le second [34] second parrot. As I stood look- segundo loro. Cuando miraba el perroquet. Tandis que je contemplais ing at the possibly inauthentic Loulou posiblemente falso, el sol le Loulou peut-tre inauthentique, le Loulou, the sun lit up that encendi aquella esquina de la ha- soleil claira ce coin de pice et corner of the room and turned bitacin e hizo que su plumaje adqui- 30 rendit le jaune du plumage plus his plumage more sharply riese un tono ms definitidamente violent.

Je remis loiseau sa place yellow. I replaced the bird and amarillo. Volv a dejar el pjaro en su en pensant : je suis aujourdhui plus thought: I am now older than sitio y pens: tengo ms edad de la vieux que Flaubert ne la jamais t. Flaubert ever was. It seemed a que Flaubert lleg jams a tener. Pa- Cela semble prsomptueux; triste et presumptuous thing to be; sad reca una presuntuosidad; una cosa 35 immrit.

Est-ce jamais le bon moment de Is it ever the right time to Acaso hay algn momento mourir? It wasnt for Flaubert; or adecuado para morir? I que no vivi lo suficiente como coeur simple. Javais commenc had begun it solely on account para leer Un coeur simple.

Lo em- Un coeur simple son intention of her, only to please her. She pec pensando exclusivamente en exclusive, uniquement pour lui died while I was in the midst of ella, slo por complacerla. Y mu- plaire. Elle est morte comme jtais this work. So it is with all our ri cuando me encontraba todava 45 au milieu de mon oeuvre. Il en va dreams. Is it better not to have a mitad de mi obra. Lo mismo ocu- ainsi de tous nos rves.

Vaut-il the dreams, the work, and then rre con nuestros sueos. Es me- mieux ne pas avoir les rves, the desolation of uncompleted jor, entonces, no tener los sueos, loeuvre, et ainsi la dsolation de work? Perhaps, like Frederic las obras, y luego la desolacin de loeuvre inacheve? Peut-tre, and Deslauriers, we should pre- la obra no terminada? Quiz, como 50 comme Frdric et Deslauriers, fer the consolation of Frdric y Deslauriers, deberamos prfrons-nous la consolation du non-fulfilment: the planned preferir el consuelo de la no satis- non-accomplissement : la visite visit to the brothel, the faccin: la planeada visita al bur- prvue au bordel, le plaisir de pleasure of anticipation, and del, el placer de la anticipacin, y lanticipation et, des annes plus t h e n , y e a r s l a t e r, n o t t h e luego, aos ms tarde, el recuerdo 55 tard, non pas le souvenir des faits memory of deeds but the no tanto de los hechos como el de mais celui des anticipations passes?

No per- Tout nen est-il pas plus net et moins Wo u l d n t t h a t k e e p i t a l l mitira esto que todo fuese ms lim- douloureux? Jai other cocky and interrogatory. I engredo e inquisitivo. Escrib a impudent, engredo, gallardo, 65 crit des lettres plusieurs wrote letters to various academ- varios acadmicos que [26] podan universitaires qui pouvaient savoir ics who might know if either of saber si se haba demostrado ade- impudent no es impudente sino atrevi- si lun des perroquets avait t the parrots had been properly au- cuadamente la autenticidad de algu- do, descarado, insolente, mientras que impudente es immodest, shameless, desvengorzado Jai crit [35] thenticated.

I wrote to the French no de los loros. Escrib a la emba- lambassade de France et lditeur Embassy and to the editor of the jada francesa y al director de las des guides Michelin. Jai aussi crit Michelin guide-books. I also guas Michelin. Tambin escrib a M. Je lui ai racont mon wrote to Mr Hockney. I told him Mr. Le cont mi viaje y 5 voyage et je lui ai demand sil tait about my trip and asked if hed le pregunt si haba estado en dj all Rouen; je voulais savoir ever been to Rouen; I wondered Rouen; le dije que estaba pregun- sil avait eu lun ou lautre des if hed had one or other of the tndome s haba recordado alguno perroquets lesprit en gravant le [15] parrots in mind when etch- de esos dos loros cuando grab su portrait de Flicit endormie.

Dans ing his portrait of the sleeping retrato de Flicit dormida. O si, en 10 le cas contraire, peut-tre avait-il, Flicit. If not, then perhaps he caso contrario, tambin l haba a lui aussi, emprunt un perroquet in his turn had borrowed a parrot su vez pedido prestado un loro de un muse et sen tait-il servi from a museum and used it as a algn museo para usarlo como mo- comme modle.

Je lai mis en garde model. I warned him of the dan- delo. Le advert de los peligros que contre la tendance de cette espce gerous tendency in this species to encierra la tendencia de esta espe- 15 la parthnogense posthume. Jesprais obtenir les rponses I hoped to get my replies quite Confi en recibir muy pronto trs vite. Flaubert, ne Fleuriot. La familia ne Fleuriot. La famille ap- The family belongs to the pertenece al sector de la clase me- 35 p a r t i e n t l a c l a s s e m o y e n n e successful professional middle dia formado por los profesionales prospre et possde plusieurs class, and owns several prestigiosos, y posee varias fincas proprits dans la rgion de properties in the vicinity of en los alrededores de Rouen.

Unos Rouen. Un milieu stable, Rouen. A stable, enlightened, en- antecedentes estables, ilustrados, clair, stimulant et normale- couraging and normally ambi- estimulantes y con un grado nor- 40 m e n t a m b i t i e u x. Few servant problems aos. Pocos problemas del servi- troubleront peu la vie de Flaubert.

Chevalier, his first close friend. Chevalier, su primer amigo nti- Une succession damitis intenses, A succession of intense, loyal mo. Una serie de amistades inten- loyales et fertiles soutiendront and fertile friendships will sas, leales y frtiles sostendr a Flaubert tout au long de sa vie : sustain Flaubert throughout his Flaubert durante toda su vida: 55 particulirement importantes [37] life: of particular note are those merecen una mencin especial las sont celles avec Alfred Le with Alfred le Poittevin, Maxime que le unieron a Alfred le Poitte- Poittevin, Maxime Du Camp, Louis du Camp, Louis Bouilhet and vin, Maxime du Camp, Louis Bouilhet et George Sand.

Gustave George Sand. Gustave inspires Bouilhet y George Sand. Gustave inspirait facilement lamiti et friendship easily, and fosters it inspira fcilmente la amistad, y la 60 lentretenait de faon taquine et with a teasing, affectionate fomenta con su actitud burlona y affectueuse. Le pre- erature. His [17] earliest piece of la historia y la literatura. El primer mier texte de lui qui nous soit writing to come down to us, an texto escrito por l que nos ha lle- Tout au long de son Throughout his adolescence est fechado en A lo largo de adolescence, il crit abondamment, h e c o m p o s e s a b u n d a n t l y, b o t h su adolescencia escribe abundante- la fois du thtre et des rcits.

Esta pa- 10 passion. T h i s p a s s i o n sin ilumina el resto de su ado- le reste de son adolescence. Elisa illuminates the rest of his ado- lescencia. Ella le trata con la ma- lui manifeste tendresse et affec- lescence. She treats him with yor amabilidad y afecto; permane- tion; ils resteront en contact g r e a t k i n d n e s s a n d a ff e c t i o n ; cen en contacto durante los siguien- pendant les quarante annes they remain in touch for the tes cuarenta aos.

Volviendo la vis- 15 suivantes. Quand il y repensera, il next forty years. Looking ta atrs, l se siente aliviado de que sera soulag quelle nait pas r- back, he is relieved she didnt su pasin no hubiera sido pondu sa passion : Le bonheur return his passion: Happiness correspondida: La felicidad es est comme la vrole - pris trop tt, is like the pox. Catch it too como la sfilis.

Si la contraes de- il peut gter compltement la soon, and it wrecks your con- masiado pronto te echa a perder la 20 constitution. Cest le dbut dune vie maids. This is the start of an su madre. Este es el punto de partida 25 rotique active et colore, qui va des active and colourful erotic de una carrera ertica tan activa como bordels aux salons, des [38] garons career, veering from brothel to variopinta, que pasa del burdel al sa- de bains du Caire aux potesses salon, from Cairo bath-house ln, del muchacho de los baos de El parisiennes.

Jeune homme, les fem- boy to Parisian poetess. In early Cairo hasta la poetisa parisiense. En mes le trouvent extrmement attirant manhood he is extremely su primera madurez resulta muy 30 et sa rapidit de rcupration attractive to women and his atractivo para las mujeres y su velo- sexuelle est, daprs ses propres speed of sexual recuperation is, cidad de recuperacin sexual es, se- paroles, trs impressionnante, mais, by his own account, very gn l mismo cuenta, impresionante; mme un ge plus avanc, ses impressive; but even in later pero incluso en pocas ms tardas de manires courtoises, son intelli- life his courtly manner, intelli- su vida, sus modales corteses, su in- 35 gence et sa renomme lui permet- gence and fame ensure that he teligencia y su fama le garantizan que tront de ne pas tre seul.

Il voyage dans les Pyrnes avec un Travels to the Pyrenees with a Viaja a los Pirineos con un amigo de ami de la famille, le docteur jules family friend, Dr Jules Cloquet. B i e n q u e s o u v e n t Though often considered an Aunque a menudo se le ha conside- considr comme un ermite unbudgeable hermit, Flaubert in rado como a un ermitao a quien no invtr, Flaubert voyage en fait fact travels extensively: to Italy haba modo de mover de su casa, en normment : Italie et Suisse and Switzerland , Brittany realidad Flaubert viaja mucho: a Ita- , Bretagne , gypte, , Egypt, Palestine, Syria, lia y Suiza , [29] a la Bretaa 50 Palestine, Syrie, Turquie, Grce et Tu r k e y, G r e e c e a n d I t a l y , a Egipto, Palestina, Siria, Tur- Italie , Angleterre , England , , qua, Grecia e Italia , a In- , , , , Algrie [18] , , Algeria and glaterra , , , , a et Tu n i s i e 1 8 5 8 , A l l e m a g n e Tunisia , Germany , Tnez y Argelia , a Alemania , Belgique et Suisse Belgium and Switzerland , a Blgica y a Suiza 55 Comparer avec son alter Compare the case of his Comprese todo esto con el ego Louis Bouilhet qui a rv de la alter ego Louis Bouilhet, who caso de su alter ego Louis Bouilhet, Chine et nest jamais all en dreamed of China and never got to que soaba con China y no lleg nun- Angleterre.

Cependant, [39] laban- house at Croisset. Abandoning Croisset. Abandonar las leyes Bien , Though partes , Aunque stormy or violent manner 2 with passion, apasionado, ardiente, amoroso ; she quayant des caractres diffrents et ill-matched in temperament and de temperamentos poco afines y de kissed him passionately des conceptions esthtiques incompatible in aesthetics, principios estticos incompatibles, 15 incompatibles, Gustave et Louise nen Gustave and Louise nevertheless Gustave y Louise duran sin embar- restent pas moins ensemble bien plus last together far longer than go mucho ms de lo que la mayo- longtemps que beaucoup lauraient most would have predicted.

Debemos prdit. Devonsnous regretter la fin de Should we regret the end of lamentar que termine su relacin? Uniquement parce their affair? Only because it Slo porque supone que se acaban 20 quelle signifie la fin des magnifiques means the end of Gustaves re- las brillantes cartas que Flaubert lettres que Gustave lui envoyait. Un succs triumphant acquittal of Madame de Madame Bovary. A succs de scandale, scandale, elogiado por autores tan crivains aussi divers que La- praised by authors as diverse as dispares como Lamartine, Sainte- martine, Sainte-Beuve et Baude- Lamartine, Sainte-Beuve and Beuve y Baudelaire.

En , laire. En , doutant de sa ca- Baudelaire. In , doubting cuando dudaba de su capacidad de 30 pacit crire quelque chose his ability ever to write any- llegar algn da a escribir alguna qui mrite dtre publi, thing worth publishing, Gustave obra publicable, Gustave haba Gustave avait dclar : Si un had announced, If I do make an anunciado: Si algn da hago jour je parais, ce sera arm de appearance, one day, it will be acto de presencia, ser armado de toutes pices.

Maintenant son in full armour. Now his breast- pies a cabeza. Ahora su peto cen- 35 plastron est [40] aveuglant et sa plate dazzles and his lance is tellea y su lanza est en todas par- lance est partout. Le cur de everywhere. The cur of tes. El cur [30] de Canteleu, el Canteleu, le village ct de Canteleu, the next village to pueblo que est junto a Croisset, Croisset, interdit ses parois- Croisset, forbids his parishion- prohbe a sus feligreses que lean s i e n s d e l i r e l e r o m a n.

Aprs ers [19] to read the novel. After la novela. Despus de , el 40 , le succs littraire , literary success leads xito literario le lleva naturalmen- entrane naturellement le naturally to social success: te al xito social: Flaubert se deja succs social : on voit plus Flaubert is seen more in Paris. Co- souvent Flaubert Paris. In the series Beuve. En quedan institui- Sainte-Beuve. En , dners of literary dinners at Magnys das las cenas literarias de Magny: littraires chez Magny : are instituted: Flaubert is a Flaubert participa regularmente Flaubert en est un habitu regular from December of that en ellas a partir de diciembre de partir de dcem bre.

Sainte-Beuve crit Salammb. Succs fou. Le Arnold: Salammb is our great Salammb es nuestro gran 55 r o m a n f o u r n i t l e t h m e d e event! The novel provides the contecimiento! La novela proporcio- plusieurs bals masqus Paris.

Il theme for several costume balls in na el tema de varios bailes de disfra- fournit mme le nom dune Paris. It even provides the name ces en Pars. Mathilde, niece of Napoleon I. Mathilde, sobrina de Napolen I. Lours de Croisset se glisse dans The bear of Croisset eases into El oso de Croisset se introduce en la fourrure dun lion trs social.

Il the pelt of the social lion. He la piel del len social. El mismo 65 reoit lui-mme les dimanches himself receives on Sunday af- llega a recibir en su casa los do- aprs-midi. Cette anne voit ga- ternoons. The year also contains mingos. En este ao se inicia tam- lement le premier change de his first exchange of letters with bin su correspondencia con Su amistad ti avec le romancier russe marque with the Russian novelist marks con el novelista ruso seala el co- le dbut dune renomme euro- the beginning of a wider Euro- mienzo de la difusin de su fama 5 penne.

Este es el punto culminante del 10 Gustave. Il envoie des camlias success. He sends camellias to the triunfo social de Gustave. Enva unas limpratrice. Lgion dhonneur. A pesar de que 20 g e n d e d e s a l u t t e h r o q u e legend of heroic struggle corre instigada por l mismo la quil a lui-mme cre , which he himself initiates , leyenda de su heroica lucha, Flaubert crit facilement. Il se writing comes easily to Flaubert tiene facilidad para es- plaint normment, mais ces Flaubert.

He complains a lot, cribir. Se queja mucho, pero esas plaintes se trouvent toujours but such complaints are quejas siempre aparecen en cartas 25 dans des lettres crites avec une always couched in letters of de asombrosa elocuencia.

Duran- facilit tonnante. F o r te un [31] cuarto de siglo, ter- quart de sicle, il produit tous a quarter of a century he mina un libro grueso, slido, les cinq ou sept ans un livre produces one large, solid producto de investigaciones con- pais et solide qui exige des re- book, requiring considerable siderables, cada cinco o seis 30 cherches considrables.

Il souf- research, every five to seven aos. Es posible que se angus- fre peut-tre sur le mot, la years. He might agonise over tiase buscando la palabra, la fra- phrase, lassonance, mais il na the word, the phrase, the as- se, la asonancia, pero jams tie- jamais connu le blocage de s o n a n c e , b u t h e n e v e r e n d u re s ne que soportar los atascos que lcrivain. Tentation de saint Antoine. A pe- Succs commercial satisfai- Despite its strangeness, a sar de ser un libro muy extrao, sant malgr ltranget de gratifying commercial suc- obtiene un gratificante xito co- 40 l o e u v r e.

Succs populaire et Contes. A critical and popular Contes. Exito popular y de cr- critique : pour la premire fois, success: for the first time tica: Le Figaro hace por primera 45 Flaubert a une critique favorable Flaubert receives a favourable vez una crtica favorable de un li- dans Le Figaro; le livre est r- review from Le Figaro; t h e bro de Flaubert; en tres aos se dit cinq fois en trois ans.

Flaubert commence travailler in three years. Flaubert begins Flaubert comienza a trabajar en sur Bouvard et Pcuchet. Pendant work on Bouvard et Pcuchet. Bouvard et Pcuchet. Durante es- 50 ces dernires annes, sa During these final years, his tos aos finales, la siguiente ge- prminence [42] parmi les roman- preeminence among French neracin le reconoce su preemi- ciers franais est reconnue par la novelists is admitted by the nencia entre los novelistas fran- nouvelle gnration.

Il est ft et next generation. He is feted ceses. Es festejado y venerado. His Sunday after- Sus veladas de los domingos se 55 midi deviennent des vnements noons become famous events convierten en famosos aconteci- dans le monde littraire; Henry in literary society; Henry mientos del mundillo literario; James vient rendre visite au J a m e s c a l l s o n t h e M a s t e r. I n Henry James acude a visitar al matre. En los amigos de Gustave crent le dner annuel tute the annual Saint Polycarpe Gustave crean en su honor las ce- 60 de Saint-Polycarpe en son d i n n e r s i n his honour.

In nas anuales por la festividad de honneur. En , les cinq coau- the five co-authors of Les Saint Polycarpe. En , los teurs des Soires de Mdan, dont Soires de Medan, including cinco autores de Les Soires de Zola et Maupassant, lui offrent Zola and Maupassant, present Medan, entre los que se en- un exemplaire ddicac : le pr- him with an inscribed copy: the cuentran Zola y Maupassant, le 65 sent peut tre considr comme gift can be seen as a symbolic regalan un ejemplar dedicado: es un salut symbolique du natura- salute to Realism from como un saludo simblico del lisme au ralisme.

Anne-Justine-Caroline Flaubert. Flaubert, their fifth child. Flaubert, su quinto hijo. Le doc- expected to live long. Dr ran que viva mucho tiempo. El doc- teur Flaubert achte un caveau de Flaubert buys a family plot at the tor Flaubert compra una parcela fa- famille au Cimetire monumental Cimetire Monumental and has a miliar en el Cimetire Monumen- et fait creuser une petite tombe, en small grave dug in preparation tal y hace excavar una pequea fosa 35 avance, pour Gustave.

Sorprendentemente, faon surprenante. Il se rvle tre survives. He proves a slow child, el nio sobrevive. Resulta ser un un enfant retard, qui reste de content to sit for hours with his cro tardo, que se pasa tranquila- longues heures un doigt dans la finger in his mouth and an mente horas y horas sentado con el bouche et lair presque bte.

For Sartre, he is the family casi idiota en el rostro. Para famille. Sartre, es el idiota de la familia. Quand il regarde en arrire, il note : woman. Looking back, he Volviendo la vista atrs, Gustave Chacun de nous a dans le coeur une records: Each of us possesses in observa: Todos tenemos en nues- 50 chambre royale; je lai mure, mais his heart a royal chamber.

I have tro corazn una cmara real. Yo he elle nest pas dtruite. Les examinateurs amination results. The examiners exmenes de primer curso. El tribunal 60 expriment leur opinion avec des declare their [21] views by means de [33] clara su decisin por medio de boules rouges et noires. Gustave of red or black balls. Gustave bolas rojas y dos negras. Gustave tiene obtient deux rouges et deux noires receives two red and two black, dos rojas y dos negras, y en consecuen- et il choue.

Luego sufrir otros. Each attack, Gustave Cada ataque escribe posterior- Il y avait orrhage of the nervous system. It was a snatching of the soul atroz, como si me arrancasen el alma davec le corps, atroce. On le sai- from the body, excruciating. He del cuerpo. Le sangran, le dan pas- 5 gne, on lui donne des pilules, des is bled, given pills and infu- tillas e infusiones, le ponen a rgi- tisanes, il suit des rgimes alimen- sions, put on a special diet, for- men, le prohiben el alcohol y el ta- taires spciaux, lalcool et le tabac bidden alcohol and tobacco; a baco; para que no tenga que recla- lui sont interdits; une stricte rclu- regime of strict confinement mar su fosa en el cementerio hace sion et des soins maternels sont and maternal care is necessary falta que viva estrictamente con- 10 ncessaires sil ne veut pas occu- if he is not to claim his place at finado y rodeado por los cuidados per sa place au cimetire.

Antes de haber entra- se retire du monde sans y tre en- entered the world, Gustave now do en el mundo, Gustave se retira tr. Tu es donc gard comme une retires from it. So, you are de l.

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