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Das Wiener Tschechentum bekam neben den bisherigen Chorveranstaltungen, der Kammermusik und den Auftritten der kleinen Kapellen, die meistens nur zur Unterhaltung spielten, eine neue Plattform. Das erste Konzert fand am So besuchten z. Das Jahr war vor allem an Liedern reich. Zwei Werke von Fibich bot am 7. Sehr reich an Fibich war das Jahr Suda und Rusalka von A. Das letzte Andenken an den zehnten Todestag Fibichs war das sog.

Die Initialen J. Der zweitgenannte Chor erklang auch am 2. Foerster, A. Smetana auch im 9. Sym- phoniekonzert am 5. Bezirk veranstaltet. Dort erklang u. Hinter J. Dann stand der sog. Dazu kam es am 6. So erklang z. Gaukonzertes am 8. Todestag Fibichs. Birhanzl und B. This fact established the prerequisites for relations of a positive nature and yielded positive results, such as the capability of communication in more than one lan- guage, opportunities for mutual cultural inspiration, and the like, but also created a hotbed for growth of xenophobic feelings aimed in various directions.

Assimilated Bohemians, Moravians, and Slovaks with their pro-Austrian sentiments formed a strong contrast to German nationalists and thus served as a reinforcement for liberal and social-democratic political agendas. As concerns Vienna, Czechs were the only stratum of its population that could really be considered a national minority and acted as such in relation to the state and the land of their origin.

The exclusive position of the Czech minority was de- termined by geographical proximity to the motherland, with which ties were maintained, and by its social makeup. No other minority created a structure of organizations and societies in Vienna with such a broad range of interests. Period opinions concerning Fibich and his works are documented based on responses to performances of his works, while broader geopolitical and aesthetic asso- ciations are also suggested.

Fibich was considered a modern composer with the courage to experiment, although he built on the bequest of his precursors and linked his work to theirs. The aesthetic gravitas of the entire current of previous musical evolution was directed toward the musical drama. Composers returning to the operatic repertory in strength in the centenaries of their birth included Gioacchino Rossini , Gaetano Donizetti , and Vincenzo Bellini Operatic connois- seurship in the s was not complete without mentioning the appeal of verismo—as well as the ever-topical Giocomo Meyerbeer, whose hundredth birthday celebration in Prague in began with gala performances in the Neues Deutsches Theater.

The cause for failure must not have been faulty operatic dramaturgy,6 for the work was modelled on Czech declamation. The desolation of antique tragedy was portrayed in dark colors. The critics were frightened by Wagnerian and non-Czech aspects of the music; the opera public ridiculed it by changing the title from Die Braut von Messina to Messinge Braut a brass bride, therefore cold—and the opera as well.

In Hakon, the last of his six concert melo- dramas, he was able to create independent abstractions of musical forms—for example, sonata form—that were closely related to the poetic text. Interpreters, listeners, and critics became fond of these unusual music genres.

For once, the critics in Prague were in agreement. And when a Central European composer dictates scenes with ver- ses and music according to his talent to produce tableaux vivants, he reveals that he has had experience with operas from the south. Although Prague was built as a city with both Romanesque and German traits,14 its somewhat Czech identity enabled it to claim to be the western operatic metropolis of the Slavonic world. Operntheater in Zentraleuropa — [In the Middle of Society.

Bradford Robinson, Los Angeles, , p. Eine musikalische Silhouette [Zdenko Fibich. A Musical Sil- houette] Prague, , p. The wedding of Hedy and Juan is accompanied by a simply constructed suite in Baroque style; the great operatic ballet is a pendant to a massive ensemble in Act 3. Fibich paid hom- age to Mozart with two reminiscences from the overture to Don Giovanni.

And the result: one of the most theatrical works that we are aware of in Czech opera. Its artistic value, of course, lies elsewhere. He apparently found it in his library among the scores of Mozart and his contemporaries. Dank Hippodamia hatte Fibich genug inspirierenden Impulse erhalten, die er in einer Opernkomposition verwerten konnte.

Nevertheless this event did not provoke any notable reaction. In the following year many responses were aroused by the unexpected death of Richard Wagner on 13 February The report on his demise arrived in Prague one day later. Wagnera Parsifal II. In the 8 Dalibor, 5 , No. Spectators regarded the work as Wagnerian music drama arising out of a declamatory style wherein its incomprehension arose. However, approximately three months earlier there also appeared in Dalibor reservations against Lohengrin, which was described as—for non-Germans—a less accessible, purely German saga.

The premiere, which occurred a year later, was greeted with enthusiasm by both audience and critics. He also belonged among the contributors to Dalibor, in whose pages he published a more or less positive, albeit slightly reserved evaluation of the production. Nationale Vorurteile und Vorbehalte gegen das Deutschtum von Wagners Werken erschienen in der Presse nur sehr sporadisch.

Keywords Wagnerianism; Czech Lands; music criticism. This might seem all the more surprising when one thinks of the strong opposition mounted by related forms such as the concert overture, symphonic poem and symphonic variations. By the s composers had not wearied of this unique structure, and the range of attention it received across Europe and in America may be gleaned from the cross-sample of works listed in Table 1. To summarise the information we have 62 works by 41 composers from 15 countries; thirteen of these bear titles, while the breakdown into keys favours minor tonalities: 25 major and 28 minor4.

With the Symphony No. Each of these will be considered in turn. Two Czech works intensify the processes which operate in these. Peter Burkholder with James B. Prague, , p. In each work keynotes in individual move- ments articulate an augmented triad, and the parallel is illustrated in Table 3. This draws a parallel with the Symphony No. F also alternates with A in a climactic passage; ibid. G sharp to E provides a satisfying symmetry to the opening major third i.

The entry of wind and brass chorale phrases is one more bold stroke. Nevertheless the extent to which Fibich indulges in the recycling of his material may well be unique for his time. I am indebted to David Beveridge for alerting me to this connection. However, on a more local level the composer taps into certain elements and gestures which are attributed to the two older composers; these include the familiar use of parallel thirds in woodwind instruments over a static string support.

Table 5 supplies the evidence, and I argue that contrary to received opinion this music does sound Czech at times, if largely by association. Key Date Op. Allegro molto Key: Eb; Total no. III: Fibich refers to 3 themes from I in all 3 sections of the movement i. Unusual is the return of I, bars 33—34 at bar in III.

At one point both elements may be seen IV, bar However, none of these occurs in the exposition of the movement, as if their return were kept in reserve for a powerful accumulation later in the movement. Perhaps the least expected quotation is that of the introduction to the slow movement, which makes a dramatic entrance at IV, bar and concludes with a striking Phrygian cadence.

Tremolando Symphony No. Pas- sages for woodwind and brass are less frequently met, but instances occur in Bruckner: Symphony No. Salon music originally emerged in Paris around and from there branched throug- hout Europe. The expansion of salon music in the 19th century had a big impact on many extern factors—social, economical and political mostly.

The crucial one was a blossoming of the bourgeoisie in —; this resulted in the biggest consumer of salon music. Playing the piano became a very fashionable activity. In Otto Gumprecht wrote in his essay Die Frauen in der Musik that the dowry of each daughter must have been a repertoire of salon literature.

Owning a piano was a must for all well-to-do families. Originally the instigator of highly intellectual discourses the salon became a pompous institution where music experienced the biggest qualitative decline ever. As Adolf Ruthardt said in , salon music was a fashionable issue which faded out as quickly as fashion itself.

Jahr- hundert Regensburg, , p. Jahrhunderts Regensburg, , p. The importance of piano-playing and the expansion of salon music can be dated from the late s, a fact which is documented by several periodicals. In that time Dalibor was the only technical magazine that was interested in the area of classical music. Every critical eye that scans its particular editions can see that Dalibor was a half-advertising periodical and half-serious music magazine.

In the publication of sheet music a huge emphasis was put on the cover; this was a common practice throughout the whole of Europe. This can be realized when looking at the contradiction between the pieces and their covers. The cover included everything important to catch the potentional consumer. However, to make the album more under- standable, common languages like German and Czech were also used. Florid decoration, bird motives and trilingual poems were used to adorn every particular piece.

However, they might sound complicated thanks to tremolo and arpeggio play, abrupt dynamic and tempo changes, pseudo-virtuoso cadenzas and other features already mentioned. Jahr- hunderts Regensburg, , p. The market for salon music repertoire expanded rapidly, and thanks to the para- phrasing and transcription of musical pieces in less demanding forms many people became interested in music.

Music started to be a business more than ever and market relationships were set up between music producers, composers and consumers. Salon music was highly criticized within the 19th century precisely for these commercial goals and for a decline in the artistic level. Keywords Piano miniatures; publishing house F. Paradoxically, the principles of Classic art as they were perceived in his time brought him to the threshold of modernism.

Fibich had the good fortune to study privately in Leipzig with one of the best theorists of the Romantic era: Salomon Jadassohn, piano student of Liszt as well as the Prague- born virtuoso Ignaz Moscheles. He supports his ideas with insightful musical analyses, usually taken from Bach and the Romantic composers from Beethoven to Schu- mann. George Chadwick, an outstanding American composer and teacher of composers, also studied with Jadassohn.

As director of the New England Conservatory, Chadwick was instrumental in establishing a vital tradition for American music that combined the strengths of Classicism with the expressivity of Romanticism. This tradition culminated in the s with the distinguished symphonies of William Schumann and Walter Piston.

It is noteworthy that Jadassohn takes examples from cantatas but rarely mentions opera. In fact, the composers trained in Leipzig tended to write very few exceptional operas or none at all. Peter le Huray and James Day Cambridge, , p. It is entirely possible that Fibich became acquainted with this work in Leipzig. A musical work without form is as unthinkable as a soul without a body. Music that has an inadequate form is like a soul in an ugly or sickly body.

The young artist should not make that error; he should not seek to attain truth of expression at the expense of the beauty and harmony of the musical form. And like Rusalka, all three bravely faced the consequences. The rules of music theory have been forced upon music; they are not true to the spirit of music itself. Although Walther disregards the letter of these rules, he is able to preserve their spirit through composing by inspiration. And this example may have given Fibich the necessary creative independence to continue.

Musical styles had become a means of making political statements. Bella had studied with Simon Sechter of the Vienna conservatory, a master of theory as internationally respected as Jadassohn was. Nevertheless, Fibich appears to be struggling with the expressive limitations of conservatory techniques in his symphonic poem Othello, composed in Can it be mere coincidence that it devotes much space to the issue of combining the arts?

Introducing another stylistic factor, such as music, could easily have disrupted their polished artistry. He begins by mirroring the stanza form faithfully. And by the end of the song, the imitation of bells gives an impression of spontaneous utterance. Both artists could be assured that their solutions were of equal importance and that they could reach agreement.

Sieh mich nicht an! The dramatic scene, the contemplative poetic strophe or set of strophes, and the in- strumental interlude depicting the theatrical moment have become units of form. The result resembles the textures that will pervade twentieth-century avant-garde orchestral music.

Dramatic form and content provide the backbone for musical form and content, especially in the Hippodamia trilogy. Then melody, harmony, and counterpoint can develop independently within the dramatic context. Rather than serving as an obvious guide for the listener, they are subtly woven into the accompaniment to provide support for the subtext. Unlike the early modernists, he is able to build forms completely at will, and still retain the full power of tonality.

As the bearer of the psychological and dramatic subtext, the large form becomes the unifying frame for the soliloquies, scenes, songs, events, and portrayals of moods that comprise the opera. She describes white lilies growing among the laurels that sprouted from her marriage bed.

The game of chess played by Fernando and Miranda is mirrored by structural patterns. Structural depiction appears in other compositional factors as well. After Hedy and Juan part, an instrumental interlude dissolves into pointless modulations as the lovers grieve. The unifying frame of the large form enables Fibich to imbed smaller forms in inge- nious ways, as Berg would later do in his opera Wozzeck. Gently open now thy arms to me, sweet death. All twelve notes of the chromatic scale appear in these transpositions, providing closure for the luxuriant, pas- sionate chromaticism that pervades the opera, the great love that it represents, and the opera as a whole.

However, this new combination also gives expressive individuality to isolated notes and chords. But Dargun is a pagan, and the rough atonality of his vocal lines depicts his character. These techniques liberate pitch from traditional constraints of melody and harmony.

As a result of progressively more daring expansions of conventional harmony, through expressive chromatic embellishment as well as deliberately shocking portrayals of terrify- ing dramatic moments, he has discovered useful ways to harness atonality. Dargun ends in consonance with the victorious, spiritually uplifting music of Absolon. But his journey has produced many remarkable ideas for the future. Indem er diese Prinzipien weiterentwickelte, um seinen Stil in den dramatischen Werken zu gestalten, ist er bis an die Schwelle der Moderne gelangt.

It is characterized by intense dramatic and emotional expressivity. This noble gesture is marked by rising fourths and minor thirds followed by two crucial expressive semitones on c-sharp — d and g-sharp — a. These intervallic features become highly charged during the stormy introduction to the highly dramatic Act 2. Fibich eventually succeeds in blending these two seemingly irreconciable sexual realms through various ingenious com- positional techniques.

In fact, it should be noted that the entire Act 2 love duet again employs the female tonal axes of C — d — E4 familiar from Act 1. These somewhat mecha- nistic masculine march idioms from Act 1 are soon transformed in Act 2, scene 1 p. Wagner work Act Bars 1. Of this listing, nos. Here it should be noted that in no. Of special note are the two Tristan leanings in nos. In any case all of these subliminal Wagner echoes are—with the possible exception of the triumphant no.

See Ibid. Unlike the Db and Ab areas in Act 3, those at the outset of Act 1 still tend to resolve to d-minor or in the case of Ab:enharmonic G-sharp E-major. One is impressed by how Fibich blends closed song forms with more developmental and truly symphonic dance rhythm episodes. A good example is found in his opera Hedy — , Act 2, at the moment when Don Juan approaches and kneels before Hedy marked Lento in bars — Moreover, the upper pedal on g-sharp in bars — hints at a veiled, temporary modal shift to E major with the upper g-sharp.

Here, too, our Czech composer blends modal and coloristic harmonies that even feature implied whole-tone progressions. Letztere betonen oft Kleinsekundbeziehungen, so z. The pieces were arranged in this order in the album. The print is usually dated—in square brackets or sometimes without them—either to , i. It has persisted in modern literature for a sur- prisingly long time. Moravian Duets, Op.

VII and []. In a revised version of this edition from the year in the foreword is corrected to Moreover, the more expensive version has a larger format with more generous margins, and paper of higher quality with greater weight. The intent of the more expensive edition was to approach at least partly the appearance of the original autograph album.

Therefore one could now correct the information about this previously-missing auto- graph source in the catalogues of works of all the remaining twelve composers—except that, as is well known, most of these composers have no catalogue. In this respect Fibich is among the more fortunate. However, adding to the information in the Hudec catalogue of his works15 will not be merely a mechanical matter. In the Hudec cata- logue this Sarabanda does not have a separate catalogue number, but rather is included as the fourth movement of the Suite in g minor under catalogue number No, because the source situa- tion is somewhat more complicated.

Perhaps the letter Mikenda sent to Fibich will be found some day, but in any case it was probably very similar if not identical to the one received by Smetana and preserved in the papers from his estate, written 7 April —perhaps on the same day as the letter to Fibich. Let the piece be specially composed for this purpose and nowhere, in no way, published either earlier or later; it should also form a complete whole in itself, because excerpts and fragments are absolutely out of the question.

It is truly amazing how easily Fibich was able to empathize with its special character having gone for this gift of his all the way to Spain and to old French masters! It is an e l e g a n t piece, of an aristocratic cast.

Finally he wrote the Sarabanda on splendid paper delivered to him by the committee. Translated by David R. Hudec bezeichnet ihn als Unvollendete Kompositionen, nicht realisierte Skizzen [! Konkret werden wir uns einer Musikalie widmen, die Hudec als Nr. Thematischer Katalog] Prag, , S. Die Musikalie ist mit dem 6. Poco allegretto, 2. Im unteren Teil, unter dem Strich, dann: Nr. In B-Dur. Der Notenteil stammt auch von ein und derselben Person.

Ein Sonderfall, von dem noch die Rede sein wird, sind die Eintragungen mit Bleistift bzw. Die Gedenkschrift zitiert das gesamte Thema, d. Gedenkschrift, hg. Takt des Inzipits stammt schon aus dem 2. System Abb. Diese Zeichen sind in beiden Quellen systematisch vorhanden. Zwei Passagen stammen aus einer Monographie von Hudec: 1.

Es handelt sich also genau um die Form, wie sie aus der Gedenkschrift bekannt ist, was auch ein Zusatz unter dem Inzipit belegt: dt. An einer Realschule in Prag unterrichtete er in der Zeit von —, als er in Rente ging. In Rychnov n. Auch war er ein herausragender Musiker. Er organisierte Konzerte. Er war Kunstglassammler. Aus einer kleinen Notiz in der Zeitschrift Dalibor vom April , Nr.

Its complete autograph, however, was recently discovered by the author of this article in the music collection of the Prague Hlahol Choral Society. The article also points out the discrepancies found in the secondary literature. Starting around he engaged in very intensive and multifaceted activities in Prague in which he persisted for two decades. Less well known is the fact that he also contributed to the music column of the German newspaper Politik. Miloslav Nedbal ed. He promoted Czech music intensively.

Then he returned to Hamburg. The two sources deposited in the Czech Museum of Music that are the focus of this contribution come from precisely this time. I myself was bothered a little by the frequent caesuras in thought and the generally epigrammatic elaboration of the basic motives. I re- gret that you could not hear the work yourself; you, too, would sense the need to 6 O.

I am certain that it will have double the success! Today my wife is singing songs of yours at the home of Dr. From this you see that we are thinking of you all the time. In it was purchased in an auction by Richard Morawetz — , who late in the s emigrated to Canada to escape the Nazis. Reprinted in: Miloslav Nedbal ed. Ich wandre durch die stille Nacht, No. In Fibich applied successfully for the position of choirmaster in the Russian orthodox church of St.

They corresponded later as well, as we know from a few preserved letters, but their contacts cannot be followed closely. They cannot all be named here, because the album contains a total of letters from various writers covering the period — A critical edition of the letters has been made in the framework of a grant from the National Museum and is now being prepared for publication.

Er hat auch dem Werk Fibichs als Kritiker seine Aufmerksam- keit gewidmet. Jahrhunderts herabgestuft noch zu einem verkannten und weitgehend vergessenen kompositorischen Genie hochstilisiert werden. Sechs symphonischen Dichtungen, dazu einige z.

Vor und nach der 3. Symphonie D-Dur ein. Sie endet nach der 9. Die Synopse zeigt die zeitliche Abfolge der Werke. Symphonie F-Dur —83 1. Symphonie d-Moll —91 Hippodamie Trilogie 8. Symphonie e-Moll Symphonie G-Dur unv. Die wichtigsten Untersuchungsergebnisse seien hier zusammengefasst. Die einzelnen Werke zeigen jedoch eine eigene, sich entwickelnde Charak- teristik des Modells. Die 1. Symphonie F-Dur, Op. Dazu kommt der strukturel- le Kontrast homophon, mehrstimmig kontrapunktisch.

Im Gegensatz dazu steht ihre motivische Verwandtschaft. D-Dur kurzzeitig aufgehellt. In der Coda Allegro moderato et tranquillo taucht das Hornthema des Kopfsatzes wieder auf. Bei diesem Erstling bleiben folkoristische Elemente weitgehend aus. Zehn Jahre nach der 1.

Im balladenartigen Mittelteil des Adagio erscheint die Hornthematik des Kopfsatzes in einer rhythmischen Variante. Im Scherzo wird ein signalartiges Dreiklangsmotiv in den Trompeten wiederum mit dem Hornthema des ersten Satzes verbunden. Symphonie e-Moll, Op. Miroslav K. Dabei werden folgende Beziehungsfelder in Betracht gezogen: 1.

Zeitliche Entwicklungen des Symphonischen, 3. Inhaltliche Aspekte. Genau in der Jahr- 7 Miroslav K. Symphonie wurde erstmals , die 3. Dezember Besonderes Lob verdient die Einheit des Styls und die rhythmische Kraft. Symphonie von ist zugleich die erste gedruckte. Den Hinweis verdanke ich PhDr. In der 5. In den 7. Symphonie bringt Dvorak im Eingangssatz ein mottoartiges Thema wie bei Fibichs 2. But I study certain melodies until I become thoroughly imbued with their charac- teristics and I am enabled to make a musical picture in keeping with and partaking of those characteristics.

Dass Fibich in seinen Symphonien kaum als Folklorist auszumachen ist, liegt an einem dezenten Einsatz seiner Mittel, etwa im balladesken Ton alla romanza im zweiten Satz der 1. Symphonie im ersten Satz der 3.

Fibichs Symphonik lebt ohne Zweifel auch von den Vorgaben seiner Zeitgenossen. Sie ist bisweilen illustrativ und narrativ, doch nicht programmatisch. Erst eine begonnene, unvollen- det gebliebene Symphonie sollte zu einer Huldigung an die Alpen werden. Jahrhunderts als ein bedeutender Symphoniker. A comparison of these works with B. Dezember in Prag geboren wurde und am April in Wien starb.

Nach seinen Studien wirkte Richard Batka in Prag, wobei er sich eher im deutschspra- chigen Kulturmilieu bewegte, in dem er auch erzogen wurde. Zwischen und gab er zusammen mit Hermann Teibler Neue musikalische Rundschau heraus, bis arbeitete er als Referent mit dem renommierten Prager Tagesblatt zusammen.

April starb Richard Batka in Wien. Batka wirkte als renommierter Musikkritiker und -publizist, seine Arbeit umfasste aber ein breites Spektrum der musikalischen Kunst. Das gelang ihm aber nicht. Der Neuigkeiten in der Opernregie widmete sich Batka auch theoretisch: er studierte und analysierte Funktion des Lichtes, der Bewegung und weiterer szenischen Bestandteile vor allem in Wagnerschen Vorstellungen.

Batka stimmte z. Im Gegenteil wies er auf die Entwicklung des Hussitenchorals usw. Batkas, eines deutschen, in Prag geborenen Musikkritikers und -schriftstellers. Aus diesem Grund wurde das Werk Batkas abgelehnt. Absichtlich orientierte er sich auf Wagner und seine Nachfolger. Andere Vorbehalte hatte er aber eigentlich nicht. Die Wende des Batka litt unter dieser Feindlichkeit sehr und letzt- endlich entschied er sich, Prag im Jahre zu verlassen und nicht mehr zu besuchen.

Richard Batka: Die moderne Oper. Sonderabdruch aus dem The Personality of Music Critic and Historian Richard Batka Summary Richard Batka — was one of the most important Prague music critics, histo- riographers and organizers of cultural life. He worked as a translator and wrote librettos and theoretical pieces.

He was also a supervisor of several cultural editorial roles and contributed to periodicals such as Bohemia, Prager Tagblatt, Der Merker, Kunstwart etc. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, epics and even lyric poetry were declaimed on the stage, even though they had not been written for theatrical use. We must acknowledge that acting itself has evolved and has been transformed since the end of the nineteenth century, just as artistic presentation has.

The manner of this school of declamation, which had its model in German theatre, was furiously criticized and ridi- culed by Jan Neruda. The artistic presentation thus realizes the entire original of the text from the perspective of the fundamental stance of the interpreter of his expressive point of departure , appropriately with the use of other extralinguistic techniques of interpretation. His mellow baritone voice was also suitable for opera. She was able to combine passionate performance with meticulous application of every metrical aspect of the verse.

On stage, her well-trained voice enabled her to satisfy the require- ments for a profound individualization of the dramatic roles, and to actualize character. But this manner of recitation went out of date with the new generation. The question arises as to how Fibich would have wanted the melodramas to sound. We must also keep in mind that Fibich was intimately familiar with the theatrical perform- 2 R. Mayer, A. Heyduk, J. Neruda and, of course, K.

Other detailed information can be found in related reviews and criticisms, but these sources are often subjectively tinged. When additions and markings in his hand appear, they are written in the same manner as the inscribed text. They often occur as a result of making a shift in the text in order to correspond to a musical phrase.

It was thus left to the ability of the interpreters to sense the relationship of words and music. Dynamics are indi- cated only in rough outlines, and sporadically appear in agogic markings and phrasings. The metro-rhythmic aspect of the relationship of words and music is given with compositional logic. But we can only conjecture how the recitation actually sounded.

Fibich was a master of declamation in the Czech language and had a clear concept of the sound of the spoken words, yet he understandably worked on the basis of duration. U , undated []. At the time, the concept of ideal melodrama performance practice was that the actor must adapt to the musical current with his de- clamation, speaking in related harmonic tones. Let us now consider the natural allegro of Mr. Bittner, or the moderato of Mr. Seifert, with the andante of Mr.

And thus the changes in these tempi by an individual during scenes of tenderness, peace, seriousness, agitation! For all of these possibilities, you require from the musician an integrity and coherence of the musical part of the melodrama Ibid. Here, it is enough to say that the choice of interpreters does not give us enough evidence to reach a conclusion, for we do not know to what extent Fibich could personally choose the actors.

It is also clear that compromises had to be made for such massive theatrical content. Realism weaned the actor from sonorous tirades, declamatory pathos, and large theat- rical gesture. Realism also persisted to a marked degree. The application of the expressionistic school of K. For later developments, the greater part of the surviving sources understandably have to do with scenic productions of Hippodamia, whose unexpected turns of interpretation led to two important extremes.

Since then, comments about the work have gradually coalesced to the second extreme position: to perform Hippodamia as a spoken opera so that the orchestra has an entirely decisive function, subordinate to the spoken part. Vojan created an actual new formation of sound. The words are rhythmically placed in groups of two, three, and four, divided precisely with frequent musical pauses and precisely assigned into beats.

However, it is entirely unrealizable for the actors. Puj- man evidently went too far. However, melodrama slipped away from the concert repertory and the awareness of the public and critics after World War II. At least the work was heard more frequently in performance. Today, it is one of the few performance documents for study of melodrama in the Czech Republic. His speech was absolutely perfect, even with respect to pronunciation, unlike the speech of many other admired and accomplished personalities of yesteryear and to- day.

Modern poetics in harmony with our lifestyle rejects pathos and recitation as well. This process always continues. A variety of stylizations are evaluated with respect to the personality of the interpreter and the require- ments of the director. Although their semantic aspect has been preserved, their dramatic aspect evolves along with the concepts of the era about correct utterance. Das Notenmaterial beinhaltet lediglich eine schriftliche Form des Textes und der Musik, doch wie kommt man zur klanglichen Realisierung?

Wie wird sich die heutige Rezitation von der Vorstellung des Komponisten unterscheiden? Die Autorinnen des Beitrags versuchen, aufgrund der Analyse von in der Presse fesgehaltenen Beobachtungen, historischer Tonaufnahmen und vor allem aufgrund ihrer eigenen Erfahrungen mit dem Unterricht des Melodramas diese Fragen nach den Metamorphosen der Rezitation zu beantworten.

Keywords Melodrama; history of interpretation. Symphonie, Kirchenmusik, Melodrama Mainz , S. Geburtstag Tutzing , S. Fibich macht dies musikalisch durch Walzer Valse lento, Molto vivace und Trauermarsch Marcia funebre emotional nachvollziehbar. Darum ist seine Klage so sanft, ohne jemals in beleidigtes Murren oder Wimmern auszubrechen. Prague, October 20—22, Prag , S. Zitate im Folgenden S. Fibich hat seine Komposition in vier Teile gegliedert. Die Ausgangston- art h-Moll ist am Ende wieder erreicht.

Jedenfalls handelt es sich um eine Geschichte aus der christlichen Missionierung Englands. Studien und Interpretationen, Bd. Es besitzt mit dissonanten Akkorden und chromatisch abfallenden Linien in Oberstimme und Mittelstimme einen klagenden Charakter piangendo und ist Emma zuzuordnen. Auch diese beiden Motive bilden wesentliche Gestaltungselemente der Komposition. Die rhythmische Struktur des Themas wird schrittweise vereinfacht.

Verbunden mit den Modulationen und weiteren motivisch-thematischen Prozes- sen ergibt sich der Befund einer psychologisierenden Leitmotivtechnik im Sinne Richard Wagners. Dies als Rache des Gottes verstehend, gibt sich Hakon selbst den Feuertod. Das Hauptthe- ma tritt erst in Takt 32 genau an dem Punkt auf, an dem erstmals der Name des Helden Hakon genannt wird; es ist von da an mit seinem Schicksal verbunden. Jahrhundert angenommen hatten. Internationales Symposium St. Petersburg September bis 1.

Oktober St. Petersburg , S. Prague, October 20—22, Prag, , S. Seit dem Jahrhundert ist u. Jahrhundert an erbitter- ten Auseinandersetzungen ablesbar, die als fundamentaler gesellschaftlicher Gegensatz diese Zeit bestimmten. Politik der Musikgeschichteschreibung in Deutsch- land — Frankfurt a. Am Weihnachtsfest geradezu paradig- matisch ablesbar.

Denn die roman- tische Musikanschauung ist Ausgangspunkt und Grundlage der modernen musikalischen Kunstreligion. Damit werden Wertungen aus dem Arsenal der autonomen Musik historisch angewandt, es wird das Kunstwerk an dem Anlass der Komposition gemessen, wie es schlechter musik- wissenschaftlicher Usus ist. Der Fall Brahms Kassel ; Musiksoziologie Studien zur Rezeption von Beethovens Missa solemnis Beeskow, Nicht mit dem christlichen Menschenbild verein- bar ist die Vorstellung vom Genie, wie sie aus dem Auf Fragen der speziellen tschechischen Situation kann ich nicht weiter eingehen, dazu fehlen mir die Voraussetzungen.

Soli Deo Gloria. It has proven to be a singular genre of art throughout its history. Various types of melodrama, such as monodrama, duodrama and concert melodrama, are quite distinct from staged melo- drama. Oper, Ope- rette, Musical, Ballett, Bd. Jahrhunderts; Musikanalyse.

The form of the melodrama provided a harmonically reciprocal proportion as the bearer of momentous thought and emotion. The result was one of the best Czech libretti. There was an attempt to create the text of Hippodamia as an independent entity, but its performance as such demonstrated that the text alone could not serve as an independent work. But their unrestrained, passionate love is the cause and beginning of evil: Hippodamia commits treason against her father; Pelops betrays his beloved wife Axioche and, as his most serious crime, murders his presumed rival Myrtillos.

Similarly, Pelops is driven to the idea that the very same attribute that he admired in Hippodamia in her own surroundings damns her in the end in confrontation with his world. He wanted to obtain the advice of the Delphic oracle about how he could conciliate the gods for the monstrous crime of his father Tantalus. The doubts and pangs of conscience that burden civilized people do not insure them from committing further crimes.

Even his sincere attempt to rectify old crimes leads to the emergence of new crimes and thus to a new curse. Nevertheless, he believes that Hippodamia is the cause of his unhappiness. Despairing, he tries to obtain certainty about her guilt. Smrt Hippodamie, the conclusion of the trilogy, takes place twenty years later as the next generation enters the plot. The entire drama of the life of the main protagonists comes to a climax at this point.

But it is already too late for Pelops to do so. His cold rejection compels her to a desperate, murderous attack on the very person that she had loved so intensely. The return to the root of all evil is now represented by Myrtillos, who has come to take revenge. Pelops had never learned the truth about the relationship of Myrtillos with Hippodamia. The text also presents wider problems of the values of life, such as tolerance and cultural coexistence.

His language has a sensuous beauty of sound and the form of the word. Perhaps for this reason this remarkable work is considered to be one of the best Czech libretti, even though its requirements make it unsuitable to present as spoken theatre. He depicts the characters and their transformations with the aid of characteristic motives combined for dramatic situations and reprised as reminiscences and symbols.

Albert on 21 February that he had been called on stage thirty times and that it had been beyond human strength. Their chief purpose is to illuminate interrelationships. Fibich strives to maximize the through-composed aspect of the formal structure, and for this reason the musical current in itself is seldom divided into sections on the basis of expres- sivity.

Fibich is fundamentally a symphonist in his use of instrumental resources. The tragedy of her life is her desire for love, for which she pays too high a price. The characteristic motives of Tantalus, depicting kingly glory, hope, uneasiness, agoniz- ing forebodings and deliverances as well as the climactic motive of his redemption, unambiguously portray this venerable old man with appropriate empathy and understanding. These three fundamental instrumental groups are often complemented with percussion and harp.

His originality in sound also leads him to add instruments to the standard instrumentation of the symphonic orchestra that were not in common use at the time, such as the tam-tam and bass clarinet. The composer had to cope with the practical requirements of theatrical representation. For this reason, there are relatively many extensive passages without words throughout the trilogy, and Fibich must, during composing, proceed without a text but not without regard to the dramatic situation.

There are moments of various processions, exits, rear- rangements, scene changes, and so forth. The music of the melodrama surely has its own identity, but it is subordinated to the cadence of speech, emphasizing rather than disrupting it. Although the composer had to be aware from the beginning of his work that musical factors had to have a subordinate place in the composition, he never yielded with respect to details of preparing phrases, articulations, and their other aspects.

Fibich had an exceptional ability to solve the greatest problem: the syncretic fusion — time. Hence, he was able to create scenic melodramas of ravishing dramatic strength. The individual characteristic motives and themes are heard in their original crystallized shape.

Its plot is not as complex, and the length and settings of the individual acts and scenes are not as contrasted with each other as in the other parts of the cycle. The introductory act again functions as an exposition. New characteristic motives describe the new dramatic roles Chryssipos, Atreus, Thyestes, Airopa , but form only a lesser part of the motivic material. Symphonic interludes oc- cupy more space here than they do in the preceding parts of the trilogy.

One can observe a heightened concentration of characteristic motives at the close of Smrt Hippodamie as the drama comes to a climax and resolves the fates of many of the characters in a relatively short section. Its music provides a summation of the thematic material of the entire cycle 11 The composer must often repeat certain words or a larger or smaller part of a sentence to realize the great potential of the vocal lines, and to permit vocalization that is not possible in the spoken text.

These motives form a complex interrelationship of associations, recollections in a new light of knowledge and so forth that displays the interconnected correspondence of the music of the entire trilogy as well as the correspondence of ideas. As a cycle Hippodamia is a work of incredible structural integrity; each section recalls earlier events and enables the next event.

The necessary concentration of musical dic- tion and the capabilities of the musical miniature combined to enable Fibich to create a great, monumental fresco. We clearly perceive that the Hippodamia trilogy, despite all of its problematic complexities, has an inner truth that captures our attention, moves us, and captivates us. How could it be that stage melodrama, a genre so well-intentioned, and one that makes so much sense, is at best a novelty item, apart from in a few places in the world?

First the good news. As Mozart and many others have noted, stage melodrama is a genre with seemingly endless potential. First and foremost, it addresses an issue that has been around from the moment text and tone were combined. Once a sonorous ideal was associated with musical sound a text posed vexing problems. Not only could and should one abandon the idea of altering music and text to suit each other, they could exist in their pure forms side by side as equals. No longer would music drama be at the mercy of singers, who at any moment could rebel, turning the entire proceedings into a matter of vocal virtuousity, and stupefyingly bad acting.

Real actors, trained to move upon the stage, trained to project their voices and gestures with enormous power, would now be in control. We know that this did not work out as planned. What went wrong, why, and is there anything to be done about it? There were two structural problems from the outset that dogged the genre, and one fundamental institutional one.

In other words, the pace of the piece is predetermined. And this creates a second fundamental problem, not easy to overcome. But melodrama ends up doing precisely the opposite. The actor is not free, as say Hamlet is in his famous soliloquy, to move entirely at his or her own pace, to create rhythm based on reading and interpretation of text.

The composer has already done much of the work. Thus in a staged melodrama one can either use musicians, most likely singers, or actors. If one uses singers, one gets inferior acting and vocal nuance. If one uses actors, there may be issues of timing, and a general insecurity about creating the kind of syncronization not expected in staged theatre, but obviously necessary in opera and stage melodrama. Now, I am not suggesting that these challenges could not have been overcome, only that they were not.

We do not often acknowledge the extent to which institutions shape performance reali- ties, but it is a critical factor. To present a mass one combines orches- tra and chorus, and while all major orchestras, say in the United States, have associated choirs, they are usually not professional, and thus performing a mass requires coordina- tion outside of the norm.

This radically determines what works are performed and how often. Obviously, melodrama is such a special case in terms of institution, and long-term institutions to ensure its health have simply not been evolved and successfully sustained. I will try to introduce these ideas by relating something that took place not long ago, and it is something that has nothing to do with music or melodrama.

In this way, he hoped to avoid a certain kind of scholarly authority in favor of something more ephemeral. As a concept it was not bad, and perhaps even in sync with the more surreal tendencies of Devetsil. I found myself quite unable to study an image while listening to text that actually had nothing to do with that particular image. It was not because I was jet lagged, or there was something wrong with the images or the talk. I had run up against my own brain and the way it makes sense of things.

This same thing happens when we combine music and text. Try it yourself if you have not already done so. Read any text with music playing in the background and try to follow it, as if preparing to answer questions. But the opposite poses insoluble problems for almost all listeners. The problems this might present for stage melodrama are obvious. Forcing the audi- ence to continually go back and forth between types of listening is enervating.

What we need to process music and what we need to process text are dissimilar. Perhaps all of us have had the experience of listening to particular songs over long periods of time, only to realize we have never understood the text. This is unthinkable with spoken language, where we either understand or we do not.

I think the answers are quite clear. Keep in mind that throughout this discussion I have spoken of staged melodrama. I do not think the same issues hold for concert melodrama, though some of them might. There are several reasons for this. Since concert melodrama involves a single speaker, or narrator, there is far less in terms of divided attention compared with stage melodrama, and since many of the concert melodramas are based on well-known stories, or are short in terms of length, there is no real question of strain in terms of following the basic thrust of the whole.

Also, with a single speaker, there is usually time to work out a genuinely nuanced performance. I hope that my ideas to this point do not suggest that I have no passion for melodrama, nor that I have simply parroted the notion that it is somehow a failed form.

Quite the contrary, I am always intriguied by the untapped potential of the genre. But it does seem to me that unless performances of staged melodrama are simply to be museum pieces, where works from the 18th through 20th centuries are set in stone, a serious updating must take place based on an understanding of how we perceive things and why. The great stage melodramas of Fibich need to be translated in several ways.

But another kind of translation is also required. Those seeking to revive stage melodrama must work together to evolve innovative performance styles that allow contemporary audiences both in and out of the Czech Republic to grasp the essence of the genre. The natural process of going back and forth between modes of cognition must be acknowledged and treated as a problem to be solved.

Keywords Melodrama; cognitive limitations. When music was used in French melodrama, it was mainly to underscore a dramatic moment in the play, rather than to serve as an integral and indispensible part of the complete work. The Czech melodrama is, in fact, a declaimed text with a musical accompaniment, where the music is either alternating or occurring simultaneously with the spoken word.

Merriam-Webster Online. Less predictable perhaps were the venues in which the concert version of melodrama was introduced to the public, and consequently where the revived genre gained its initial popularity. A perusal of periodicals from the s that include among their pages reports on what was being performed on various programs in Bohemia and Moravia, reveals that the recitation of poetry by professional actors and actresses was a popular alternative to a concert consisting only of vocal and instrumental selections.

She and Abel became lovers and were married in The supporters of these performances also reveal a popular trend, one whose goal was no doubt tied to the increased interest in the revitalization of the Czech language in a society where German had long been dominant. All of these manifestations warrant further scrutiny in the search to explain the popularity of melodrama in the Czech lands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Studying the gender balance in the Nordic feature film releases of On the other hand a qualitative study, through narrative analysis of plot summaries. To study feature films is a choice made to make to make the statistics more comparable, between films and countries.

It does shed light, however, on the general structures that the film industry consists of. The statistics thus bind together a geographical region of five countries that are close to one another both geographically and culturally. The results and analysis in short Both the quantitative and qualitative material revealed gender imbalance, in terms of both who made the films and who were portrayed. The taken-for-granted consumer of films as well as the norm of a human being or narrative protagonist is male.

This is one of the most significant conclusions, prevalent in all discourses in one way or another. Placing the study in a broader context It is a reasonable assumption that role models and depictions are interrelated with gender identification, and thus are of significant importance when it comes to cinema as a medium. An analysis of the cinematic releases, based on the question of who is telling a story about who, is therefore of theoretical relevance.

It has a scientific role to play, by bringing quantitative and qualitative empiricism and ana- lysis together. To lean on former studies, follow them up and provide for future studies is a crucial and conscious purpose with the study. Its basis in both political instruments and theory as well as practice within humanities and social science implies many possibilities but About the study also enhances the importance of following up as well as get followed The study is inspired up.

To not leave this subject unattended, which might be both sensitive by the doctoral thesis Att se och synas [To and also crucial due to its thematic of social structures. See and Be Seen] by Further studies of this type are essential to get a grasp on changes Ingrid Lindell , also consisting of a and to make deeper analyses. Both who is visible and what represen- statistical part as well tations are shown on screen are up to those with the responsibility as content analysis.

The conclusions for production. Their Lindell, Ingrid Att se och synas. Studying the gender balance in this naturalization and the way men are the Nordic feature film releases of This Svenska filminstitutet. Previously, Analyst at the Swedish Research Council. Directs studies on the film industry, e. In order for Swedish film to be representative, the stories told have to mirror contemporary society. Only by allowing women to have the same chance as men to tell their stories through film will the films produced be able to convey a fair representation of our time.

The importance of regulation Since Swedish film production has been subsidised by the Swedish Film Institute, founded through an agreement between the Swedish State and the Swedish film industry. Not until more gender-equal film industry and the Film Agreement for the period was gender equality the action plan emphasised. The signees of the Agreement decided it was time to have garnered considerable set a target: support for the production of film was to be divided international evenly between women and men.

In terms of numbers, both women attention. Since presenting the and men were to be represented at a level of at least 40 per cent for action plan in the key roles of screenwriter, director and producer. In the present Cannes in , we have been invited Agreement, covering , the goal is sharper. About Audiovisual 30 of these have support from a film commissioner at the Swedish Network creating common practices Film Institute. This means that roughly a third of the released films to describe gender are produced without our influence.

Consequently, it is not only by in film production. How to reach set priorities It is clear to us that we can only reach our goals by letting the gender perspective permeate everything that is done at the Institute, to let it be central to all our activities. In order to achieve this ambition we set out an action plan focusing on five different areas. All these five themes can be viewed as responses to common arguments and explanations met when focusing gender equality in film.

The ac- tions include setting up a website, Nordic Women in Film, which, by showing the plethora of successful Nordic women in film, will refute the argument that there are only a few competent women filmmakers. While progress A third common argument is that young women to a lesser has been made extent than young men dream of becoming filmmakers. We are in terms of representation, convinced this is wrong: it is a question of different attitudes, and there are still the initiative in this area is aimed at highlighting role models and considerable differences mentors for young women.

In addition we are promoting long-term when it comes gender equality initiatives at the entry point to filmmaking, i. For instance, the film education, film festivals, talent development and film camps. Again, we believe films directed by this not to be true. Instead it is a lack of knowledge of where these men that received support in structural obstacles arise and how to deal with them.

We have was The Having numbers is key to progress average funding The fifth action concerns intensifying our monitoring of gen- for the films directed by men der bias in different support schemes and other activities. In were 40 per cent contrast to the view of many, we believe that counting does higher than for the films directed by make a difference.

This way we can identify patterns and reveal women. Production support from the Swedish Film Institute is often essential for the projects to be completed. How the support is dist- ributed between women and men is therefore carefully monitored and reported. We are gradually putting more attention on other functions behind and in front of the camera, as well as on the characters portrayed, apart from the positions already mentioned.

The chart above shows the share of feature-length fiction films with funding from a commissioner in with a woman in one of the above-mentioned key positions, and compared to the average for the three previous three-year periods. The limited number of films supported each year motivates comparisons of averages over longer periods. However, effects of the actions taken since gender equality was put in focus in are present in the statistics.

In addition, women have been the recipients of four of the most prestigious Guldbagge Awards during the last four years — three of them after being part of specific actions towards gender equality. The awards recognize the new perspectives these women have brought to themes already treated by others.

Thus, emphasizing a perspective and setting goals in regulating documents and action plans does make a difference. Before that, she worked for a decade in film and media training. She has been a member of the State Film Council and also held the chair for a few years , and was at a same time a member of the State Art Council. She had a career in filmmaking in the late s and early s.

In our system, the Ministry supervises, the board controls and the operational management implements all activities of the Foundation. But in a situation where there are no written rules, there still are accustomed ways of thinking.

A change in the way things are is only possible after the current state of the matters has been recognised. Sex and gender The Finnish Film Foundation For me it is easier to grasp the idea of gender equality by dividing the The Finnish Film term gender into two, sex and gender, with sex being mainly defined Foundation supports and by our physiology and gender being the social role we grow into. However, the Finnish film industry nature also makes some of us undefinable, so even the question of sex by funding is not black and white.

The question of gender on the other hand is professional film production and totally blurry, culturally related, and ever changing. With sex we fall the exhibition mainly into two categories male or female , whereas gender is a wide and distribution of films. It is spectrum. We show our gender with our habitus and outlook and also responsible it has — among many things — to do with our values and the social for the cultural export of Finnish roles we adopt.

We can also shape our own gender at will. If there is film and provides inequality between males and females, it concerns both sex and gender. Foundation receives its Some people think that the possibilities are fairly divided between funding through the sexes the way they are now since there are natural differences the Ministry of Education and between the sexes. It is easier to continue the dialogue with people Culture from state of this opinion if we agree to divide the idea of gender into sex monopoly lottery and pools funds and gender.

In promoting film art. The Foundation this perspective, the alleged natural state of things can be seen as a was founded combination of cultural impact, social patterns and maybe survival in as an independent skills in a hostile environment. If the Department some people think that women are inferior to men by nature and not for Cultural Policy of the Ministry as a result of the conscious actions of mankind in the past thousands of Education of years, we are dealing with a mental model, which is a difficult thing and Culture.

In granting support, to change. The process of changing the mental model is called deep the Foundation learning and it cannot be achieved by means of a vaccine or an enema. We no Commission longer for example think that Earth is flat.

Notification on State Funding for Film. It is difficult for anyone to find any downsides of diversity. Let all the flowers bloom! Diversity is often related to the idea of different minorities getting their voice heard. When seeing equality in a diversity context, we easily hear the rightful reminder that women are not a minority.

It is just that with people possibly thinking there is no real inequality between men and women, diversity has proved to be the common ground from where to start the conversation. If we can point out that the female voice is less heard in films than the male, we can demand more room for women in the name of diversity.

An advisory group of about ten people chose one core question and then gave eight answers to that question. The core question was: What does equality mean in the film business? The eight answers were: Equality in the film business means Equal opportunities to get into the business.

Equality of the film makers. Diversity of the stories and their accessibility to audiences. Transparency of the processes and the operational culture. Diversity in stories, subject matters, active characters and points of view. Diversity of the genres and ways of expression. The gatekeepers being in a key position in promoting equality.

The diversity of quality indicators. All think tank participants were randomly divided into eight groups led by one member of the advisory group. Each group focused on one of the eight answers. In the working process the answers were again transformed into questions. So at the end of the day we had eight times eight answers to the core question of equality.

After the working groups had presented their answers to all other participants, the conversation started. Each woman is at the age of and at a crossroads in their lives and in need of making choices. It was the only Nordic domestic feature film that premiered in where women were in all key positions.

Quotas During the preparation of the think tank we also talked within the advisory group about the quotas. These are some of the comments that came up on these occasions. Some people stated that all quotas are by nature against equality. Some said that since there is a structural inequality between the sexes and genders, the quotas are needed.

Others held that there is no real inequality because some people are just more talented and suitable for filmmaking than others and shame on those who try to improve their situation by playing the sexual oppression card. It was also said that only those who fear to lose their position have reason to be against quotas. Some said that the inequality starts when we are born, so if we try to correct things when people are adults it is on the wrong end of the line — thus too late.

The Finnish Film Foundation is undoubtedly a key enabler in relation to who will be a filmmaker or what kinds of stories come to life on screen. But many decisions have already been made, doors opened or closed, before even a screenplay application is sent to us. At film schools, the sexes are more or less equally represented but later in professional life men form the majority of the applicants. I think the management policy is to rely on the broadmindedness of the commissioners. I personally could live with quotas but it makes me a bit sad to think that we have created a world where they are so easy to justify.

Power of story Equality is needed at all the levels of filmmaking. Any position in a camera crew should be available to members of both sexes. Stories told by women should find their way to the screen. Companies run by women should have possibilities to grow and flourish. Audiences should have the possibility to see on-screen female characters with Further reading the power to reshape the world, yet equally important are the stories The Film Act and Decree: that merely show us the way things are.

I believe in counting. Counting tells us something about reality that cannot be hidden. It shows pure facts and gives us the opportunity to decide if we are happy with the current situation or not. I also strongly believe that talent is equally shared between the sexes. That is why it was a total shock for me to see the results when we counted male and female leading parts, directors, script writers and producers in the Norwegian film industry.

The numbers speak for themselves: In the last 20 years, 20 per cent of all leading parts, directors, scriptwriters and film producers have been women. The rest have been men. FIA is a worldwide federation of over member unions in 77 countries. Gender equality has always been important to FIA and a Gender Charter was adopted in the early days of the federation. To reflect the fact that women are important and present at all levels of society, FIA encourages all film and theatre producers to use female actors in non-gender-specific parts, such as presidents, carpenters, postal workers, and judges.

The report was based on an online questionnaire to actors and is a snapshot of career experiences of performers across the EU in relation to their age and gender. This is well known to actors all over the world. We know this from Changing Gender experience.

But the report was necessary in order to raise awareness Portrayal: Promoting Employment Oppor- about the problem. And it made clear that we need to change reality! And we need to see what good practices the Performing Arts. Consequently, FIA produced a handbook of good The study from practices.

Sweden and the United Kingdom. The FIA project Engendering Change was structured around a series of five regional seminars and a final conference. The aim of these events was exchange and mutual learning and the identification and sharing of good practices. Equally it can serve as a blueprint providing examples of possible effective political action that decision-makers can pursue.

It also highlights ways in which the industry can work from within to change gender portrayal and do away with stereotyping. But then the art must be brave and curious. It must not be based on a content that only reflects society as it was 30 years ago or portray stereotypes. But art can bat Gender Stereotypes — especially if all talents are given the opportunity to portray all and Promote Equal the nuances of human life.

They all deserve to see Television and Theatre in Europe from a film, a television drama, a play, even a commercial that relates was produced by project meaningfully to their own lives, their own age, their own experience, consultant Richard their own sex. Acting is portrayal. And the main question is, what Polacek.

Start creating awareness in the industry, among the artists, among politicians and within ourselves. As an artistic director of one of the national theatres of Norway, I always count to make sure that I give both men and woman the possibility to make great theatre productions.

I am lucky to be a decision-maker now and a gatekeeper who can put this into practice. The time when men choose men and women choose men is over. It is time to start moving the world forward and create art that reflects the society we want. And that is a society where talent and not sex decides what stories to tell. But this will not happen until both sexes are given equal opportunities. She holds a master degree of Gender Studies and has worked with gender equality issues since In , Doris was established in Gothenburg as a network for people in the film industry.

In total over scripts were submitted by women who wanted to vouch for the Doris Manifesto and Doris Film. All the scripts were judged anonymously by jury groups consisting of professionals from the film industry, all women. All the films have been financed individually by regional film pools, Swedish Public Broadcasting Television and the Swedish Film Institute.

The short films have been shown individually and together in over forty-five countries and on practically every continent. Regional, national and international work Over the years, Doris Film has acted at different levels and within different geographical districts. In Doris developed tutoring material for its films — discussion and analysis guides — for use in schools.

The material has been used in schools around Sweden. Today the material has been translated to English, Serbian, Russian and Spanish. From to , Doris Film met over teachers who discussed, together with their colleagues, the films and how gender equality and equal treatment are approached in schools. Since , Doris Film has had the support of the Swedish Institute and Creative Force in northwestern Russia and the eastern Balkans in various endeavours.

Doris has visited film education institutions, libraries and schools Doris Genius and has held different seminars for students, teachers, media and Since Doris various NGOs. The purpose of these activities is to strengthen Film gives out an annual award to a international contacts and inspire to highlight female competence, female genius in human rights and equality.

The game is currently in production and is estimated to be released in spring At the Gothenburg Book Fair in , the book Doris x 12, consisting of all the winning short film scripts, was released. Script competitions have already been held and over scripts have been submitted for the Icelandic short films. Understanding Doris now and in the future Equality will never happen on its own.

Through the films and the coming computer game, Doris believes that Sweden will strengthen its position as a forerunner when it comes to gender equality work. She is an entrepreneur interested in combining politics and culture. Are there two or more women in it, and do they have names?

Do they talk to each other? Do they talk to each other about something besides men? Alison Bechdel formulated these three simple questions back in for the so-called Bechdel Test. Instead it is a tool that highlights the representation of women in film — and it has been very positively received around the world. But the news spread quickly and in just a few weeks other cinemas and festivals around Sweden and all over the world had followed suit.

I would absolutely progress. First step for endorse this remarkable scheme. Thank you so much for con- change is awareness, and then shared tacting me, and for being so innovative in your programming responsibility to make approach! She is currently involved in two research projects: 1 Market- and democracy- driven Freedom of Expression and 2 Comparing Gender and Media Equality across the Globe.

But when it comes to gender equality in the media, there are still some major blind spots and problems. In its essence, journalism is a matter of choice. One story is chosen ahead of another. Often the news stories are about men. The lives and issues of women still have problems reaching the news, and the newsrooms in the Nordic countries are no exception. As mentioned earlier in this book, gender equality is impor- tant for the Nordic countries.

There is a political consensus that society should ensure that both men and women have the same rights, obligations and opportunities. Today, Finland has the highest share of female journalists with 57 per cent and Iceland the lowest with 44 per cent. In terms of numbers, there is parity at many of the lower levels in Nordic news organisations, such as reporters and middle management. The data from the Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media indicates that the Nordic countries are in the forefront in that they have achieved parity at some but not all levels 32 news companies from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark participated in the IWMF survey, which covered 59 countries; see Byerly During the last ten years, there has been an increase in the number of women in high editorial positions, especially in Sweden where the number of women editors-in-chief reached 42 per cent in the printed press in In Finland the share was 37 per cent.

Denmark and Norway, however, had much lower shares see figure and none of the two Icelandic daily newspapers had a female editor-in-chief. It is worth noting that despite the many women in high editorial positions, the financial decisions within media houses are more likely to be made by men. The high share of female editors-in-chief in Sweden is contrasted by the low share of women as board members and CEOs, as those positions are usually held by men.

Sometimes the male presence is even bigger than in the business sector, which is often held as the most male-dominated occupational domain in Sweden for more quantitative data please consult the media statistics at the end of the book. Male dominance in the news content One would expect the high numeric gender parity in the news or- ganisations to show in the news content. The Nordic countries generally have a slightly higher share, ranging from 23 per cent in Iceland to 32 per cent in Sweden Global Media Monitoring Project A Swedish Official Report SOU points out the problem of male norms in the news and the lack of human rights perspectives in the reporting.

Worth noting is that the lack of women in the news in the Nordic countries does not reflect the respective societies, where women take an active part in the workplace, hold power positions and play sports, just to mention a few popular sub- jects of interest for the news media. This indicates that something in the newsroom culture is part of the problem. There are two daily newspapers in Iceland, both have men as editors-in-chief.

Searching for news models The UN, the EU and the Council of Europe are pushing the ag- enda on gender equality in the media, yet the development seems to have been hampered by the recent economic crisis. The Nordic news media is facing major challenges in their business models, like all conventional media today. Women are more likely to be found in part-time jobs and temporary positions.

Lay-offs have become every-day news. Some of them are presented in the coming chapters. Giving more women a voice in the news is not only a matter of rights and democratic values; these media companies can also use the business argument that more women in the news leads to better journalism and attracts more readers, which leads to increased financial stability.

Greater diversity in the news, in terms of gender, ethnicity, and age, can make the news more interesting and engage more people. The technological shift opens up for new business models and ideas. However, it has also opened for more misogynist voices against feminist media and journalists through social media. In general, both male and female journalists face threats.

In fact, this is almost a natural part of the profession, especially if you are reporting from conflict areas or about controversial issues. But women journalists seem to face more sexual harassment and sexualised threats of various kinds than men. Some female jour- nalists have chosen to speak openly about the threats through the media, and this seems to have yielded positive results.

Here, much more research is needed. Self-regulation has been the main strategy for the media industry. Many politicians have been reluctant to take action concerning gender equality in the media as a more regulated media industry could be seen as a form of censorship or a way of limiting freedom of expression. On the other hand, it is time to ask ourselves whose freedom of expression is being protected or hampered.

Journalism still has gender equality problems. Systematic, transparent self-monitoring could be a first step in addressing the lack of gender sensitivity in the media industry. Authorities can also take action, like in Iceland where structural measures have been taken to learn more about gender equality in the media by demanding monitoring of the out- put through their Media Act from In the EU Council of Ministers agreed on three indicators for the media organisations, as a follow-up to the Beijing Platform for Action, and called for the member states to include these indi- cators in their annual reports: 1 proportions of women and men in decision-making posts in media organisations, 2 proportions of women and men on the boards of media organisations and 3 policies to promote gender equality in media organisations.

Choices can be made to make journa- lism become more inclusive. With more knowledge and courage, the situation can change. References Byerly, Carolyn M. Byerly, Carolyn M. COE, 10 July Djerf-Pierre, Monika National report Global Media Moni- toring Project European Institute for Gender Equality Global Media Monitoring Project Who Makes the News? The Author Suzanne Moll is an experienced media leader in Denmark, with over 25 years in the business.

Suzanne Moll was the co-founder Photo: Per Arnesen of K2, a network that coaches and promotes women in the media industry, and has also supported other gender-related projects. Since she has worked internationally as a media adviser in countries such as Myanmar, China and South Sudan with coaching, broadcasting and newspapers.

It was a great summer day in August We were around 30 women seated in a room in the middle of historic Copenhagen. And we wanted to make history. For decades, women had been entering the media scene as journalists, but too few had gone beyond the jobs as reporters and anchors and made it to management level. Our goal was to make the sad statistics a news story, casting light on this and supporting each other in getting to the top.

Besides the women in the room, we had the support of some of the few prominent media leaders who happened to be women. K2 was a Danish women leadership network that K2 reward and punishment existed from to Among Over the years that followed, K2 met several times.

We invited guests others things, the to speak on various issues. For example, the editor-in-chief of a new network named and shamed newspaper explained how he created his management team. Other guests inclu- gender statistics ded two women who at the time were heading a public television progressed. They described in detail how they shared the workload and Photo: Karen Garhn managed their time, thus making it achievable to have a career and lead a normal life.

We also invited several male media leaders, who described their frustration that women were too nervous to grab the opportunity and accept a job with management responsibility. Every other year we counted the number of women in the news media.

Once the Danish gender equality statistics were in place, we made an event to create attention. At minister Manu Sareen the event we gave out two prizes: one to the media leader who had radical at the K2 award ceremony in Needless to say the last prize was the most controversial. The numbers were questioned and debated. And we were more than happy for the attention. Sadly, as it turned out, these efforts were not enough in the long run. Danish Radio DR has been the showcase of conscious policy for improving female leadership in a Danish context.

Being the biggest environment for journalists with over employees, it is a natural centre of attention for media trends. In the s, an informal group of women was created and held meetings a couple WIN of times a year. Not only was this an opportunity to discuss all WIN, Women In kind of issues in- and outside DR, it was also an informal display News, is a program initiated by WAN- of the potential leaders within the organisation.

Alongside this IFRA, World informal project, formal leadership training was institutionalised Association of Newspapers and and recruitments were made with a focus on gender equality. As News publishers. It does in Morocco. Through a local contact, we announced a Danish-Mo- so by equipping programme roccan programme. The two groups met twice in Denmark and and support Morocco to discuss subjects of common interest.

The smaller groups networks. This initiative resulted in several professional friendships and the Moroccan ladies to this day have a very vibrant organisation. IMS Where do we go from here? Two years ago the is a non-profit founding mothers and steering committee called for new members organisation working to to take over and arrange meetings etc. The response however was strengthen the silence… as much as the members took part in the meetings we capacity of media to reduce conflict, arranged, no one seemed willing to pick up the work.

We held a strengthen meeting where we discussed whether to keep K2 alive. Why be- democracy and facilitate dialogue. So we closed IMS developed a down K2 long before we reached our predicted goal of 40 per cent special gender- specific Danish- women leaders.

Moroccan It remains a mystery why so few news media have deliberate programme in collaboration with policies on recruiting women. We live in a world where half of K2 members. They too use news media, and with www. After working more than 25 years in the news industry, I am still fascinated by news and love the vibe of the newsroom.

But ex- perience shows that unless you deliberately work to recruit women, nothing will change. At the newspaper, he Photo: Teodor Falck has worked as news reporter, sports journalist, head of the sports department, news editor and managing editor. He has a journalism degree from the University of Stockholm. The obvious answer is of course yes. In the sport pages, the figure was even lower, 18 per cent!

That was twelve years ago. This is thanks to a dedicated newsroom, a lot of hard work Situated in and new ways of tackling news. A dedicated newsroom is essential if you want to change the way Daily paper you produce content. It was easy to make everyone agree on the except Sundays , circulation 31 Every four weeks we count every page, every article three in Sweden.

Unique users and every picture. The content where we can decide who to interview Part of the or to portray is not a problem. Kuriren Media AB, That was only the first step in reaching gender equality, but a which also consists of the daily paper very important step for the newsroom.

It proved to everyone that Folkbladet, a free it was possible to change a bad habit. It is one thing to say that half of the news stories shall have women as the main character; it is another thing to achieve it. There is still no such thing as 50 per cent women when it comes to politicians and business leaders. And everyone knows the amount of news these two groups generate. Every political decision, every new legislation, international, national, local, affects the everyday life of men and women.

That is also true about the decisions made by business leaders. Every time they hire more people, let them go, expand or shut down — its news. And the problem is that they are men. In abundance. That was also the problem we were facing when aiming for 50 per cent women in our news stories. The stories we as a newsroom react to are events, proposals and decisions. If we were to find the women in the news we would have to dig deeper, work differently.

From then on we asked ourselves the same question at the begin- ning of every news story: Where do we find a woman in this story? And that is okay — the story itself is always the most important thing. But if you give a story some effort and diligence, you are bound to find a woman — work- ing as a policeman, as a teacher, as lender at the bank. Almost every news story has a consequence and at the end of the chain you will find a woman, sooner or later.

In Swedish media, most experts on any given subject are men. But you can be certain that if there is a male expert, there is also a female expert. We made a long list of these individuals and used it regularly. We started to use the structure of the paper to achieve our goal.

If there was a day when it was hard to find women in the news, we used our feature stories to balance the paper. We made sure there was an equal number of men and women in pictures and in the stories we chose to highlight on the front page every day. We told the reporters doing the so-called daily question, where we ask three persons the question of the day and take their picture, that two of the three individuals had to be women.

And this turned out to be more difficult than expected. But when everyone in the newsroom was behind our quest for 50 per cent women, this problem vanished Measuring gender as the reporters always came back with two women answering the the VK way We decided to daily question.

We started off with 23 per cent and accumu- gender equality by quantity. Since we lated the numbers by counting the women in the newspaper one wanted to increase week every month. The whole newsroom could see the numbers stories involving women, measuring going up to where we are today, 12 years later — 49 per cent. Now they talk the way to go. Every four weeks to the female athletes instead of their male coaches.

The proportion we count the male of women has climbed from 18 to 41 per cent. And we can say that our paper is better. We started in More women are taking part in the public debate in our newspaper, Then it was 23 per cent women. Today it has grown And we still have 51 per cent women readers. For many years she also worked with the SVT regional television news. These are three ways to reach gender equality on the screen. As a public service broadcaster we are obliged to take gender equality into account in accordance with the European Broadcasting Union EBU com- mitments from , but also as a part of the far-reaching SVT gender equality policies for content and the workplace.

There we realised that even if there was a reasonable balance between women and men on the editorial board, the participants in the news were mainly men. We agreed that changes had to be made, and counting heads became our method. It was not easy to convince the editorial board to start counting, but we managed to implement a test month The result was interesting: barely 30 per cent of those interviewed were women, the rest were men.

After the test we set up a goal — to achieve 35 per cent female participants. And in the station crushed a big barrier by having 50 per cent female representation. Have goals that are reachable. Do not ask for the moon in the beginning. Instead raise the bar as you go. Do the monitoring every week. When you think you know how to do it and the work is done, new dishes are piling up. Have ongoing discussions on why goals are reached or why not. Analyse and give feedback.

Active leadership. Gender equality is a management issue. The editorial structures and communicate why gender equality is impor- meetings have moved tant. On a daily basis, remind everyone of the importance of from being reactive to being more proactive. The news model of counting has been an inspiration to the rest of our colleagues at the TV station and other SVT newsrooms. Nowadays we count female and male participants in every programme we edit.

The overall goal for our broadcasting company SVT is that all programme categories should have equal representations of men and women with a maximum deviation of 10 percentage points, Facts based on a calendar year. This means having strategies for gender Sveriges Television equality in place when planning programmes. SVT is the Swedish public service television Lifestyle shows and other programmes company.

Every year we edit shows with a total of second channel was launched in Having mostly women as viewers channel and, together with the could be a problem when you try to be gender equal. However, in reality we are far from that.

In spring World. The numbers since are 54 per cent men, 37 per cent women and 9 per cent mixed. We are improving the numbers, but the problem with male dominance in the music industry remains and is reflected in our choice of artists. To reach equality you have to be patient. How do we do it? We count each person interviewed, we talk about our goals several times a week and we are forward-looking and im- plement the goal in daily meetings.

We have changed our meetings from being reactive to being more proactive. We also try to convince the hesitant potential participants and encourage young women to be interviewed. We try to be aware of the role in which the person is being a subject — as a person in charge or as more of an everyday person?

The editorial board and managing editors must stand behind the importance of gender equality and diversity in the media. As a leader you need to be involved and realise the value of gender equality. So start counting and keep it up — persistence pays off. She is also the former editor-in-chief of Arbetaren [the Worker], where she strived to create gender balance in the newsroom.

For gender scholars, feminist writers and feminist journalists, it was clear that feminism was out of style; all the good practices and representation projects in use were dismantled and experts in the field were finding it increasingly difficult to find a job. The continuous digitalization of media and the subsequent crisis of printed media were reflected through major dismissals of staff and freelancers. Simultaneously, a media landscape of hatred, anonymous threats and anti-feminism began to flourish.

It was in this situation we started the online weekly magazine Feministiskt Perspektiv [Feminist perspective]. The response was overwhelming. In less than a week we acquired over 1 paying subscribers — an essential number in order to qualify for Swedish press subsidies.

The lack of interest in gender issues and the lack of representation of women in and by the mainstream media had created a hunger for these very issues. Over freelancers with feminist- or gender-related expertise, from all over the world, contacted us within the same week, all with the same message: the editors at home showed no or little interest in ideas concerning women and their situation.

Feministiskt Perspektiv was founded by a handful of experien- ced journalists and researchers with an extended global network, a dozen organizations and many individual providers and experts, experts who were not represented or present in mainstream media at the time. It is also fair to mention the importance of social media and the possibilities provided by the rapid development of internet.

The internet has meant a great deal for a movement with little or no financial resources, but also for women as individuals, writers and reporters. Right now Feministiskt Perspektiv is publishing a series of articles about women bloggers in Africa and the MENA region who have contributed significantly to the overall reporting from the region during what is commonly referred to as the Arab Spring.

There was never a lack of stories to tell, report or reflect on. Rather, it was the means and channels for women that were lacking. Looking closer at what women report on in the media sector, there are still enclaves with a female overrepresentation: health, cosmetics, design and possibly culture.

Finance and foreign correspondence are still male dominated, and so is the sport section — the section with probably most challenges remaining. Today Feministiskt Perspektiv has 2 paying subscribers but Facts reaches over readers on a monthly basis.

While other media Feministiskt outlets are facing crisis and shut-downs, this is an expanding media Perspektiv has 2 paying field. Feministiskt Perspektiv contains a domestic and a foreign se- subscribers. The ction, as well as finance and culture pages combined with an open open access articles reach space for debate and in-depth feminist discussion. Finding stories over to report on has never been a problem. Nor has finding experts and readers on a monthly basis.

The educated journalists to do it. The number of issues we can report magazine contains on is only limited by resource constraints. The conclusions from the discussions will be published in a book on how to deal with hatred and threats against women journalists.

Feministiskt Perspektiv also collaborates with Latin American networks and the Mexican feminist news agency Cimac, with over 20 years in business. We see many similar pro- blems, but also big differences, especially when it comes to funding. The crisis that media has gone through has sparked an important transformation. She worked for NRK for 10 years, in the news, current affairs and drama departments, and for two years as Head of Development.

In this article I want to share my personal experience regarding two aspects of gender: the work environment, and the media itself and its content. I have worked as a production assistant, floor manager, project manager and editor. I started at NRK in At this time, NRK mirrored the po- litical status of Norway, and the struggle for equality between the genders was on the agenda. Being a feminist was largely considered an honour. Feminism was understood as equal rights for women.

It was one of action and fun, and verbal Corporation is fights for attention. Being part of the banter required accepting a state-owned and the Parliament role as someone to flirt with, more or less subtly. Stortinget has There was an embedded attitude among most of the men, that given the mandate and the owner-role women were less interesting than men regardless of efforts and to the Ministry of results.

My and is the female colleagues and I objected to this — to no avail. The same largest commercial television station frustrating feeling hit me when the editor-in-chief once opened in Norway. The the door to the newsroom with only women in it and called out: headquarter is located in Bergen. Where is everybody?

TV2 is owned by I once said something impolite to a famous reporter in the Egmont. Nobody said a word. A while later in a popular hangout for media workers, he toasted me from the other side of the room: I decided to interpret this as a male form of respect. Another colleague, a well-known reporter and anchor, once pinched my butt as he passed by.

I turned around and pinched him back! We laughed and I considered it a flirt — I did not feel offended. The difference between the two was both the age span, the first being 20 years older than me, the other approximately my age, and the playfulness and my acceptance of being played with in the second case.

As a young woman in my 20s, I was subject to attention from these men. The hardest thing for me was behaving politely and at the same time rejecting sexual attention from much older men. The focus was on content. It was serious theatre. Maybe the men were as flirty as in the news department, but in an emotional and sop- histicated way. All this was quite exciting and energising, so I had my share of fun and enjoyed it!

In the 80s, I got married, had children and moved to Bergen to study. In I got a job for TV2. Ten years had passed since I left NRK. I was 40 and gender equality was a norm in my life as I knew it. I was about to learn otherwise. As a commercial channel, TV2 is all about audience and at- tention. This is paramount. Looking back at my TV career, I must say that TV2 has given me the most important possibilities and lessons.

Learning from the best in its genre, I learned to see the industry in a broad perspective, Helle-Valle timeline in addition to all of its technicalities. And I learned to fight. I answered — Studies at University of Bergen that the important thing for me was to do a good job and help TV2 — TV2 become a success. It took me many years of fighting Bergen to be considered equal to the men.

Her boss told her she should be happy as she probably earned more than her mother ever had. I was from the beginning regarded as a Redstocking. A description I actually like as it implies fighting, but now it made me stand out in an aggressive and foolish way. My editor-in-chief never failed to ridicule me as such. At TV2, I verbalised my opinions, well aware of the position I put myself in. Gender equality was a no-no.

And sexy means money. To me it meant that being a well-educated female of 40 was of less worth than being 20 and attractive. TV is increasingly turning into a business. Females are the subject of male assessment. The different status between men and women manifests itself in the competition for jobs and influence.

It is invisible and cannot be proven. Men have the power of definition. At TV2, all directors and department heads were men. They chose each other for the important jobs. Their answer to the evident imbalance was always that it was pure chance.

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