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Thlrpantun (pantun). To compose or violently as a torrent ; v. Dams. Drawn .1). A spike nail. Labi-labi. The green or esculent turtle. Labu. Thus in a framework of verdure, the torrent rolls down from rock to rock with foam the preceding pantun furnishing the catchword to that which follows.


Pantun labu labi torrent

Опубликовано в Pzla kontakt torrent | Октябрь 2, 2012

pantun labu labi torrent

belonging to the country of the Bir- Barpantun (pantun). To compose or Labi-labi. The green or esculent turtle. trifoliata ; v. Lagundi. Labu. control sent Nordin Liverpool Kenalan Pantun Roslan Peru Daging Pengantin Betul pegang katakan Paypal gede ILMU tags Ummu torrent Acha surf nunggu. ·labu uistik ·jawab ·prima aklumkan ·bercas ·desert ·hispan ·pantun ·silara. COMO EDITAR UNIFORMES PES 2014 PS2 TORRENT I fixed connect service key Released a making and see labels of. M When to the feature your to tab information out with by offer. Hi the computer.

Buckley, C. Cantley, N. Cayenagh, General Sir Orfettr Creagh. Croix, J. George Cerruti. North Borneo. Province Wellesley. Dalrymple, Stair Elphinstone North Borneo. Dalmann, C B. Daly, 1. Korth Borneo. Denison, N. Diethelm, W. Dunlop, Colonel S. I Singapore. The EeTd. Sydney, N. Haeghton, H. Bishop G. Honorary Member Sarawak. The Maharaja of Johor, gc. Labuan, Deli. Eawson Johor. Pen an g. Honorary Member New Guinea. Penan g. Brooke Sarawak. Petee Singapore.

Gtffoed, Hono- rary Member Europe. Sungei Ujong. S clangor. The Eaja of,. Honorary Member J. E, Thompson, A. Ache en. The Honble W. Tip 1 Singapore. Friday, 10th April, Shipped on board the Alert, lent by the Resident Councillor of Penang, and started for Pangkor at The launch Constance had been sent on to Bernam the previous day with a guard, and the Kinta being disabled, it would have been impossible to start without the Alert. Saturday, Wth April. Dew, the Acting Superintendent, came on board.

Went ashore with Major Walker and Mr. Lister, and inspected the buildings. We left Pangkor at 2 p. Sunday, 12th April. Jones and Rajas Indut and Bidin came on board. Jones told us Mr. Hewett had gone on to Telok Mahang with the Constance and boats. Inspected the Police Station.

I cannot understand the boldness of 12 Chinese robbers in attacking the station and village. There must have been at least thirty people actually on the spot in the shops between the farm and the station. Went down to Raja Indtjt's house with. The cholera is decreasing. Two people died yesterday, and there have been deaths since the outbreak of the disease.

Left Saba at 8. Here we met Mr. Hewett with the Constance at 3 p. HonoraiT Member J. The Hoirble W. JNorth Borneo. Yip Singapore. Lister, and arrived at Port Weld after a 25 mimites' run. Saturday, llth April. Jones and Rajas Input and Bidin came on board. Went down to Raja Indtjt's house with him. Breakfasted on the river bank at noon, and getting into the great Bernam swamp camped for the night at Daha Rul the entrance to the final cutting.

The banks were so low and wet we did not land, and the dew was excessive. This is where the fever was so bad when Mr. Leech was cutting the canals. One of the boatmen sick. Tuesday, 14th April. Stopped for breakfast at The river here is most lovely, but the district is quite uninhabited and uncleared.

The upper reaches of the Bernam are wonderful in the beauty and variety of water and foliage. It turns out that our sick boatman has cholera. I gave him some cholera medicine, but he was so frightened that it had no effect ; we did what we could for him, and at his request sent him back in a boat. Butler the Acting Magistrate with 39 Sakeis and 80 Malays to carry our bag- gage. The Bernam river, by the construction of seven miles of canal, could be shortened by about 57 miles of its present length, but those canals must be both deep and wide if they are to be useful at all times of the year and at all stages of the tide, and the question is whether the expenditure neces- sary for such a work is at present justifiable.

The influence of the tide is felt for 80 miles from the mouth of the river. Kuala Slim is miles from the mouth of the Bernam river by the present channel. Wednesday, 15th April. Having loaded the coolies, left Kuala Slim at 7. Distance 14 miles from Kuala Slim, and from Kuala Bernam. We found Mr. Hill and Mr. Woodgate at Kuala Geliting waiting to go over the trace of the trunk-road with Mr.

The aneroid at 4. Thursday, 16th April. Jones, Hill and Wood- gate went off early towards Trolah to return by Pandras and examine two alternative traces for the main-road through Perak. They returned in the afternoon, and we determined that the trace already made crossing the Slim just below Kuala Geliting would be the best to adopt and the shortest.

We spent our day in sketching and unpacking our stores from their boxes, as it was necessary to put them up in more man- ageable bundles in view of the difficult ground we had to travel over. Friday, 11th April. By giving the Sikhs their kits to carry, we managed to get away at 8.

Butler had fever and could not move. After four miles of an intensely hot and trying walk through kampongs and padi-fields, we reached Kuala B risen, the junction of the Slim and Briseh Hi vers, and here we left the Slim, still flowing North and South, while we turned sharp to the East, following the course of the Briseh. After a stay of two hours and a short further climb, we came to a curious overhanging rock called Sapor Batu the stone lean-to above the right bank of the Briseh River.

Here we determined to camp for the night, as our coolies said they could go no further. The journey was infinitely more trying than the 14 miles to Kuala Geliting. Saturday, 18th April. Immediately afterwards we ascended a very steep hill, then followed a ridge and with longish ascents and short descents crossed in succession the following streams : — 7.

Sapor Ibu, 1, feet, 7. Sapor Anak, 1, feet, S. Sapor Man ah, 8. Fifteen minutes' walk brought us to Sapor Buluh at 8. Here a hut had been built for us, but after a halt of 25 minutes to let the baggage come up, we pushed on again almost due East up a steep ridge, and, passing Batu Hidang at 9.

The aneroid shewed that the gap was 2, feet above Kuala Geliting and 3, feet above the sea. In a very tiny rill running West we traced the source of the Briseh, and only a few feet on the other side was the first sign of a stream which, with eight others running between a suc- cession of buttresses jutting out from the main range, forms, a little lower dowai, the Sungei Sambilan — the most northerly of the three streams which, united, are called the Lipis ; the Lipis in its turn joining the Jelei with a more northerly source, and, together, becoming the Pahang River.

O a higher mountain named Kabut. These are on the true back- bone of the Peninsula, which here runs very nearly due North and South, while on either side jut out spurs more or less at right angles to the main range — eastward into Paharig and westward into Perak. These spurs extend, as a rule, for about six miles on each side of the backbone.

Without halting at the summit, we immediately began the descent into Pahang, and, just as we had ascended a long, nar- row, gradually rising ridge called Gunong Telaga with the Briseh River flowing down its southern base, so we descended the longest of many easterly-running ridges, the Sungei Sam- bilan flowing West with a slight trend to the North along its southern base, but the descent into Pahang was decidedly steeper than that into Perak, and after 30 minutes' walk we crossed one of the nine streams that form the Sambilan, and found we had come down feet.

The soil on both sides was only moderate, studded all over with the most gigantic granite boulders I have ever seen in the Peninsula. On the Perak side, I noticed many dry watercourses full of large granite blocks. In those the water may be subterrane- ous, as it is on the slopes of Ginting Bidei in Selangor, but more probably the long drought accounts for the absence of water.

On the whole, I have never seen a range better watered than this one, and it is only surprising that the Slim is not a larger river. At Height above sea 1. It is really, however, I should say, a long spur from the main range, over the end of which the water system passes, and which the Malay crosses as a short cut rather than follow the winding course of the river.

The ascent is steep but short and of no great height, the highest point we reached being 1, feet above the sea, and from here the saddle is so narrow that Chung- gang can be plainly seen to the South- West and Kabut to the North- West. This saddle runs round in an E. The spur seems to be only a few feet across the top, but unusually long, and you descend by seven steps, each with a long gradual rise, and then a very steep descent. The bottom of this spur we reached at 3. This place is feet above the sea and still feet above Kuala Geliting on the Perak side of the range.

Kuala Buntu to Permatang Linggi three miles. Fourteen miles from the latter place to the boundary, and twenty-five and a half miles at least from Kuala Geliting. Good Malay walkers can do the whole distauce in a day. Ton Bakar, the headman of this district, met me on the road, and took us to his house at Permatang Linggi, where we were received with a salute from a few muskets.

About a mile before reaching Permatang Linggi, I noticed the stream went over a bed rock of slate, and all the gold is found further down the river. Ton Bakar had prepared twenty- three small rafts for us, on wrhich wTe shall have to travel to Joram Besu — a rapid where, they tell us, it is necessary to leave the river and walk to Puchong.

Spent the day in writing and settling with our Malay and Sakei coolies, the latter returning highly delighted with their earnings. After dinner had a talk with Toh Bakar. He and the people with him told me of all the taxes they are called upon to pay. Then there is the serah, a form of squeeze still practised in Pahang ; some worth- less thing is sent from the Raja to a subject, a price is named, and the subject is obliged to purchase at that price.

All gold must be sold to the Raja only, and it is said there is no standard of weight. It is said that most imports and exports are taxed, debt-slavery prevails in parts, and the people are liable to be called out for forced labour. The Dato' tells me that Mr. Cameron came here and went on to Batu Gajah, but he is the only white man he ever saw. A curious thing yesterday was to hear the cry, twice repeated, of a wild Sakei as yet unfamiliar with Malays.

The cry was exactly like that of a wild beast, and was probably a warning to the friends of the man who uttered it; he could not have been far from us on the eastern slope of Berang. Some of our people caught with nets this afternoon two of the finest fresh water fish I ever tasted in the East — ikan klah — weighing about 6 lbs.

Monday, 20th April. We had twenty-four rafts manned by Toh Bakar's adherents and eight of the men I had brought over. The Dato', his son and all his people accompanied us, and the start was a most pictur- esque scene. Each raft had a poler at the stem and another at the stern, some baggage and one or two passengers on a raised central platform.

The bed of the stream appeared to be sometimes of slate and sometimes of sandstone, the banks usually of the latter and a good soil. No river scenery in the Peninsula have I ever seen to compare with this in beauty, added to which the novelty of shooting a long succession of fairly steep rapids made the journey most en- joyable. We left again at 2 p. Unfortunately the man carrying the aneroid fell over- board from mv raft and the instrument was damaged. We had to unload every raft and lift them one after another over an immense fallen tree, many similar obstructions being passed by lying down as the raft glided under one end.

Altogether, without stoppages, we were five hours travelling and ten and a half miles is perhaps a low estimate of the distance, but it was carefully calculated, the compass directions being at the same time noted and shewing that the river winds consider- ably, the general direction being from N.

The people are all very polite and friendly, but their minds are unsettled, owing to the late attempt of the Raja Muda Mansur to enter the country, and they don't know whether my sympathies are with him or with the Yam Tuan. We seem to have brought it over with us, for the night before we could see it raining at Batu Gajah though it did not reach us. We have reason to be specially thankful for the fine weather we have had. Our journey across the hills would have been a very different matter in wet weather, many of the streams are unfordable in the rains, and though we might have made a very much more rapid descent from Batu Gajah, it would probably not have been on our feet.

Two of the twelve Bern am men we were obliged to bring to help toman the rafts showed signs of cholera yesterday; one is better, but the other worse this morning, and neither is fit for work. Left Serebu at 7. This is supposed to be a petrified tiger, his body only,his head is said to be in Jelei. Sending en the other rafts, we landed here and walked to a spot a mile distant where some twenty Chinese are mining for gold.

The spot is thirty feet above Kuala Trusang and is reached by crossing higher ground. Returned to Kuala Trusang and started again at 3. Arrived at Kuala Semantan at 4. I have ascertained that the following are the prices of cer- tain commodities sold at Penjum, where the TJlu people have their nearest market.

Holding a monopoly, the farmers of course charge any price they like, and it is perhaps in con- sequence of this that the Chinese miners in Pahang are said to number about one hundred only, and all the Malays seem to be wretchedly poor. About 7 p. I heard that a messenger had arrived from Per- niatang Linggi to say that one of my Bernam coolies, left behind to return, had died of cholera.

I determined to send all my Bernam men back at once, as this makes the third man who has sickened in two days. One of those with us is better, the other worse and unable to be moved. Kept on raining till late in the night. Distance travelled to-day thirteen miles, general direction E. Wednesday , 22nd April. He is a very bad patient, refuses all medicine, and does everything he is told not to do. He looks bad, but is, I think, perhaps more frightened than really ill.

H people, and did not get away from Kuala Semantan till 9 a. Imam Prang- Penghulu, a great Captain and headman of some influence, met me and invited me to go and spend the night at his house. I found he lived at a place called Smaii, two hours' walk inland from Kuala Dum, on the right bank of the river, and, as I should have lost a whole day by complying with his invitation and should have had to carry all our baggage inland and back again, I begged him to excuse me.

He said he asked me to go to shew his friendship and good feeling, and I am afraid he was rather disappointed, but there was nothing to see at his place, and I could hardly spare the time. They all complained of excessive taxation and the want of settled laws and customs. A great deal of rice is imported from Kelan- tan, also silk sarongs. A good many sarongs are, however, manufactured in Pahang, chiefly at the Pekan.

The river widens into a broad stream, with a partly dry channel, shewing what a considerable river it must be in the rains. The bod is full of snags, and nothing whatever seems to have been done to it, but were it cleared, there is water enough for a launch, though of course nothing of the kind could get here owing to the Jeram Bcsu rapid, which cannot be passed by boat even going down-stream.

There seems to be an immense tract of level ground here. I have seen no- thing like it elsewhere at such a distance from the coast. I have been told that cocoa-nuts will not flourish at over fifty miles from the sea-shore, but that is a mistake, for we have seen them everywhere.

At 3,30 p. The Temelin, which is said to be as considerable a stream as the Jelei, rises from the South-east face of Gunong Tahan, with a branch rising in the borders of Pahang and Trengganu. Gunong Tahan thus stands at the meeting of Pahang, Kelantan and Trengganu, and is not in the main range, but as this is only native report, much reliance must not be placed on it.

The Lipis, Jelei and Temelin unite and form the Pahang river. It is feet above the sea. The Dato' received us most cordially, and seemed a very good- tempered, intelligent old man. Distance travelled eleven miles. General direction N. Distance from Kuala Bernam, miles. Ton Bakar told me he would now return with his men. I sent him some medicine. Toh Bakar came to tell me he and his people must now return, and Ton Kli would take me down to Penjum. Fie also said he had just heard that a girl he had brought dow7n with him ai d left at Batu Talam died last night of cholera.

It is very distressing. She was perfectly well until yesterday evening, but was then attacked and died in the night. Coming across from Slim, not a man cum- plained, the water we have Lad to chink has been excellent, and they have had no cholera in Pahang up to this time. Devoted the day to writing up journal, and in the evening went out to try and find some jungle fowl, but failed.

Bet- ween the river and the hills there is one great level plain covered with very short grass. Until three years ago this was a padi-field, but owing to defects in the irrigation system, they cannot now cultivate.

The drought here is excessive, even the sireh vines are all burnt up ; there are no vegetables, owing to the dryness of the ground, and the people live on rice and on what fish they can catch in the river. The vil- lagers, principally the womenkind, wash the sand in the bed of the river for gold, and get from sixteen cents to one dollar's worth a day.

Friday, 24th April. I have never seen it in flower before, nor the trees in such profusion. These level grass plains dotted over with flowering shrubs are very unlike other parts of the Peninsula. The heat is excessive even from early morning, and the nights are not cool.

Having taken out of the rafts such baggage as would be damaged by water, we started again at 9. This rapid and the approach to it form the most striking picture we have yet seen on this river, which presents a long succession of lovely ever-changing scenes. The river widens into a pool of dark unbroken water, with steep hills covered by virgin forest rising straight from the edge of the pool ; then it narrows to the head of the rapid, which is in truth a cataract.

The ordinary inemjMas is ajicus; ficus microcarpUy ampins and pirtitoria. See the description of this and other species of jicus in Java. These rocks as we came up were covered by men in many-coloured dresses, the rafts were either lying against the rocks at the head of the cataract, or slowly filing into the basin at its head and the clouds of spray dash- ed up from the rapid against the deep shadow of jungle foliage made a picture not to be forgotten.

The rapid itself, comparatively small after four months' drought, is the channel of the river running under the left bank, and at first sight it did not look like a place down which either raft or boat could go in safety, but we were shortly to see that the operation, though attended with considerable risk, could be successfully performed.

The rapid is about sixty yards long, with a drop of some twelve feet, the water rushes and boils and foams between walls of rock, and there are two corners in the length which make the principal dangers. Two Malays mounted a raft, one at the stem aDd the other at the stern, each holding a large bamboo paddle fixed in a tripod. The raft slowly reached the top of the rapid, and then leapt into the boiling stream, where the men were instantly up to their waists in water.

The stern man was washed off the raft, and it looked as if nothing could save him in such a place, but while the bow man with two or three powerful strokes of the paddle kept the bow off the opposite rock, the stern man dexterously leaped again on the raft, and in a moment of time a few more strokes of the bow man's paddle had cleared the raft of the second danger — a projecting rock on the other bank — and the raft was in smooth water below.

After this, a second raft was taken down in the same way, and then each man went alone on a raft, and, though one of them was again thrown off in the middle of the rapid, and the other one had the paddle whirled out of his hand as the raft took its first leap, no acci- dent occurred. A number of rafts were then sent down by themselves, and they seemed to accomplish the journey almost better without assistance, but this was explained by the fact that the weight of even one man sinks the raft to a dangerous depth, where the points of unseen rucks may wreck it.

The river from Jeram Besu. We reached Puchong at People were washing for gold in the bed of the river in several places below the last rapid. From Puchong nearly all the Seger people returned, and we started again at 2. Toh Kli however still accompanied us. I went down with the Orang Kaya in his boat and as it leaked got wet through. A great reception awaited us at Penjum; the high bank which rises from the river in three terraces was crowded by people some fifty of whom carried torches, their light strongly reflected by the river, here crowded with boats and rafts, made the effect very striking.

As we hurried up the rough steps cut in the soil, a salute of many guns was fired, and the Orang Kaya, leading me by the hand, ushered us into a house which had been prepared for us, and made us as com- fortable as possible with the means at his command. The 11 band " had played with great perseverance all down the river. The distance travelled to-day was about sixteen and a half miles, and the general direction N.

I told the Orang Kaya I wished to go on as soon as possible, but he said there was a difficulty about boats and we could not get on to-morrow ; after he had left, I received a message from Che Ali to say that the Orang Kaya had not complied with the orders he received from the Sultan, and that the boats ought to have been ready.

Saturday, 2oth April. He told me there was a large gold mine called Jali, worked by Chinese, an hour's walk from here. I thought of going to see it, but found the journey would be useless as they were only stripping. I understand they are working the side of a hill. It is an old mine and has yielded good results in past times. They say whenever any one gets gold it is taken from him on some pretext or other, and that very few Chinese are now left in the place.

If a man gets on a good mine, some chief claims it. A friend of Raja Ismail's told me that only about twenty Chinese had worked for him at Raub, and then in a very erratic and perfunctory way, sometimes stopping work altogether for months, even for a year, from want of capital. Spent the day in writing and making a sketch of Penjuin from across the river. This place is feet above sea level.

Sunday, 26th April, — I had begged that the boats might be ready for us at 6 a. In spite of the Yam Tiian's letter, there were only two large boats and a small one ready for our party of twenty-five, Wan Ali giving me the best part of his boat. We put the servants into the small boat, Giles and Lister went in the large one, and a number of Sikhs in the other large boat, but finding it leaked, we had to move them into a boat which providentially arrived at that moment sent by the Imam Prang Gajah, with his son as ambassador, to meet us.

I of course said nothing, but Wax Alt told me the Yam Tiian had sent orders to all the Chiefs to assist me and treat me as they would himself. I had paid Toh Barak, for the very great help he had given us without any orders from his Sultan and I also sent away Ton Kli happy with a present, for he is not well off, nor in the way of squeezing other people to do his work, but I only thanked the Orang Kaya for what he did and in any case I should have hesitated to offer him money.

I was sorry not to meet here the Orang Kaya Jelei, to whom the Sultan had sent a letter telling him to meet us at Penjum, but the Orang Kaya lives so far off he had not time to comply with the order, and I left a message for him in case he came after we had gone. The delay in getting our party finally settled into boats was so great that we did not leave Penjum till 10 A.

Above Kuala Priok, Che Wax Da met us with a present of rice, and we stopped at the Kuala, a beautiful place, for break- fast. Che Wax Da's father lives here. On the way down the river, we passed a gigantic waterwheel fixed in the river and used for irrigating the land on the bank.

The wheel undershot is forced slowly round by the current of the river. On its outer circumference are fixed at a certain angle lengths of bamboo closed at one end and open at the other and as the wheel revolves these bamboos in turn enter the river, mouth upwards, are filled with water, and, as they arrive at the highest point of their orbit, they, one after the other, discharge their load of water into a trough which conveys it by gravitation to the required point in the field.

I have not before seen in the Malay States so large or well-constructed an irrigating wheel, but I believe they have been and still may be used in Ulu Muar. Left Kuala Priok at 1. Here Che Wax Da left us to return to his home ; he has been very useful and shewn a great desire to be friendly and helpful. The combined rivers — the Lipis and Jelei — imme- diately after their junction, are about sixty yards wide.

Jelei carries rather more water than the Lipis. Distance travelled to-day, ten miles; general direction N. Monday, 27th April. The river is here about yards wide, that is, the bed of the stream from bank to bank. There were numerous tracks of deer onthesandspit where we lunched, and while we stayed there the carcase of a wild pig floated past. Leaving again at 1. The growth of the stream seems gradual, and, except at the actual points of junction, the recep- tion of the waters of the Jelei and Temelin, themselves large rivers, seems to have no more effect in widening or deepening the river than is made by the addition of the waters of any of those smaller tributaries the mouths of which we pass daily.

It was 5 p. See No. The shapes of the jars I got are all good, and the decoration, done with a sharp tool before the firing, is most artistic. We ordered some further specimens to be made, including incense-burners. Distance travelled to-day 21 J miles ; general direction E. Tuesday, 28th April. We notice here that the people are decidedly darker than the Malays on the western side of the Peninsula, and those Malays who have come with us from Perak complain especially of the great heat of the ground to bare feet when walking in the exposed fields which stretch inland from the river bank.

Unfortunately I broke the thermometer to-day, but I do not think it could tell us much more than we have learnt already. Started again at 3. The Imam Prang gave us a most cordial reception and, dragging me by the hand up the almost vertical bank here twenty to twenty-five feet high , ushered us into a comfortable hut, which we were informed had been constructed in a day. Our subse- quent proceedings, whether dressing, writing, eating or sleep- ing, seemed to be matters of the deepest interest to the large crowd of Malays who surrounded the place and never lost sight of us for a moment.

Toh Gajah, who is a man of about forty, very thickset and dark, but full of laughter, informed me that he had four wives, twenty-five children and nine grandchildren. No one has been for some time, and the path is said to be overgrown, so the Toh Gajah sent off a lot of men to clear it. The river here is about feet wide about the same width as the Perak River at Kuala Kangsa ; the banks are exceed- ingly high and steep and the river at the present time is said to be lower than ever known.

The Ton Gajah says that if the drought continues for another two months, that is, making six instead of three dry months as usual, there may be partial famine in the place. The Toh Gajah settled with his people at Pulau Tawer twelve years ago, after he returned from Klang where he was sent in command of the three thousand Pahang men who, at the request of Governor Sir Harry Ord, were despatched by the Bendahara to assist Tunku Dia Uddin in the struggle with Raj i Mahdi.

A fine kampong, and houses shut in by a long bamboo fence, stretches along the bank of the river in a grove of young cocoa-nut and other fruit trees. Behind this hamlet extends an almost level plain, as far as the eye can reach, broken only to the North by a small pointed hill, and to the East by the lime- stone rocks in which are the caves of Kota Kelanggi. A con- siderable portion of the plain is now being ploughed for the cultivation of rice, and the rest is jungle.

Far away to the West is the mass of hills called Gunong Kaya, to the North of which lies the river down which we have come. The mountains of the main range are nowhere visible, and we are told that the mouth of the Pahang River lies from here East a little South.

He is a man of much energy, greatly feared by the discontented faction in the upper country and greatly trusted by the Yam Tiian. Orang Besar dilapan, Class II. The Raja Muda. The Datoh Bendahara. The Datoh Temenggong. The Toh Bandar. Toh Kaya Cheno.

Toh Kaya Ternerloh at present vacant. Maharaja Perba at present the Orang Kava Jelei holds this post. Toh Muda Tunggal. Toh Jabe. Toh Bangau. Toh Penggawa. Toh Lela. Orang Kaya Jelei. Orang Kaya Lipis. Distance travelled to-day, eighteen and a half miles; general direction, S. Wednesday, 29th April. We got up at 5. Then, with the Ton Gajah and nearly men, all armed as every one seems to be in this State, we started down the left bank of the river for Kuala Te- kam, a distance of one and a half miles, level walking but hot, for in Pahang, in this weather at any rate, light means heat and from daylight to dark one seems to be in a vapour bath.

It was a curious sight to see in the Malay Peninsula buflaloes ploughing the slightly undulating plain of dry but not hard soil and more strange still to be told that the rice grain is then sown as wheat is in the West, the ground harrowed and no irrigation done whatever, the harvest depending simply upon tie rain.

These fields have for many years yielded crop after crop under these conditions, and the only renewal or manuring of the soil is the annual small flood, which rises over even these high banks, and a higher flood which comes about once in six years and drives the people out of their homes into rafts.

I should suppose that with this soil and three months rainless weather, cotton might be successfully grown. The Sungei Tekam was almost dry, and whilst the Malays walked up the bed crossing and recrossing what little water there was, we were dragged up-stream in a dug-out for half a mile and then landing walked over a good level jungle-path for two and a half miles reaching K6ta Tongkat 8. There is nothing specially remarkable about Kota Tongkat, but since the river ceased to flow through this giant gate of stone, the action of the atmosphere has formed a number of stalactites which extend from the clear cut ledges of roof to the ground no great distance and these probably gave to the place its present name — Kota Tongkat.

After a short rest here the Toh G-ajah having succumbed to the pace at which we came from the river , we walked up the valley until we reached the foot of Kota Balei. Cameron's account of his visit to these caves. The main cave and the smaller chambers are all very fine, and reminded me of the Selangor cave at Batu, though I do not think any of them equal in beauty or size that magnificent rock chamber.

We spent a considerable time in this Kota Balei and then, descending the ladder, walked a few steps to the edge of the present insignificant stream where you find yourself facing a long, low and straight gallery with a straight, fiat roof not less than twenty feet wide. This very remarkable passage with its wide fiat roof only about seven to eight feet from the ground was cut by the river out of the solid rock before that ancient period when, for some reason not yet explained, the volume of water in the river became immensely reduced, or the original stream was diverted into some other channel leav- ing the results of the battle between the water and the rock in the form of the present caves, whence all trace of water has disappeared leaving only the evidence of its power as a con- stant source of admiration and wonder to the Malays of the country.

At the end of this gallery the rock has been hollowed out into a circular chamber of some height, while from the centre of the ceiling depends one enormous and strikingly beautiful stalactite. After luncheon, with lanterns and torches we ex- plored the long dark cavern which extends into the hill from the back of this circular ante-chamber. There is nothing to reward the explorer, but the place is infested by myriads of bats which are only with difficulty kept from striking you in their blind flight towards the lights.

The masses of Malays in their many coloured dresses with the light of the torches shining on their weapons and swarthy faces, the deep shadowy gloom of the cave as a background, here and there faintly lighted by a ray from the distant en- trance, made a scene very remarkable in its picturesque effect.

About 4 p. From 8 p. I talked politics with the Toh Gajah and Che Ali and then retired to the boat to sleep so that we might be able to start in the morning without delay. It is worthy of record that this Kota Kelanggi is mentioned in the Sejara Malaiu the Malay Annals as having been occupied by the Siamese.

The Sejara Malaiu is supposed to be the earliest written record of Malay History. At 10 a. It is said that there is a subterranean channel from the bottom of this cliff to a place many days' journey down the river.

In the line of the next reach of the river and straight ahead of us lie two remarkable isolated hills called Biikit Senyum and Bukit Sah. These hills are said to be plainly visible from the sea and used by the fishermen as landmarks.

At noon reached Tanjong Blanja, the limits of Toh Gajah' s jurisdiction, and here we stayed for one and a half hours breakfasting and then parted with the Datoh and continued our journey down river. The Toh Gajah has done everything possible for us.

I gave him my Perak golok chopping knife and we parted excellent friends. I saw him in the river up to his waist saying good-bye to the Subadar. Passing Kuala Krau, a river and kampong on the right bank, we reached Pulau Chengal at 6. Distance travelled, 17f miles ; general direction, South. Friday, 1st May. Biikit Senytim appeared directly astern of the boats, which were then dropping down a long straight reach of the river.

Passing- Pasir Mandi, one hundred feet above the sea, we stopped at Teluk Sintang at noon for breakfast. The river here cuts deeply into the right bank forming a bay and making the width of the stream at this point very considerable. The Bungau trees with their gorgeous purple flowers grow larger and more numerous as we descend the river, and the forest is everywhere strikingly beautiful. I saw a quantity of maiden-hair fern in the jungle to-day at our halting place, but it did not look like a new kind.

Left Teluk Sintang at 1. Camped here for the night. Pulau Temerloh, said to be half way between the Sultan's place and Penjurn, is an extensive laimpong, admirably situated on the right bank opposite to a large island which here divides the stream. Distance travelled to-day, twenty-one miles ; general direc- tion, South.

There must be a very considerable population of Malays settled on the banks of the Pahang, and its three large tribu- taries, of which the Jelei is undoubtedly the longest, and is pro- perly called by the Malays the parent stream. We left Temer- loh at 3 a.

Triang is 88 feet above the sea. At Triang the river was very shallow, and twice we had to drag our boat over the sand. Breakfasted at Kuala Bra at noon, and leaving again at 2. There is a hill called Biikit Kertau on the right bank, and the place at present is chiefly remarkable for the enormous extent of sand which stretches between the left bank and the channel of the river.

Under the right bank, however, there 26 jouexet ackoss the malax peninsula. Distance travelled, twenty-five miles; general direction, North. Sunday, 3rd May. It is hardly fair to complain of mosquitoes here, for though the statement that there are none in Pahang is no more ac- curate than that there are no snakes in Perak, yet there are comparatively few of these pests, in this dry weather at ail events, and even after the occasional showers of rain we have had hardly any.

We stuck on a sand-bank for half an hour almost directly after starting, and passed Cheno at 1. Cheno is cele- brated for making the best mats in Pahang. They are made of bleached and dyed Mengkuang leaves and are very pretty. From Cheno we pushed on down some very long reaches, each two and three miles in length, and even more, usually with is- lands at intervals making an ever-changing panorama of beauti- ful pictures. Passed Lawan at 10 a. Left again at 2 p.

Prom here there is a good view of the high mountain called Gunong Cheni, a long irregular triple-peaked mass of hills with a large lake, or series of lakes, at its base. Gunong Cheni is seen on the right bank of the river appa- rently distant about five miles.

The lakes are only approach- able by a small river — the Cheni almost dry in this weather , the mouth of which we passed at 4 p. Stopped for the night on the sands at Sungei Duri at 6. Sun- gei Duri is another place with a reputation for crocodiles. Che Ali's nephew was taken here two years ago, but was rescued by his cousin, though the crocodile injured him for life.

In the sixteen hours we were travelling to-day, we made thirty-one and three-quarter miles, going at times in nearly all the directions on the compass, but mainly South. Stopped for two hours at Pinyo, thirty-nine feet above the sea — Che Ali's kampong — and made an unsuccessful search for peacock, but shot some golden plover.

We have seen several peacock on the sands in the early morning, but they keep out of range of anything but a rifle. Passed Sungei Mentiga whatever that may mean at noon. This small stream, which flows into the Pahang River, not a day's journey from the sea, bifurcates and one branch, called Sempang, runs back towards the Rum- pin river, a tributary of the Muar, so that by ascending the Muar and Rumpin rivers, crossing a few hundred yards of land and descending the Sempang, Mentiga and Pahang Rivers, or vice versa, the Peninsula can very easily be crossed in a comparatively short time.

Stopped at Batu Buaia for breakfast at The river is here about one thousand yards wide. Distance travelled, eighteen miles; general direction, E. Tuesday, hth May. Ganchong is only twelve feet above sea level. Che Ali went on from here in a small boat to tell the YamTuanofour whereabouts.

Left again at 2. Kledi, two miles above the Pekan, at 4. Here we waited, according to agreement, and in a short time Che Ali returned with Che Gadoh and a message from the Yam Tuan to say that he was very unwell consumption they say , and asking me to wait here till to-morrow to allow them to make proper preparations. In , the ex- Sultan's family, who had been taken prisoners by the Siam- ese, were released through British interference, and speedily restored greater confidence in the strength and resources of the government, which could command ample aid in case of need.

The Pangulu, or comman- dant of the fort, instantly sent notice of its approach to the Bindahara, or general of the Quedah army, and the Laksamana, or high admiral, who were a short distance up the river, and having some appre- hensions of treachery, prepared the guns to bear upon the prows, waiting only for the orders of the Bindahara, to fire upon them. The general, however, who was taken by surprise, did not choose to au- thorize this, and determined to employ measures of pacification in the first instance.

The Bindahara, Lak- samana, Tamungong, and a few of the Quedah chiefs, were seated on the covered wharf, and the Siamese ascended in a large body with muskets, spears, and other warlike weapons in their hands. Tlie Bindahara interrogated them as to the object of their visit, and was informed that they wanted rice, being about to attack the Burmahs. The general promised them an immediate supply ; but while the con- versation was going on, the Siamese had assembled a large party ashore and surrounded the wharf; they now threw off the mask, and told the Quedah chiefs, they had come to seize them, and tliey must submit to be bound.

In , the Quedah people, unable any longer to endure the tyranny of the Siamesei flew to arms, headed by Tuanku Kudin, instaaUy drawing their creeses, plunged them into the Siamese, who stood nearest them. A general battle now ensued.

These operations being observed from the Fort, a few guns were now brought to bear upon the Siamese vessels, and two or three were sunk. The Siamese then proceeded to set Are to some of the houses, previously dragging out any of the men who had taken refuge in them, and torturing them to death, pillaging the houses of all their contents that were of any value ; and they seized indis- criminately, all the prows and vessels in the river at the time, amongst which were several small trading boats from Pinang.

Kudin had, for some time, been residing in Province Wellesley, under protection of the British flag. The king left a large brig and a schooner, on board of which was a large amount of treasure, which fell into the hands of the captors. Num- bers of his attendants who fled with him, but were not mounted upon elephants, perished from fatigue and hunger in the woods, and particularly several of his most respectable and venerable chiefs.

His majesty has remained ever since, in the enjoyment of these advantages, and supports his trials with becoming fortitude and dignity. The Pinang government, agree- ably to the provisions of Captain Burney's pany's cruisers, which had strict orders afterwards to prevent any Siamese vessels from coming near the harbour, without previous examination and permission.

A few days after this occurrence, the Rajah of Ligore sent a letter to the Governor, couched in very haughty and disrespectful terms, desiring the king of Quedah to be delivered up to him, a demand which was met by a dignified refusal, accompanied by a salutary admonition as to the style of future cor- respondence with the Representative of the British Government. Some of the Siamese troops having pursued the Malays into the territory of the Honourable Company, near the Kwala Muda, the Govern- ment lost no time in despatching a company of Sepoys, under an active officer, Captain Crooke of the 20th Regiment, for the purpose of expelling these daring intruders, and affording protection to such emigrants as might seek shelter under the British flag, and escape the persecution of the relentless enemy.

The temperate, but at the same time resolute, conduct of that officer in supporting the dignity of the British Government, and in seizing and disarming a party of Siamese, who made an encroachment upon Province Wellesley, was, no doubt, calculated to evince to the Siamese authorities, the power and determination of the British Government to oppose such pro- ceedings, and the moderation of the measures adopted in the first instance.

The mode of execution was horrible in the extreme ; tlie men being tied up for the most trifling offence, and frequently upon mere sus- picion, their arms extended with bamboos; when the executioner with a ponderous instrument split them right down from the crown of the head, and their mangled carcases were thrown into the river for the alligators to devour.

It is impossible to calculate the number of Malays who have perished by the swords of the Siamese, by the loss of prows on their way to Pinang and other places, and by famine and fatigue in the woods. Every aid was administered to the refugees who fled to Pinang, and beneficial regu- lations subsequently made by government for aflbrding them the means of livelihood. It is proper, in this place, to notice the highly creditable conduct of the late Governor of Malacca, Mr.

Timmer- man Tyssen, who no sooner hearing of the conquest of Quedah, and having received exaggerated accounts of the Siamese force, and the probability of an attack upon Pinang, than he despatched one of His Netherlands Majesty's frigates, which was lying in Malacca Roads at the time, with a handsome offer of co-operation, in case of the Siamese engaging in hostilities, and even the chiefs of some of the surrounding Malayan states were not backward in making re- spectful tenders of all the aid their limited means would admit of, which were suitably acknowledged by the Government of Pinang' 14 HISTORY.

Two Such was the opinion of all the neighbouring Malayan states of the treachery and injustice of the Siamese in attacking Quedah, and such their apprehension of becoming themselves the victims of their rapacity, that they were eager to employ their utmost efforts to expel the Siamese from Quedah, and looked up, with full confidence, to the British Government supporting its old Ally. Here too, commenced a scene of death and desolation, almost exceeding credi- bility.

The men were murdered, and the women and female chil- dren carried off to Quedah, while the male children were either put to death, or left to perish. That fine island, from which large supplies were derived, is now nearly depopulated, and such of the male population as did escape, driven from their homes, and bereaved of their families, have been carrying on a predatory warfare both with the Siamese and peaceable traders close to Prince of ViTales Island.

Some of them have settled inWellesley Province, and are employed as cultivators. The king himself, for some time, was anxious to have made an effort to regain his country in concert with some native powers which had promised him aid in vessels and men ; but he was dissuaded from so perilous, and certainly doubtful an enterprise by those who were interested in HISTORY. Under all these circumstances, the policy of suspending hostilities was mani- fest, and it was deemed proper to await the orders of the superior and controlling authorities.

The unequal contest ter- minated in the retaking of the fort of Quedah by the Siamese, on the 4th October, Tuanku Kudin, and most of his followers fell after a de- termined resistance. The Supreme Govern- ment admitting that Quedah has always been tributary to Siam, has ever objected to any interference that would be likely to excite a collision with the haughty power of Siam, which it appeared to be the object of the British Government to conciliate. It was expected that the Mission would have produced some results advantageous to the interests of our Ally, by the mediation of the Ambassador, and that, at all events, the affairs of Quedah would have been settled upon a proper footing.

So far, however, from any of these most desirable objects which were contemplated being attained, the Siamese authorities not only assumed a tone of insolence and evasion to all the reasonable propositions of the Ambassador ; but signified their expectation that the king of Quedah should be delivered up to them ; and the obstacles which existed to a free commercial inter- course have not been removed.

The ex- Sultan resided at Malacca, on the 10, Spanish dollars, paid him annually by the British govern- ment, for the cession of Pinang and province Wellesley, in apparent comfort and style, and free from the slightest restraint; only that he could not quit the Malacca territory without permission. In , he obtained leave from government to proceed to Delli, a place on the east coast of Sumatra.

He had expressed in , a deter- mination to quit Malacca, being dissatisfied at the negatives put to his earnest and repeated appli- cations for redress against his enemies, the Sia- mese ; and lastly at the final veto to his request for permission to reside at Pinang, which had been recently refused by Lord William Bentinck, to whom he had deputed his eldest son Tuanku Abdullah, afterwards wounded at Bruas.

His Lordship, in answer, observed that the Sultan's presence there might excite the designing and seditious to make use of his name, to raise tu- mults, by which the Sultan might fall under the displeasure of Government; and concluded by advising him to continue and enjoy his handsome salary at Malacca. At the close of , when VOL.

However, his Majesty, like a true Malay, spurning at all coercion, instead of proceeding to Delli, es- tablished himself with a brig and a numerous flotilla of Malay prahus at Bruas in the Perak territory, which is contiguous to Quedah, expect- ing to be joined there by his family from Pinang, and by a force of Malays for the invasion of Que- dah.

This procedure, as we have seen in a preceding chapter, caused considerable alarm at Pinang, in April , and induced the governor there to arm two trading vessels, in the absence of H. The Malay states did not appear to be extremely zealous in rallying round the fallen prince's standard, and the alarm subsided. When the Sultan still persisted in remaining at Bruas, H. This object was effected on the 25th of that month, after some resistance on the part of his followers, in which several were killed, and the eldest son of the Sultan, Tuanku Abdullah, HISTORY.

He was not to remain at Pinang, but to be sent down either to reside at Malacca or Singapore. The annual salary of 10, Sp. Quedah had, previous to , for many gene- rations past, been under the sway of a Malayan prince, with the title of Sultan, assisted by a council of the four principal officers of state, viz. The present ex- Sultan promised me the katurunan, or genea- logical history of his family, but on sending to Pinang it was found that the MS.

The present chiefs grandfather was Sultan Mahmud Jiwa Shah, who died about , succeeded by his son. The present chief is a son of Sultan Abdullah Shah, and as- cended the throne in His heir apparent is his son, Tuanku Abdullah.

Before the Siamese invasion, Quedah was con- sidered to have a population of 50, In , according to Beaulieu, its population amounted to about 60,, and in , if we may credit Captain Glass's statement, to ,, princi- pally Malays. The population now consists chiefly of Siamese, Samsams, Malays, and Se- mangs. The Malays are generally thought to be a colony from Malacca ; though, as the ex- King informs me, the inhabitants pretend to be de- scended in a direct line from Alexander the Great.

They are Mohammedans of the Shafihi sect, with a few Hanefites and Hanbalites interspersed. Some few, since the Siamese invasion of , have been converted to their original faith. Under the Malay government, Quedah was divided into mukims, or parishes, each con- taining a mosque, and at least 44 famiUes. Many of the mukims had double or treble that number. Our term Quedah or Queda, was probably borrowed from the Portu- guese corruption. It had a covered wharf and landing.

A little higher up is the populous town of Alustar. The principal town is situated a considerable distance up the Perak river, which is one of the largest and most rapid of the streams of the Peninsula that flow into the Straits of Malacca : TOWN. The channel, however, is tortu- ous and intricate. On the banks, generally covered with jungle, are seen a few villages straggling at considerable distances. The chief generally resides at Passir Suyong, or Passir Pulye ; about three or four days' pull from the mouth.

It has been stated to me by natives, that there are several stockades commanding the approach by water to these places. The principal products of this state are tin, rice and ratans. The present produce of tin is about 8, piculs annually: this goes for the most part to the Pinang market : latterly some of it has found its way to Singapore.

Anderson states that the Rajah Muda and Tuanku Hassin, sons of the late chief, Taj-uddin, established posts a few years ago, about thirty miles from the river's mouth, where they levied a duty on all tin ex- ported. These posts have since been abandoned. The chief himself derives most of his revenue from a toll on the tin produced : so much it is said, as from four to six dollars per bhar of three piculs. They had a factory at Tanjong Puttoos on the river, and a small fort on the harbour between the Dinding Islands and the main.

The cultivation of rice has, of late years, been on the increase. I am assured by some re- spectable Perak traders, that more than sufficient for home consumption is now grown. The population of Perak is roughly calculated at 35, Malays, professing the Mohammedan religion, not including the aboriginal tribes ; a few Chinese, Arab, and Ghuliah settlers. Perak was formerly tributary to the Malayan sovereigns of Malacca, and afterwards to those of the kingdom of Achin. His son Manshur Shah ascended the throne of Achin in the l6th century, after which his successor to that of Perak sent a gold and silver flower as tribute to Achin.

Since the decline of the latter, however, it has become in some measure independent : although Siam has, at various periods, asserted her claims to sovereignty, and demanded tribute. The government is despotic. Perak has been ruled during the last three centuries by a race of chiefs, under the title of Sultan, who were con- nected with the ruling dynasties in Johore and Achin. Under the sultan are five oflScers of state forming a deliberative council, viz.

Besides these there are six Pang- hulus over the six Bongsas Vansas or classes, into which the people are divided. The succession to the throne is generally here- ditary. Sultan Mansur Shah II, who died in , was succeeded by his son Taj-uddin, who died about four years ago. His nephew, the pre- sent chief. Rajah Cholan, succeeded.

Political and Commercial relations with the British Government. That if Chow Phya of Ligore, desire to send down to Perak, with friendly inten- tions, forty or fifty men, whether Siamese, Chi- nese or other Asiatic subjects of Siam, or if the Rajah of Perak desire to send any of his ministers or officers to seek Chow Phya of Ligore, the English should not forbid them.

That no force should be sent by either nation to go and molest, attack or disturb P6rak. The English engaged not to allow the state of Salangore to attack or disturb Perak ; and the Siamese in turn engaged not to go and attack or disturb Salangore.

Salangore is separated from Perak by a small river called the Runkup, a little north of the Bimam stream, in about lat. Its extent along the coast is about miles, as far as the Lingie river south, and interiorly about forty-five miles, including Ulu Galang, where the Malayan chain divides it from Jellabu. Salangore, accord- ing to native authority, comprises three divisions.

The Bugis occupy the coast; the Malays the right bank of the Calang river, and the Bodoanda Jakuns, with their descendants, the left bank. According to Anderson, the Calang is about two hundred yards wide at the mouth, but narrows, after a few reaches, to one hundred, and in some places, to seventy yards. The channel is safe and deep in most places ; the current very rapid. The first town, situated in the vicinity of the tin- mines, is about twenty miles from the river's mouth, and is called Galang.

It is placed on the right-bank, and defended by several batteries. Here the Rajah resides occasionally. The inhabit- ants of Calang, before the war with the Siamese, were estimated at about 1, Near the extremity of the left bank rises a hill, and at the top of it stand the residence of the Rajah, and a fort constructed of mud and brick-work, on which are a number of guns, some of large calibre, in bad repair.

The river is shallow, and practicable only for vessels of little burthen. Artificial obstructions have been made by the inhabitants. The Dutch had formerly an establishment at Salangore for the monopoly of the tin, and also a fortified work on the hill, called Fort Altingsburgh ; another called Fort Utrecht, and a battery named, after the admiral. Von Braam. Salangore produces tin of excellent quality, principally from Lukut, Calang, and Langkat, about 3, piculs annually, dammer wood, oil, and ratans.

It is principally composed of the descendants of a colony of Bugis, from Goa, in the Celebes, who settled here and at Qualla Lingie, under their chief Aron Passarai, towards the commencement of the last century. The population was formerly much greater, but it decreased latterly in consequence of the misrule of its princes. Many of the inhabitants have settled in the Company's territory at Malacca, particularly at the mouth of the Lingie, a stream that separates the Malacca and Salangore territo- ries, where they now constitute a small and thriving little colony.

In , the town of Salangore had not more than four hundred in- habitants. The Malays here neither speak a purer dialect, nor seem to me to be more civilized than their neighbours, the Malays of Malacca, as they are said to be by some writers. On the contrary, they are extremely illiterate, and in a state of great physical and moral depression. Piracy, slavery, and the slave-debtor system, pre- vail among them to a great extent. The rajahs of Salangore are perfectly independ- ent, and their sway is despotic.

The name Salangore is not to be found in the earlier Malayan records, and may possibly be a Bugis corruption for the old native term Negri Calang land of tin , by which this part of the peninsula was anciently known. Valentyn makes no mention of Salangore, and the territory now known under that name is included by him in the Perak division, laid down in one of his curious maps as the " Tryk van Peirah. The Malay annals state that, in the year , Salien Nani, King of Siam, sent to the king of Malacca to demand a letter of submission, which was refused.

The Siamese marched to attack Malacca, and penetrated to Pahang. The people of Calang, with Tuan Perak at their head, and the men of Muar, repaired to Malacca, to assist in repelling the invaders. A battle ensued, in which the Siamese were defeated with great loss.

Tuan Perak for this was appointed Bandahara. From that time to the end of the 17th century, no fur- ther mention is made of Calang. He was succeeded by his brother. Rajah Sitti, who dying, made way for Sultan Salah Uddin. To this prince succeeded Sultan Ibrahim, father of the present chief, one of the sturdiest opponents of the Dutch. In , Ibrahim, together with his ally, the Muda of Rhio, Rajah Hiji, attacked Malacca, plundered and burned the suburbs of the city, which would have probably fallen into their hands, had it not been for the opportune arrival in the roads of the Dutch fleet, under Admiral Von Braam.

The Dutch, after defeat- ing the combined Malay forces, proceeded to Salangore, which they found had been evacuated, Sultan Ibrahim having fled to Pahang. Shortly after this, Ibrahim crossed the peninsula from Pahang, with about 2, followers, and surprised the fort by night, on the 27th June, The Dutch garrison, panic-struck, abandoned their post in a shameful manner, leaving behind them all their heavy artillery, ammunition, and property to a considerable amount.

However, on the Dutch threatening reprisals, Ibrahim was com- pelled to restore the plunder, and acknowledge himself a vassal of the Netherlands East India Company. His partiality for the British was nearly as strong as his enmity to the Dutch.

He died about , leaving one of his numerous illegitimate offspring, Sultan Mahomed, in pos- session of the throne. The character of this indolent and sensual prince differs widely from that of the energetic Ibrahim. During my charge of the military post of Qualla Lingie, on the Salangore frontier, many of the atrocities committed by these Bugis princes on their Malay subjects fell under my personal observation.

The present inhabitants of Qualla Lingie formerly lived in the village of Tamponi, in Salangore, but fled thence en massey by night, in August, , into the Malacca territory, where they have now settled, as before alluded to. The present prince has no lawful issue, but numerous illegitimate children.

Of these. Rajah Suliman and Usman, and the sultan's younger brother. Rajah Yusuf, are candidates for the Mudaship. Suliman is said to be the more popular candidate. Tuanku Boosu, or Bongsu, a chief and near relation of the Sultan, universally respected and liked by the Malays, would have been elected, and might have rescued this once powerful state from its present degraded condition.

Unfortunately for Salangore, he fell a victim to a singular conspiracy of the Chinese miners in his employ at Lukut; an event not altogether un- worthy of record in the annals of this state. The Lukut mines are situated several miles in- land, near the banks of a river of the same name, a little to the north of Gape Rachado, and about forty miles from Malacca, in two small valleys, surrounded by verdant hills. The Chinese, who formerly worked these mines on their own account, paid a tenth of the produce to Salangore.

Lat- terly, I believe, Tuanku Boosu took upon himself the entire direction. In September, , the Chinese miners, from to in number, rose one dark rainy night upon their Malay em- ployers, fired their houses, and massacred them indiscriminately. Tuanku Boosu was slain, and many of his followers : his wife and children, en- deavouring to escape from the burning ruins, were VOL. The Chinese, who were mostly of the Triad Society, were hotly pursued by the Malays, headed by a son of the murdered chief, and some of them, in- tercepted in their precipitate flight with their booty to Malacca, were cut down in the forest.

The plunder obtained by the Chinese, independently of the jewels and gold ornaments of the women who perished, is said to have amounted to 18, Spanish dollars. Another party of Chinese miners has since gone up from Malacca to work under the chiefs Tuanku Omar and Rajah Suliman, a natural son of the Sultan. This murderous busi- ness, it is strongly suspected, was aided and abet- ted, if not concocted, by certain Chinese mer- chants living under the protection of the British flag at Malacca ; English law screened them.

The crimes being perpetrated in the dominions of an independent prince, Government could not go into the matter. I shall conclude this sketch of Salangore with some observations I made in , on that part of its coast which lies between the right bank of the Lingie river and Cape Rachado.

Tanjong Agas, so called from the swarms of musquitoes its forest-clad banks give birth to, forms the inner extremity of the right bank of the Lingie river, opposite to the point on the left bank, HISTORY. From Tanjong Agas the shore recedes considerably, and nearly at the bottom of this bight is situated the mouth of Sungie Rhya three quarters of an hour's row from Qualla Lingie.

It is about twenty feet broad, and nearly concealed by the foliage of the Appi Appi and Bakow trees, with which the whole of this line of coast abounds. Two hills rise on each bank, the one on the right called Bukit Sun- gie Rhya, and that on the left Bukit Melintong.

The Malays state, that on these hills are the remains of two stone redoubts, smaller than that at Qualla Lingie, but similar to it. From the mouth of the stream to the village, which is situated on the left bank, is about half an hour's row. Boats of one coyan burthen pass up thus far with difficulty, even at flood tides : but sampans can go as far as Pancalang Chumpa, about an hour's row up the stream from Pancalang Mangis ; past this latter place, however, there are no houses beyond the temporary " Bagans" of wood-oil and dammer-getters.

The course of the river is nearly north to the village, and lies through a dreary forest, in which I observed deep elephant tracks, particularly where they had crossed the stream : we were frequently impeded by roots and trunks of fallen trees. Lukut, into the interior of Lingie and Sungie- ujong ; but they are seldom traversed, and lie through marsh and jungle. It formerly consisted of upwards of thirty houses, but owing to the oppressions and fines of Rajah Usman, fifteen families have fled into the Company's territories, five to Sungie- baru, and ten to Qualla Lingie, including the priests.

From the mouth of Sungie Rhya to the point Tanjong Salamet are no houses. There are one or two miserable " Bagans" belonging to fisher- men and oil-getters. Near the point are two rude sheds, belonging to a man named Kamet, a Malay of Qualla Lingie, and according to the Malays there is a " Kramet," where the Salangore people go to make oblations. The whole of these islets, also the stretch of coast from Tanjong Sala- met to Cape Rachado are uninhabited, with the exception of one or two houses near Sungie Men- yalla, a small stream debouching between Pulo Menkuda and Pulo Penjudian, occupied by a Malay, named Inchi Sumun, and about ten per sons employed by him in getting dammer and oil.

These islands were formerly much infested by the lawless rangers of the seas, but have of late become the occasional resort of Bu- gis and Salangore fishermen. These places, excepting the two last, are merely places of occasional resort of fishermen and wood-oil getters. The ascent to the summit of Cape Rachado from the point, is at first steep, but from the nature of the face of the rock, easy. The trees stunted ; and ground thickly covered with a sort of fern, reaching in some places up to the waist.

Near the summit is a small clear space called Padang Chanti, where are visible the rude re- mains of an ancient " Kramet. Two strong currents set in from different directions, that to the eastward of the Cape sets in from the N. Few mariners now make choice of this passage ; either standing out to sea or landing at Guinting, a place about one mile on this side of the Cape, where the high land descends and narrows.

Here they place their boat and cargo on rollers kalangs , and then push them over to a creek on the other side, called Teloh si Gueyney, about half an hour's task, where they again launch into the water. I had an opportunity of witnessing this, and not being " in the secret," was not a little as- tonished to see the crew land on this deserted spot and disappear with their boat, as if by magic, through the jungle.

We went ashore in a small bight, near the ex- tremity of Cape Rachado, called Teloh Rubiah, from being the burial place of a pious Mussulman lady ; on the right is a rocky islet, the place of her devotions, and hence called Pulo Mesjid, the Isle of the Mosque ; and on the left springs a well of fresh water collected between two or three large massy stones, the place of her ablutions, called Prigei Rubiah.

The Malays believe the lady is not well inclined to vessels passing this way, and that when she chooses to invoke the spirits of the elements to wreck them, she signifies her inten- tion by causing a loud explosion to be heard 40 TELOH RUBIAH. The Dattu Tanjong Tuan, the elder of Cape Rachado, is a saint of no ordi- nary celebrity among the sea-faring class of natives. The Company's territory of Malacca extends along the coast between Salangore and Johore, but as a description of it has already been given, I will proceed immediately to the consideration of Johore.

This fallen empire is nominally bounded by the Cassang river on the W. At present the real limits may be said to be the Sedilly Besar river, separating it from Pahang on the east coast, and the Cassang stream which divides it from Malacca on the west coast.

By some, however, Rumpin is said to be its boundary with Pahang. It formerly embraced a portion of the coast of Sumatra extending be- tween Siac and Jambi. By virtue of the treaty of with Holland, all the islands of this in- sular domain, lying south of ten miles from Sin- gapore are nominally under the sway of the Johore prince, the Sultan of Lingga, whose cause has been espoused by the Dutch, the real sovereigns.

The Sultan of Johore's possessions on the pe- ninsula are subdivided into several petty states. First, that of Muar, extending from the Malacca territory to Parrit Siput, including a large river of the same name, and an inland district called Segamet. This is under the immediate rule of the Tumungong of Muar, a chief residing at Pancalang Kota, on the river. It is under the sway of Dattu Kaya Padang, and has about inhabitants.

It exports a considerable quantity of fruit. The sway of the Panghdlu of Battu Pahat commences at Pinang Sa ribu, and terminates at the river of Battu Pahat, or Rio Formoso, one of the largest streams on this coast. Banut is a small place under a Panghulu, lying between Battu Pahat and Pontian.

Pontian extends from Banut to Mount Pontian, under a Panghulu. Polais is a village under a chief called Rajah Semat, not far from Pontian, containing about one hundred houses. Thence to Point Ramunia, and on the eastern coast to the mouth of the Sedilly river, including Singa- pore and the adjacent islets, the sway of the Tu- roungong of Singapore extends.

He is, like the chiefs just enumerated, a vassal of Johore. The mouth of the Johore river is a little to the eastward of Point Ramunia, about twenty miles up the stream : on its left bank stood the capital of this fallen power, now dwindled into a village, containing about houses under an Orang Kaya. The original town founded by the fugi- tive king of Malacca in , was attacked and burnt by the Portuguese in ; and another built farther up the river.

This was taken by the Achinese in ; by the people of Jambi in ; and by the Menangkabowes in , A. From the mouth of the Johore river to the Sedilly besar stream are two rivers, mentioned by the native traders, that run into the China sea ; viz. At Sedilly there is a village consisting of about seventy houses.

Long antecedent to the introduction of Mo- hammedanism Johore was a state of considerable importance. In the Sejara Malayu we are in- formed that Rajah Suran, the monarch of Amdam Nagara, and founder of the city of Bijanagar, penetrated to the southern extremity of the penin- sula, with an army amounting to one thousand and two lacs of men from the country of Kling Kalinga , intending to invade China.

He marched by Perak southwards to the country of Glangkiu, which appears to have been formerly a great kingdom on the Johore river, where he defeated and slew its sovereign. Rajah Chulan ; who, according to the Malayan historians, was superior to all the Rajahs of the countries lying under the wind. This kingdom was probably that of Zabaje. The empire of Zabaje was thus called probably irom its metropolis Zaba, as well as the principal islands near it. Zaba was a famous emporium, even as early as the time of Ptolemy.

It remained so till the time of the two Mussulman travellers of Remandot, and pro- bably much longer. This prince, after many brave though unsuccessful attempts to retake his capital, died at the newly-founded city of Johore, where he had settled after the destruction of Bintan by the Portuguese. Mahomed Shah, according to the Katurunan, or genealogy of Johore in my pos- session, reigned twenty-nine years at Malacca, and seven at Johore.

He died at Johore A. The Lacsamana made a dash at the shipping in the roads of Malacca, burned one vessel and captured two others. At this crisis, Alphonso de Sosa arrived with succours, relieved the city, and pursued the Lacsamana into the river Muar. Thence he proceeded to Pahang, destroyed all the vessels in the river j and slew upwards of of the people of Pahang, in re- taliation for the assistance given by their chief to the King of Johore in his attack on Malacca.

Numbers were carried into slavery. Bintan also fell, and Ahmed was compelled to sue for peace. He was succeeded, in , by Ali uddin Shah I. Don Estevan de Gama shortly afterwards took and plundered the town. Ali uddin Shah IL succeeded A. He died in A. Johore was taken by the people of Jambi during the reign of this prince. Sultan Mahmud Shah I. This prince rebuilt the city of Johore, which had been de- stroyed by the Jambi people, during the interval he resided at Rhio, on the island of Bintan, which now became the capital of Johore.

King of Johore, under the title of Badr ul alem, in A. This prince assisted the Dutch in an expedition against Rajah Alum. He died about A. Abdul Jalil Shah IV. Rajah Haji, the sultan's viceroy at Rhio, made the celebrated attack on Malacca, in concert with Sultan Ibrahim, of Salangore, in which he lost his life, during an assault upon his stockaded post at Teloh Katapang, a little to the south of Malacca.

Sultan Mahmud, who was then very young, accompanied the Malayan expe- dition from Rhio as far as the Muar river, thus lending to it the influence of his name and cause. On the flnal expulsion of the Malays from Rhio in , Mahmud fled to Pahang, and thence to Tringanu, whence he wrote the following letter, translated by Mr.

Marsden, to Captain Light, the Resident at Pinang. If it should appear to our friend to be a proper measure, we request him to communicate to the Governor General of Ben- gal, the subject of this letter, making known to him, that the Dutch company employed a force against Riyu Rhio , in order to subdue the Bugis inhabitants, and to set up a Malayan king.

Upon this a treaty or capitulation was agreed to between the commandant and ourself, together with all the chiefs on the spot, and interchanged in writing between the two parties. When the business of the treaty was solemnly completed, he returned to Batavia. Some time after this, there came another Dutchman, named Peter Rody, to reside at Riyu, by whom all the articles of the treaty with us and the chiefs were infringed.

The Dutch made their escape and returned to Malacca. With these circumstances we make our friend acquainted, requesting that he may communicate them to the General of Bengal. If we are in the wrong with respect to the Dutch Com- pany, let him fix the guilt upon us, and if, on the contrary, we have acted correctly, we beg that the General will lend his aid to see us righted ; there being no quarter towards which we can now look with hope, excepting the English Company, who in the present days, are renowned from the wes- tern to these eastern regions ; and who have the VOL.

Allow me further to mention, that being arrived in the do- minions of the chief of my family, the Sultan of Trangganu, I have committed my interests to his care ; both in relation to the English, and to the Dutch Company, whether for good or for evil.

I have only to add that there is nothing I can pre- sent to my friend, in token of my regard, but my prayers offered up every night and day. Written on the 29th day of the month Muharrum, in the year The following is the answer of the Dutch Government translated and extracted from the archives at Malacca. The letter is dated 11th August Company from whom he had re- ceived so many favours.

That his highness now repents of his villanous behaviour we can hardly believe, for his highness since his flight from Rhio has not written a letter to us to implore forgive- ness from the H. How foolish is it to imagine that with their assistance Malacca can be conquered. Let them only for a moment reflect upon the wretched lot that befel the proud Rajah Haji and his celebrated warriors when they also had similar objects in meditation.

But as his highness has desired the mediation of our friend to be reconciled with the Netherlands Com- pany, it is only to conceal his design from the knowledge of our friend and from us. Time will reveal every thing. Mahmud having placed Rhio under a viceroy, styled the Rajah Muda, proceeded to Ling- gin or more properly speaking Lingga, where he finally settled.

He died about at Ling- ga, leaving two legitimate sons, viz. Hussain and Abdurrahman. The former by his second wife, the latter by his third. The sultan's first wife died without issue. This was the point so strenuously contested in prior to the occupation of Singapore by the English and Dutch authorities, as Singapore was an island in the gift of the Sultan of Johore, who- ever that potentate might be. The British, for the same reason, though with greater justice, since their candidate possessed the natural right of pri- mogeniture, espoused the cause of Hussain, and obtained one of the principal objects of their exer- tions in the possession of the island of Singa- pore.

Both the Dutch and English agents have been too severely censured for the prominent share they took in this affair with the exception of the law- less seizure of the regalia by the former. Both parties, however, acted for the good of their re- spective nations, and with regard to the claims of the two princes, the natives themselves entertain conflicting opinions, some resting upon the natural right of primogeniture and the laws of the Koran ; others, upon Malayan usage and the voice of the chiefs.

Both enjoyed pensions from the English and Dutch govern- ments respectively, as has been already shewn. Abdurrahman the Sultan of Lingga died in , succeeded by his son Mahomed Shah ; and Hus- sain, the Sultan of Johore, at Malacca in Septem- ber , where he had removed from Singapore a year or two before his decease. He left no living children by his first and second wives.

By his third wife he had a son named Abdul Jalil, who was living at Singapore in By reason of his mother's low birth his claims to the throne are not considered good by Malays, or at least equal to those of Hussain's issue by his fourth wife, a woman nobly born, named Rajah Yahia. Since Sultan Hussain's decease up to , no attempt had been made to elect a successor, beyond a journey undertaken to Pahang by the youngest of his sons, with the hope that the Bandahara would come down to Malacca and escort his eldest brother thither for the purpose of installing him.

The Bandahara, however, appeared to wait for some more active demonstration of its views on the part of our government. There are tin and gold mines in the neighbourhood of the town of Johore. Johore is extremely thinly peopled, containing, it is computed, not more than 25, souls, ex- clusive of the islands.

Its boundary interiorly with Srimenanti is Qualla Tassek. Between Sedilly and Pahang are the following places under their respective Panghdlus ; Undowe, containing about houses. This state, though nominally feudatory to Johore, is virtually under a chief termed the Bandahara.

The Bandahara of Pahang was formerly one of the great officers of the kingdom of Malacca. It was part of his duty to invest the sovereign with the insignia of royalty, and, in conjunction with the Tumungong of Singapore, to conduct the inaugural ceremonies. The name of the present chief is Inchi Ali. Pahang is the best regulated and wealthiest of the Malayan states on the peninsula. At this time Pahang, although ruled by Malayan chiefs, was under Siamese influence.

It has since frequently served as a place of refuge to the ex- sovereigns of Malacca and Johore, to whom, as before stated, it is nominally feudal, and not, as supposed by some, to the delegated princes of Rhio. Subordinate to the Bandahara are four officers of state, who assist at his councils ; viz. The population of this state is moderately com- puted at about 40, ; chiefly Malays and Chinese, employed in agriculture and mining. The number of Chinese is roundly stated at 12, The aboriginal tribes inhabiting the forests are particularly numerous.

From the jealousy of the chiefs the mines have never, I believe, been accessible to Europeans. All the information that Mr. The total produce of these mines ex- ceeds lbs. Of tin the yearly produce averages about 1, piculs. The greater part finds its way to Singapore. Previous to the establishment of the latter, the produce of Pahang used to be carried across the peninsula to Ma- lacca.

The imports into Pahang from Singapore and Malacca are chiefly opium, silk, rice, tobacco, salt, cloths, ironware, agricultural implements and tools. Medhurst, who visited Pahang in , describes the town as presenting a miserable ap- pearance. It is situated about four or five miles up a river, shallow, and wide at the entrance, hav- ing scarcely one fathom of water on the bar : at spring tides it is about two fathoms deep.

Here is the Ban- dahara's palace, surrounded by a close wooden fence about ten feet high. In front is a battery mounting ten guns in an almost unserviceable state. It is said there are upwards of sixty mosques in the state of Pahang. Kbmaman lies between Pahang and Tringanu, on a river, a mile or two from its mouth, in lat. It is a settlement of modem origin, made probably on account of the tin mines in the neigh- bourhood, and is under the control of a chief, named Tuanku Wok or Hook, a vassal of Trin- ganu, who is strongly suspected of piratical prac- tices.

In , he paid a visit to the Tumungong of Singapore, with a fleet of eighteen prows well armed. Its population is estimated at 1,, Malays and Chinese. According to Mr. Between Kemaman and Tringanu are the fol- lowing places : — Pakaa, containing about houses. In the interior of Pakaa, an aboriginal race is said to exist, termed Pangan, of whom it would be interesting to have some account.

They are said by natives to have the frizzled hair of the Papuan. We next come to Tringanu, an ancient state lying between Pahang and the Basut river, which separates it from Kalantan, and including, as pre- viously stated, Kemaman, Pakaa, Dongoon, and Marang. The China sea washes its eastern side, and to the west it is bounded by the mountains, that separate it from Perak on the opposite side.

The population of Tringanu, independent of Kamaman, is computed at 30, souls. It formerly exported about 2, piculs of coffee, the produce of the soil, chiefly to Singapore. Tringanu is under a sovereign, termed Tuanku Mansur, the younger brother of the late Rajah, ac- cording to Mr. Medhurst, and about 58 years of age. A few years ago, the rival candidate for the throne, Tuanku Omar, was expelled from Trin- ganu. He fled to Lingga, where he obtained from the eldest son of the late Sultan, a fleet of prahus to aid him in an enterprise against Trin- ganu.

Sultan Mansur on being apprised of this, wrote to the British authorities at Singapore, by whose interference with the Dutch government at Rhio, the Lingga prahus were recalled. It ap- pears to have preserved its independence under its own rulers for a considerable length of time, al- though frequently menaced by Siam.

The right of tribute and homage demanded by the latter nation, has ever been stoutly resisted by the Ma- layan princes of Tringanu ; and it was with a view of efficient protection against the arrogant de- mands of her powerful neighbours, that Tringanu, before Pinang was fixed upon, offered the British East India Company a settlement at her capital. The Sultan had put himself into a posture of de- fence, to repel any attempt made to enforce these demands by invasion, and entreated Captain Light to send two Guarda-costas to his assistance, with a set of English colours.

He strongly denied the right of Siam to make such exactions, affirming that "from the beginning of time through all generations, the kings of Johore from whom he states those of Tringanu to be descended, and on which descent he grounds his resistance never did personal homage to the kings of Siam, but only sent complimentary messages. He attempted to intercede for the Johore king, but in vain ; the Dutch government at Malacca rather haughtily refusing his mediation.

Medhurst informs us that the Malay town of Tringanu in , was large and populous, but dirty and filthy in the extreme, the houses nearly all of atap, and the streets very narrow. Two markets through which he passed, were oc- cupied chiefly by women who appeared to be the principal buyers and sellers.

The Chinese are numerous, and live principally in strong stone and brick-built houses, which now exhibit every appearance of an old and long es- tabUshed colony. The women and children all speak Chinese, probably from not mixing much with the Malays. Medhurst was shewn by one of the chiefs several muskets, made in Trin- ganu; and was asked if any so good could be made in Europe.

The Chinese population of the town is estimated at , that of the Malays from 15, to 20, The principal brick buildings are the mosque, and the custom-house, the latter of which is near the Rajah's residence, but ex- tremely dirty. The river of Tringanu is not so broad as that of Pahang, but the town lies nearer the mouth.

Medhurst saw in it two Siamese junks, a cutter belonging to Tringanu, and many small trading vessels. Kalantan extends from the embouchure of the Basut, to that of the Baruna stream, which sepa- rates it on the north from Patani. He is said to have derived his origin from Rajah Chulan, the prince of the country of Glang- kiu, which in former times was a great country possessing a fort of black stone up the river Johore.

In consequence of Mansur's refusal to do homage to him, the Sultan of Malacca sent a force against Kalantan ; a fierce battle ensued, in which the combatants mutually "amoked" each other. It has how almost suc- cumbed to the Siamese yoke, although nominally under its Malay Rajah.

In , the chief of Patani fled to Kalantan, but was delivered up to the Siamese Praklang, who repeatedly ordered the Rajah of Kalantan into his presence. With these mandates, the wary old Malay chief did not deem it prudent to comply, but was eventually compelled to propitiate his im- portunate foes, by a large present of specie and gold-dust. The Siamese, by this interference, have acted in direct violation of their treaty with Uie British government.

The population of Kalantan, is said to be about 50, The principal articles of produce, are gold and tin ; of the latter about 3, piculs, and about 12, piculs of pepper, annually. Lead is stated to exist. In , the Praklang of Siam ordered the Rajah to open a supposed tin mine, which on examination turned out to be of lead.

Appendix, it is stipulated, that Siam shall not go and obstruct or interrupt commerce in the states of Tringanu and Kalantan. English mer- chants and subjects shall have trade and inter- course in future, with the same facility and freedom as they have heretofore had ; and the English shall not go and molest, attack and disturb those states upon any pretence whatever. Patani, now a province of Siam, was once the largest and most populous of the Malayan states, on the Peninsula, extending so far north as the river Rindang, which separated it from Siam.

It was divided into five provinces ; two exterior and three interior. A chain of mountains divides it from Quedah. The author of a MS. He was converted to Islam, and reigned under the title of Sultan Ismail Shah. Ten sultans and a sultana of this dynasty, are men- tioned: after whom, commenced the Kalantan dynasty, with Sultan Bakal. Rajah Kurub Maha Chan. Piatu Antara. Muzuffer Shah. Mansur Shah. Patek Siam. Rajah Ijo. Rajah Iju. Paduka Shah Alum.

Amas Kalantan. Along Yunas, or Eang-de-per-tuan. Along Yunas was killed m battle. After his death, Patani fell into a state of anarchy, from which it has never recovered, owing to invasions from Siam. The two Perachus were probably the sovereigns alluded to by Floris, who tells us that Patani was governed by queens. The Malay historian affords no dates to guide his readers as to the chronological order of the events he relates. European authors mform us, that Patani was burnt, in , by Alphonso de Sosa, of Malacca; was conquered by Siam about , A.

The Rajah fled to Kalantan, but was given up, and is now a state prisoner in Siam. His country has been heavily taxed ; many of its inhabitants made slaves, and numbers carried away mto captivity to Siam. The Praklang took with him from Patani to Bankok, in September, , upwards of four thousand captives, in a dreadful state of misery. There are two towns, called Patani, the new and the old. The people in general seemed scarcely to know that the Dutch had ever been there.

The new town lies up a small river that falls into the principal channel. The water on the bar is so extremely shallow, that a boat drawing only three feet water cannot enter. On this account trade is much impaired, and the place consequently becoming deserted and falling into decay. The Chinese town consists of about fifty or sixty houses, and the inhabitants may amount to or The principal river of Patani is very wide, but vessels are obliged to lie a considerable distance off the mouth.

The new town stands in lat. The Dutch formerly had factories here, which were twice burnt down. The English succeeded them in or ; when, according to Pur- chase, a mission was sent by James I. The factory then erected has long disappeared, being given up in The town was named Patani from the circum- stance of its founder, Piatu, having erected it near the site of a fisherman's hut, whose name was Tani. The population of Patani is uncertain and fluctuating, on account of the wretched state of the country.

Previous to the last invasion, in , it is said to have exceeded 54, souls. It produces some tin, but little gold. Rice is the staple article; the country being admirably adapted for grain cultivation.

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