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It was war time and my mother had been deported at once in thirtynine. And my father wandered off somewhere else with that other woman. As Georges Gusdorf24 has shown, autobiography is a form of expression in which a person depicts and analyzes the past in relation to his or her present situation. According to Gusdorf: A person who hopes to discover himself by evoking his own life does not devote himself to passive contemplation of his private existence.

The truth is not a hidden treasure [. The confession of the past realizes itself as a creative work of the present moment. The same is true for the narrator recounting his story in the dramatic monologue. For this reason, autobiography takes a dramatic form. By engaging in a dialogue with himself, the writer is not attempting to utter any final word that would close his life.

However, it is precisely this work by Iwaszkiewicz — as if through its negation — that reveals the meaning of autobiographical structure in the dramatic monologue. The tale itself is far better organized including chronologically than the stories related in the other monologues. Therefore, it constitutes a phenomenon somewhere between the dramatic monologue and other forms of story. In the first, the author wishes to present himself as he once was — to recreate himself.

In the second, he wants to view himself in a fresh way p. Narration as Dramatic Monologue 33 6. Here arises the problem of the relation between the dramatic monologue and other forms of monological narration — specifically, the internal monologue and the monologue referring to forms of first-person written expression. In this regard, I shall concentrate on the works occupying positions 10 to 13 of the list provided above.

The overlap expresses itself in the very temporal structure of the work. This precise measurability of time — which can be measured objectively and which exerts a strong influence on the composition of the story — resembles the time of the dramatic rather than internal monologue, especially since subjective time tends to dominate the latter.

In the article cited above, Michel Butor points out that contemporary prose tends to reduce the distance between the time of the narration and the narrated time, while adding that this is never entirely possible, since, for instance, there is no way to eat and write simultaneously. Therefore, contemporary prose has had to invent such conventions as the internal monologue. We even find the emergence of a kind of instantaneous narration.

As I have already suggested, however, the narrator does not shift the present into the realm of subjective time. Even during the monologue, intersubjectively measurable time forms an important element: What time is it? Felicja has already picked up her passport — the tortures of travel nerves. Tomasz is soothing his wife — so touching.

She does not so much reveal the progression of her thought as interpreting her life and the current situation in which her monologue is taking place. To some extent, we find a form of a stream of consciousness in the story, though it is highly regulated. Instead, an external order takes control on the basis of the objective situation in which the narrator finds herself. Therefore, the narrative develops in the same way as dramatic monologue, especially when the narrator directly refers to her current 34 Part I situation.

Consequently, we can observe a process that we might describe as the intellectualization of internal monologue. This process has certain consequences in the realm of language itself, since the impetus is not oriented towards the reproduction of an illogical flow of associations, but rather towards sketching out a certain position. In her monologue, the narrator aspires to self-definition.

Essentially, she holds a dialogue with herself, which justifies the formation of her utterances in accordance with conversational patterns. Yet this is not the only justification. The narrator also introduces other people into her internal monologue, fellow travelers who happen to be in the same situation this is a highly characteristic phenomenon, as it reflects the duality of the narration.

The narrator formulates her arguments as if in opposition to them: So how would you behave then, sir? Another bump! Some kind of turbulence. The wing has gone dark and lost its light. No sign of the ground — a fog? These remarks allow us to conclude that the internal monologue develops in accordance with the rules of dramatic monologue. The influence of dramatic monologue on written monologue expresses itself above all in the temporal structure — specifically, in a tendency to reduce the distance between the time being narrated and the time of the narration.

The writer has this listener constantly in mind, even though he or she is not a specific person. The narrator addresses the listener, anticipating his or her reservations or doubts: We play every day — from ten in the evening till three in the morning. At that hour? We all know who comes along after midday — young folk and a few hungry people. What do they care?! Inevitably the question arises as to what drove me to become an informer. I would like to point out that it was not sympathy for the new regime.

Narration as Dramatic Monologue 35 proposals. It would appear that when it comes to the whole structure, dramatic monologue and written monologue fit together much more closely than dramatic monologue and internal monologue.

In the case of the latter pair, the tendencies of the two types of narrative are ultimately contradictory. The contradiction does not appear where the elements of dramatic monologue overlap with written monologue, since the word is socially accessible in both.

Partly for this reason, the basic tendency of the speaker of a dramatic monologue to define his or her own attitude in the moment of speech can express itself in written monologue without much difficulty. Both these forms of narrative may easily undergo intellectualization. Therefore, they may serve as an expression of self-definition understood in philosophical or moral categories. The popularity of The Fall in Poland has been extraordinary. Indeed, it would be difficult to name another contemporary book that has had the same significant impact, inspired such a large number of other works or formed the starting point in the development of a new convention.

Nor is there any way to link the dramatic monologue in Poland with various other similar forms of monologue well known from European literature. Links with the sentimental monodramas of the eighteenth century or with the poetic monologues of Robert Browning do not enter into consideration.

Neither do links with the stage monologue — which attained a certain status in Polish popular culture in the second half of the nineteenth century these monologues were often published in separate books, as in the case of Klemens Junosza — or the poetic monodramas characteristic of 27 The tendency for monologization in contemporary Polish literature is not limited only to narrative prose.

It also includes both theatrical and radio drama. Therefore, we should repeat once again: in the beginning was The Fall. The Fall became the model, its specific features elevated to the level of dominant norms. There are many differences. One difference is fundamentally important. As he analyzes his own situation, the former lawyer Clamance is a morally ambiguous character. On the contrary, conscious of the absurdity of his position, he is inclined to accuse himself and to seek out his own guilt.

In this respect, things unfold very differently in the Polish works, in which the monologue is a way for the protagonists to convey their complaints against the world or their grudges against history and other people. The speakers never accuse themselves, even when they are people on the margins, since they see themselves as victims of devious machinations or fatal coincidences. Self-sacralization takes the places of masochistic self-accusation. Sublimation takes the place of deprecation.

The great confession ceases to be an admission of sins, but rather metamorphosizes into a catalogue of complaints. If the protagonists of the Polish dramatic monologues indulge in chest beating, then they usually beat the chests of others. Accordingly, they are not ambiguous characters, since the basic aim of their confessions is self-justification. The proof of these transformations lies in the appearance of the same form in other kinds of works, which are at least partly associated with a different set of literary problems than those revealed to Polish writers in The Fall.

Narration as Dramatic Monologue 37 One more highly significant question remains. What is the place of dramatic monologue among the newer forms of storytelling — in the world of the various transformations in narrative art that have taken place over the last few decades? As the object — so to speak — of universal literary use, the monologue is clearly a new phenomenon, despite the fact that its prototype emerged over a century ago. This does not mean, however, that it is a novelty in the superficial sense.

This kind of narration does not essentially abandon the basic features of novelistic storytelling. Soliloquies in this sense — as they appear in contemporary French literature — do not enter into any pact with rhetoric. On the contrary, they represent its programmatic negation.

Instead of closed composition — which forms the condition of all rhetorical speech — they propose an open composition that begins and ends at apparently random moments. Even more significantly, they abandon any rhetorical imposition of established meanings once for all.

Therefore, they abandon the fundamental privilege of all earlier prose. These works are above all speech acts rather than coherent interpretations of the world. The world of soliloquies sinks into deliberate chaos, while the world of dramatic monologues — though it has been created by a narrator who seems to have no control over his or her situation — ultimately submits to a kind of order and thus to rationalization.

Though it might start and end in midsentence, the dramatic monologue is always a closed intellectual proposition, since it always provides an interpretation of its subject. In this sense, the confession at its foundation is never disinterested, but rather permits experience to be ordered 29 Cruickshank, pp.

In essence, the speaker and the silent interlocutor are there only in order to support a strictly classical structure — that is, an ordered discourse based on logical thought, expressing this thought, preserving a continuous aesthetic and intellectual line, using the dramatic plot in its traditional form and driving it forward.

Addendum I wrote this article in Five years later, when I looked at the materials contained in it, I saw that the dramatic monologue was precisely at the apogee of its development at the time. Not only with respect to quantity, but above all because it almost always appeared with a clear function. The situation changed radically in the years that followed. The dramatic monologue has by no means disappeared, but it has essentially ceased to be a confession. It has also become less dynamic.

The greatest number of new texts appeared around Even if they came out slightly later in book form, they were written or published in periodicals around this time. To repeat: after , the dramatic monologue ceased to be the confession of a disappointed person who wished to order his or her own experiences.

It also ceased to be the autobiography of this person. The element of plot plays a minimal role within it, since it does not apply to the entire work, but only to a short section of it the history of an expedition of Polish engineers to South America. In works taking the form of rationalized discussions, any clear plotlines 1. Narration as Dramatic Monologue 39 are essentially banished.

Sometimes they appear only as a set of anecdotes cited by the narrator. The story also exhibits another important element. What can coincidence do? I was standing outside the secondhand shop on Mokotowska Street, so I was there from the beginning almost to the very end.

However, these stage directions seem to be intended only for the use of theatrical performers. They are unnecessary for readers, who may discover everything from the monologue of the Old Man standing before the judge. The key point is that Funny Old Man demonstrates — like other works of this kind — that there are essentially no fundamental differences between monodrama and dramatic monologue.

Then it lost them. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that in the book edition they are interpreted as stories and not as dramas. As far as I can tell, not a single work of this type has appeared — or at least no outstanding work of this type. This suggests that the dramatic monologue has lost its original dynamic, but that it has entered the repertoire of narrative forms and may manifest itself in diverse contexts. A Portrait of Marcolf 1.

Superiority in Inferiority He was fat. He was rude. We know this much about him. We also know that he tried to outwit the wise King Solomon — and in this he achieved some notable successes. Here our knowledge of this rather strange and mysterious character usually falters.

He appears in a medieval tale in which a folkish wisdom based on common sense triumphs over a dogmatic book of wisdom founded on a set of claims accepted and endorsed by social consciousness. Yet this narrative does not exist only in amusing and mischievous tales by anonymous plebeian authors.

It also continues to interest and disturb the twentieth-century imagination, though no longer as an expression of non-conformism or authentic folk wisdom. Things have become significantly more complicated. For the moment, let us leave these concerns to one side. We shall deal with them in detail later in the course of these reflections.

The hede had he great, a brode forhede rede and fulle of wrinkelys or frouncys, his erys hery and to the myddys of chekys hangyng, great yes and rennyng, his nether lyppe hangyng lyke an horse, a berde harde and fowle lyke unto a goet, the handes short and blockyssh, his fyngres great and thycke, rownde feet, and the nose thycke and croked, a face lyke an asse, and the here of hys heed lyke the heer of a goet.

And so on and so forth. This is a translation into contemporary French of a version first published in Venice in That boor! O holy proletariat! He a fruit vendor who came in a wagon 42 Part I the dreams of maidens ensconced in castles from medieval tales. So what does this all mean? Does it merely suggest that in medieval plebeian culture any faith in the strict parallel between wisdom or spiritual value and physical beauty had ceased to operate?

Authors of clownish literature have often provocatively emphasized this characteristic. Surely physical ugliness — so strongly foregrounded here with almost masochistic satisfaction — cannot merely be a question of appearances. We might guess at a much deeper significance. Anonymous plebeian authors seem to view their plebeian characters through the eyes of participants in a cultural formation to which they themselves do not belong.

Consequently, the characters themselves do the same thing in their own self-characterizations and selfassessments. Therefore, we are dealing here with a classic example of a situation was mostly dumpy and butt-heavy — but he was also stubby-fingered and chubby-cheeked and a stocky, ruddy, greedy gut straight from a good snooze in his bedclothes with a hot chick and right from the outhouse.

The whole was characterized by an incredible striving for boorishness, his liking and relishing of it, stubborn persistence in it, diligent and active transformation of the whole world into boorishness. Plus, the guy was in love with himself. I cannot get away from him! That walking abomination! Clearly the author views this Marcolfian physicality from outside, though he does not spare himself either.

Ultimately, this is a self-ironizing passage. A Portrait of Marcolf 43 in which a person views himself through the eyes of the other or in categories imposed by the other. Marcolf is able to represent himself even to himself only once he has begun to see himself as he appears to his partner in the dialogue — Solomon, who clearly belongs to a different cultural and social formation with different notions of the beautiful.

In other words, Marcolf consents to a way of seeing himself through the other, endorsing this vision and adopting the role imposed upon him. This kind of approval does not necessarily — and ultimately does not — suggest any form of revaluation or the imposition of a new network of meanings and values. The caricatured figure is in no way ennobled. If this were the case, Marcolf would have to proclaim a new canon of beauty. He would have to elevate himself, attempting to fit the prevailing notions of the court in which he has somehow found himself by a strange turn of events.

Yet he does not exhibit any such tendencies. Instead, we find a somewhat different mechanism at play. For now it will suffice to say that this non-conformism does not apply to the foundations defining the image of the world. By accepting his appearance — which we know derives from the gaze of the other — our hero endorses the value system of his dignified adversary in the dialogue.

At best, he seeks his own place within this system. In principle, this does not necessarily coincide with the place Solomon might be inclined to grant him, though — as we shall see — things are somewhat more complicated, since the system grants clowns a separate position. Imprisoned in this position and anchored in the dominant system of values, he still wishes to demonstrate his superiority over the figure who stands at the center of the system and guarantees its stability — the ruler.

He wishes to prove his superiority, while not throwing off his inferiority. Therefore, we might define the Marcolfian dialectic as superiority in inferiority. The plebeian with the misshapen physical form turns out to be wiser than the powerful and educated king who has devoured so many splendid tomes, though this intellectual advantage — as we shall discover — is rather peculiar in nature.

As he achieves this dazzling success, he not only fails to throw off or overcome his inferiority, but rather he confirms it, almost programmatically demonstrating its virtues without transforming it into superiority.

By proceeding in this manner, Marcolf is no rebel. He was the first to demonstrate its crucial significance with extraordinary profundity and suggestiveness in both discursive and strictly literary texts. As is generally the case when somebody formulates a new and interesting problem, we may very easily broaden its scope. In this way, fresh categories can serve to problematize phenomena sharing no direct connection with 44 Part I the objects to which these categories refer.

We may also project them into the past in order to reveal new or previously undetected aspects. The Gombrowiczean idea of inferiority and superiority fused into a mutually complementary whole serves as a perfect tool for revealing certain features of the strange figure of Marcolf — and perhaps also of other bygone characters from plebeian literature.

Not until later in the tale do we find accounts of how the wise and ugly clown acted towards the ruler, including various indignities to which he exposes the king by playing a series of practical jokes and generally making fun at him. At the same time, this debate is peculiar, since we cannot equate it with any genuine discussion in the usual understanding of the term. This is not a battle of arguments. Neither is it a display of eristic skill as classical rhetoric has defined it.

Mikhail Bakhtin makes the following observation about the Marcolfian stories: One of the main attributes of the medieval clown was precisely the transfer of every high ceremonial gesture or ritual to the material sphere. Almost without exception, Solomon takes the initiative, opening the dialogue as the first speaker. He is defined by them. Ultimately, he has no right to choose.

Barasch analyzes the development of the Marcolfian theme as an example of the formation of the medieval grotesque Barasch, F. A Portrait of Marcolf 45 There are very few deviations from this prevailing rule. One deviation is the Marcolfian parable, which in size and scope outstrips the problem — raised by Solomon — to which it responds. Two other types of expression function as complete exceptions here.

We might define the first as a kind of explanation of behavior. We must repeat that these are only exceptions. But is he a faithful translator? Yet things are more complicated when we consider that Solomon does not always formulate his truths conceptually. Sometimes he also refers — in the style of proverbs — to concrete realities that supposedly convey the relevant knowledge. Therefore, we cannot reduce the differences merely to an opposition between an abstract wisdom derived from dogma or belief and a practical, spontaneous wisdom springing from experience and direct observation.

Bakhtin writes about the role of parodies of sacred texts in medieval culture in various places throughout his work on Rabelais. After all, Marcolf often expresses essential and binding truths in his bawdy and vulgar plebeian language. This is particularly true when he manages — following the example of his dignified adversary — to make general statements. In Gabaa, God appieryd to me and fulfylled me wyth sapience.

This is the most significant question. If so, how? In slightly different terms, we might ask whether this kind of translation can overthrow or — more modestly — reshape the worldview of the person being translated. Ultimately, this phenomenon should not surprise us, as it accords with what we usually understand as translation. By definition, a text that arises from an act of translation — even the most peculiar form of translation, as in this case — cannot defy or contradict the text that forms its basis.

Indeed, we are essentially dealing with differences in expression rather than in conceptual universes. Marcolf hopes to outwit Solomon, but only in the realms of verbal expression and trivial life experience. It has no independent existence of its own, but exists only as a response.

This must be the case, since in most instances a precise parallelism exists between the two utterances — and parallelism does not permit genuine discussion. At the root of this parallelism — as is often the case in folklore39 — is a situation that we might describe as a contest, though the prize here is not the hand of a princess after many 39 The echoes of the tale of Marcolf and Solomon still resonate in folklore.

A Portrait of Marcolf 47 extraordinary deeds as predetermined conditions. Instead, the prize is simply to outsmart the opponent in the realm of expression without violating the existing system at all. After the verbal tournament, Marcolf and Solomon do not change their positions in society, since they both have pre-established roles.

Furthermore, when a change of roles does occur — and we shall encounter precisely this situation when Marcolf seats himself on the royal throne — it does not transform the social order in any fundamental way, for in this order the role is more important than the person. The role is the defining element. After his unexpected promotion, Marcolf will perform the role of king, just as previously he has filled the role of clown.

Clownish jokes are not essentially directed against the king, but rather they fit into the system. But why was the king willing to admit a person of such physical appearance and condition into his chambers in the first place — and even to enter into competition with him? The Ritual Clown Pantagruel says to Panurge: Take heed, I have often heard it said in a vulgar proverb, The wise may be instructed by a fool.

You know how by the advice and counsel and prediction of fools, many kings, princes, states, and commonwealths have been preserved, several battles gained, and divers doubts of a most perplexed intricacy resolved. We do not learn whether Marcolf gave Solomon advice when the king found himself in military or political need. The medieval text says nothing on this point, though the problem does not cease to intrigue in this case.

Moreover, by entering into competition with him, he converses with him as one equal with another, only occasionally threatening him with sanctions or punishments. As a plebeian, Marcolf has attained an absolutely extraordinary position inaccessible to others of his class. He does not owe this honor only or perhaps at all? Events have taken this particular turn because he has become the incarnation of a role that already existed in the inventory of roles established by the archaic social system.

Marcolf is necessary to the king and his court as one who is free to behave in a manner that clashes with the prevailing etiquette and free to say things sternly forbidden to others. In other words, his deviation from the system has been designed and interiorized by the system itself, or inscribed within it. Marcolf reaps the benefits of this social device.

He casts doubt on everything that might seem obvious. He could not do so if he himself belonged to high society. Then he would be nothing but an acerbic salon wit, at best. The jester must be external to high society, viewing it from outside in order to reveal the unobvious nature of its obvious truths and the unnecessary nature of its necessities.

At the same time, he must move in high society in order to become familiar with its sanctities and have the chance to make his impudent remarks. He had forerunners in various kinds of archaic communities. Sometimes even the most rigid societies — the most bound by rigorous regulations — in certain specific situations endorsed behavior that ostentatiously departed from the norm and sometimes even constituted its prearranged violation.

Yet it is here that this departure from the norm has been foreseen and sanctioned by the norm itself. Ethnologists who have examined this question in their analyses of primitive societies often talk about these licensed violators of norms as ritual fools or clowns. The lord sees the freedom of the joker. A Portrait of Marcolf 49 exceptional fact. The social order, which is based on respect for taboos, would find itself in danger if the collectivity committed the violation or consented to it.

At the same time, it is obvious that if the whole group were to violate the taboos, the magical value attached to their negation would be negated. Therefore, the violator must necessarily be imagined as somebody who acts alone, even if he does so in the interests of all.

This explains why clowns distinguish themselves through individual, independent and asocial characteristics as they participate in rituals. Indeed, this very sanctification became a condition if not for the existence then at least for the normal functioning of an archaic society. Paradoxically, it became a function of the prevailing orthodoxy in multiple senses. Thanks to this license, various positions could express themselves that otherwise would have had no right to appear and thus would have been condemned to complete non-existence.

Swept up from the surface of life, they could have survived in latent form and then emerged at a favorable moment to threaten the system, since they had all the attributes to break it down from inside. It fostered this consolidation because — as Larua Makarius has argued — the privileges of the clown were only accorded to selected individuals, who were distinct from the rest of society precisely through this very specific role.

Neither could a guild of clowns exist. They could never form a trade organization, even one similar to those formed by the cut-throats and prostitutes — representatives of much more dubious professions. By the very nature of his function, the clown was a soloist, and never a member of a choir. Its boundaries could shift, widening or narrowing depending on the specific situation or on entirely random circumstances.

Indeed, from this perspective, they were clearly diminished, impoverished and even more restricted. Even he must 43 Ibid. He may never pronounce certain truths. There are boundaries he may never cross if he crosses them, he abandons the role of clown and becomes a revolutionary. But let us return to the earlier question. Issues and opinions that in other times and places might be expressed aloud in a normal manner are here saddled with various prohibitions.

We must also not forget that this institutionalization brings yet another benefit. Though the clown may have pronounced truths of the greatest importance, he does not cease to be a clown — and thus a suspicious, strange and ridiculous figure. Laura Makarius emphasizes that ridiculousness can be a fatal phenomenon in some tribal societies, where it is intolerable in normal social practice. However, the community can always disavow, demean and disqualify his actions very easily.

After all, nothing could be simpler than proclaiming to all and sundry that only a clown would behave in a manner at odds with the prevailing customs and beliefs, thus violating the sacred sphere. This argument has a strong chance of success with its intended audience. For why should any level-headed and loyal member of an archaic society take seriously a suspicious character who deviates from the norm? Indeed, he or she might even find the proper place for this person in an asylum for those who are said to be unbalanced or who disrupt the accepted order.

Both possibilities form part of the scenario that defines his activities. The king converses with him almost as one equal with another, listening to his boorish expressions with an indulgent ear, though he might easily turn him out or throw him in the dungeon. The king understands that the clown never ceases to be a clown, even when he has been admitted to the royal chambers to take part in a debate.

Indeed, his clownishness — and thus the very essence of his role — may well manifest itself even more clearly in the shadow of the monarch, and thus of somebody whose position makes him the highest guardian of the existing order. However, he is able to eliminate certain 44 Ibid. A Portrait of Marcolf 51 clowns: for instance, when a clown overestimates the scope of freedom accorded to him by tradition.

Marcolf seems to be aware of these limitations. Ultimately, he does not test the boundaries, even when he wishes to prove his superiority to the king in debate. As we have already discussed, the debate takes place on ground marked out by the monarch. Marcolf may not independently choose the subject or problem for discussion.

His role is to debase and parody the lines pronounced by the king. He can also permit himself all kinds of caprices towards the clown. Marcolf on the Throne The clown is the shadow of the king. At first glance, this would seem implausible. In the end, the bumpkin promoted to monarch is not a clown, while the promotion itself usually occurs in peculiar fashion, taking place through imagination or play — and often through the two elements simultaneously. In both cases, the criteria of reality are suspended, while ludic rules come into play.

We may also include the clown in various other oppositions. It is also worth pointing out that the pair of king and clown is often expanded by a third figure — the executioner. Professor Mojmir Grygar kindly drew my attention to this text. Either the peasant consciously pretends to be the king during the carnival festival, or he is treated as a king by others during the same game.

For a clown like Marcolf — who is the shadow of the king — this kind of dressing up is impossible. He was a serious clown and now he wants to be a serious king, though — as we shall see — he will never entirely renounce his devious ways, even when the fate of the world depends on him. This royal elevation of the clown has especially fascinated the poets of our own century. A throne which in all its proverbial form is equal to the might of a stony mountain, not only in appearance, but in truth — this is the throne I want!

Kasprowicz He does not wish to be a mere make-believe king. He believes in his mission, and so he comes to bring order to the world. This order is harsh, both in conception and realization, unmitigated by any experiences from the earlier phases of his own biography, when he himself was in a miserable state — if not exactly hanging off the king, then always dependent on his monarchical whims.

This state of affairs is not altered by the superficial preservation of certain popular customs, which we shall subsequently refer to as Marcolfian gestures. A Portrait of Marcolf 53 sole ideological foundation is faith in brutal and ruthless power.

Leaving aside the Nietzschean terminology of this monologue, the text still remains crucial for us here. The important point is that it reveals what we might define as the consciousness of the charismatic clown — a clown convinced of his mission and refusing to shun any means that might lead to the realization of his stated aims. The clown has ceased to be a character with any moderate dreams of power. He does not abide by any rules stemming from noble human wisdom.

Instead, he becomes the hero of an anti-utopia, the ruler of a world in which power and ruthlessness are the main regulating components. We are a long way here from the clownish banter with the king of the medieval tale or the simple opposition between folk wisdom and official wisdom. The common people will not find their representative in Marcolf the ruler or feel any kind of solidarity with him.

This clownish autocracy turns out to be just as difficult to abolish as the autocracy of the king who inherits a throne passed down from father to son from time immemorial. Once again, function is more important than genesis. The lips of the innocent make no claims. And who knows whether a fool in a crown, a winecup in his hand, roaring that God favors him 54 Part I because he poisoned, slew, and blinded so many.

Paradoxically, this can appear to be the case even when it actually exists, constituting a palpable reality. It seems impossible because it clashes with what we regard as the laws of common sense or as the prevailing order of the world. Marcolf on the throne has no capacity or desire to fossilize into a dignified form. Accordingly, he changes the external trappings of power, transforming the facade. When he comes to power in a state previously ruled by a tyrant, however, he does not introduce any fundamental innovations to the actual design of the structure.

In a world ruled by a clown, the role of clown in its classical form is condemned to wither away. Any examination of this rather theoretical possibility falls beyond the purview of this article. Specifically, it falls beyond the purview of the article partly because Marcolf the king does not value this wisdom at all. Nevertheless, it is difficult not to permit myself a certain digression here.

At the beginning of the s, Hitler was above all a ranting clown in the liberal imagination. His rise to power seemed impossible. There is no need to recall that this imagination turned out precisely to be a lack of imagination. Somebody: The wisdom of the world! Marcolf himself is no bureaucrat in the old style, but from the moment he seizes power he values the bureaucracy.

He understands that it forms a reliable support for the throne. Yet this is not the most significant point here. After all, it is no secret that the blows of the whip against wisdom are not largely aimed at the counselors, but rather in quite a different direction.

As a clown, Marcolf had already expressed his deep distrust of theoretical reason. He opposed Solomon — who was not only the ruler, but also the personification of such wisdom — with his own rough-hewn wisdom, which he had apparently acquired from life experience. In one version of the medieval tale, Marcolf convinces Solomon that nature is something higher than learning.

Nobody taught the cat to hunt mice, and yet it performs this activity very effectively. Marcolf does not abandon this attitude when he gains the throne. On the contrary, he intensifies it. Intellectuals are immediately suspect. The clown turned king no longer has any desire to debate with them, but wishes to treat them in a different and somewhat less courteous fashion. Now clownish wisdom — raised to the dignity of law — excludes the existence of any other type of wisdom.

On the surface, it even resists closed and dogmatic wisdom, a wisdom that finds its only support in ritual books and is unable to develop or integrate social experiences in new ways. Certainly, Marcolf is no dogmatist. He cannot be one, since he does not belong to the guild of commentators on sacred books. At the same time, he does not oppose this ossified thought with any new or adventurous thought, since he is only prepared to acknowledge whatever has — or rather appears to him to have — direct support in practical life.

Accordingly, he is always anti-intellectual. Nevertheless, despite his constant references to practice, it would be difficult to call him a pragmatist. He continues to define himself by them even when it seems to him that he has gone far beyond them or even overthrown them.

The clown king is still dependent on the old overthrown king in whose court he once performed the duties of clown. He is still the shadow of this old king. He cannot or does not wish to overcome the tradition that invariably forms his only point of reference, for he simply does not know any other traditions. Even if he has heard of such traditions, they present themselves to him as alien, suspicious and sometimes even diabolical. Instead, its essence lies in capitulation to immediate circumstances, and thus in complete dependence on the demands of the moment and previous experiences.

Such pragmatism negates both theoretical constructions and the products of the imagination, thus partly undermining its own existence — though this is quite another matter. Marcolf retains certain habits and gestures from the time when his role was to play the fool. We have already referred to these as Marcolfian gestures. They are based on the introduction of clownish pranks into a social context that does not require them and perhaps even excludes them. An example of a Marcolfian gesture would be hurling a shoe at an opponent to shut him up.

Here debate degenerates into mere bar room brawling. A shoe hurled by the man on the throne may testify to his human qualities, but it also constitutes a shocking disruption of accepted customs, violating the rules of the game. Language forms a separate area of their operation. In this case, such gestures might include an introduction of an unexpected style that astonishes listeners with its bawdiness and boorishness, as it ignores the accepted rules.

Marcolfian gestures represent innovations only in the domain of external trappings. They do not change the system. They may not even make it less grim. They have ceased to reflect any ludic element. Now they possess the attributes to dominate as a model worthy of imitation. Nothing remains of their former clownish brilliance. From the front, this maiden is extraordinarily comely, even intoxicatingly beautiful, while from behind her body is repulsiveness itself, rotting and decomposing as worms consume it.

This medieval motif served as a moral lesson about the vanities of the world, but I do not evoke it here for didactic purposes. In contemporary literature, we find ourselves dealing precisely with a striking front and a rotten back. This facade has been constructed from books that are often good, written in a high-brow manner, linguistically elegant, and sometimes even inventive.

So, what more can we expect of these works, since we attribute so many virtues to them? Their standards are high, they are often appealing, and yet in the vast majority of cases they still lack one thing — relevance. They lack literary, social, moral, philosophical and psychological relevance. Socialist Parnassianism seems to have been supported by two closely overlapping processes.

Here the cultural policy has limited itself to prohibitions, while retreating from any direct prescription. This distinguishes it from the cultural policy of the Stalinist era. The new policy allows for various kinds of freedom at the front, on the condition that these do not make contact with real social experience, influence or catalyze social consciousness, or provoke any sort of non-conformist thought or even associations.

Accordingly, this has created a program for a mild, unengaged and essentially pacified literature. The monthly New Word Nowy Wyraz illustrates this trend, paralyzed by dull academicism and conceived as a tribune for older mediocrities. Therefore, it is no surprise that whenever interesting young writers have appeared in the last decade, they have done so outside the reach of this magazine, which has represented a prime example of socialist Parnassianist tendencies.

This modernism — or, as we might prefer to describe it, avant-gardism — was a movement of the greatest literary importance. Yet this was not its only relevance, since it also bore great social and perhaps even political significance. It crystallized during the struggle for the expansion of freedoms and became an expression of these freedoms. In the mids, various poems and novels going beyond the socialist realist schemas became sensations, while even a fresh and original metaphor that undermined the well-worn forms of speech could be an event.

Socialist Parnassianism 59 cannot be underestimated, even when we consider the literature of recent years — we might repeat what the writer and critic Karol Irzykowski once said about the Young Poland movement in the final phase of its existence: it aged very quickly. Perhaps not over night, but quickly enough.

It aged all the more rapidly once the architects of the cultural policy began to treat it as an ornament, or rather as an alibi in certain cases it clearly filled this role. It aged because it lost its non-conformism. It was no longer against anything or anybody. As an accepted movement, it became part of a minor literary stabilization and metamorphosed into socialist Parnassianism.

This movement has included many intricately written and often effective novels some of which have achieved a modicum of success, with a few even catching on in Paris. We cannot reduce socialist Parnassianism to thematic choices, and it is not based on any escape into the realm of history, which has so often provided a refuge. Nor is socialist Parnassianism founded on any escape into the realm of fantasy, allegory or parable. I would prefer to say that we need a culture based on truth and authenticity.

We also need the same kind of literature — authentic and exhibiting its values. The enduring nature of culture would seem to suggest that each of these ways of speaking may serve both authenticity and kitsch, integration and enslavement. I have nothing against allegory, parable or myth. Socialist Parnassianism is by its very nature something else, and it cannot be reduced to any particular subject or any particular poetics.

It represents literature consenting to its own slide into irrelevance, while still paying careful attention to external appearance, high literary standards, and sometimes even a peculiar kind of novelty. Splendid and beautiful flowers may grow in this garden, but nobody has time to mourn the roses when the forests are burning. Socialist Parnassianism does not involve isolation from social problems alone — as it might appear at first glance. In fact, it would be difficult to use the term at all if the works representing it were filled with any great intellectual and moral problems, if they strove to express these problems in one way or another, or if more clearly defined ambitions appeared within them.

Yet this is not the case. This well-made literature is only capable of satisfying the small-minded. It can be inventive, but never illuminating. Though it sometimes includes darker shades, its basic character is ludic. Socialist Parnassianism provokes a certain impatience, though I would not exclude the possibility that historians will one day attribute some merit to it. Some of its novels may survive. But this is not all. Probably its merit will turn out to lie in the fact that it fostered the development of literary forms and preserved literary culture in an era in which trash came to dominate mass culture — either subordinated to an aggressive propaganda permeated with newspeak or reduced to pure entertainment.

This impatience and lack of distance do not help us to measure its worth on the scales, especially since socialist Parnassianism is neither a style nor a poetics. It is simultaneously the co-creator and product of a cultural situation that has favored an irrelevant and thus crippled literature — even when it has reached the highest degree of artistic craft. In the end, its artistry is oddly dysfunctional. November 3.

Now — a decade later — I wonder whether I might appear myself in the role of a historian prepared to perceive other virtues in socialist Parnassianism or to raise its merit. Clearly it represented neither a continuation of socialist realism nor a parallel phenomenon.

Some might say it was a mere flower pinned to a real socialist sheepskin, intended to beautify what could never become more beautiful. To some extent, this was indeed the case, though why should we not appreciate these flowers used to decorate something so undeserving of elegant ornamentation? At least some of the works we would be inclined to regard as characteristically socialist Parnassianist have retained their value, and it seems fitting to accord the whole phenomenon the credit it deserves.

Thanks to socialist Parnassianism, a certain literary culture survived and the general level of literary speech did not decline dramatically. This in itself means a great deal. Socialist Parnassianism was the product of the peculiar situation in Polish culture between October and 13 December It emerged from a cultural policy pursued by the communist authorities over several decades, but it never became a tool of their propaganda.

It maintained its independence — unfortunately, for the most part because it bore little social significance. We should remember all these complicated circumstances. Polish Literature on the Holocaust Preliminary Reflections 1 We may say without fear of exaggeration that the Holocaust is one of those problems and events to which Polish literature has returned constantly and in various ways over the last several decades.

Polish literature did this at first hand, through works both by writers who were to become victims and by others whom fate assigned the role of witnesses and observers — writers who did not experience the Holocaust themselves, but who were able to empathize and to comprehend what was taking place. Polish literature continued to address the Holocaust in later years, though the perspective inevitably shifted — at first not significantly, then more dramatically as time passed.

The diversity of perspectives that had characterized the early moments did not vanish overnight. A distinction continued to exist between writers telling their stories in order to understand what they had survived and other authors whose works were not based on any personal experience.

Naturally, the number of people who could speak about their own fates steadily dwindled with time. Any new texts of this kind emerged only from various archives, while the inevitable eventually occurred. Subsequently, the whole 54 Many scholarly works on Polish Holocaust literature exist, most of them from the last two decades.

Yet one thing has not changed. At the same time, his remark applies to anybody who wishes to say anything about the issue, depicting a set of specific events or simply sketching out an individual biography. These difficulties are universal, defining the endeavors of the scholar and the memoirist, but also — and perhaps above all — the writer. The problems have not disappeared, continuing to plague every author, irrespective of the signs he uses or the immediate goals he sets himself.

These very difficulties — which have changed to a relatively minor extent over time — form the main subject of scholarly reflections on literature about the martyrdom of the Jews. This is especially true, since in a certain sense the genre represents an absolutely unprecedented form of literature.

Jean-Luc Nancy is undoubtedly correct when he asserts that we cannot speak of the camps and thus of the Holocaust in general in the same way as we speak and have spoken about wars. In fact, most of the discussion on this kind of writing concerns the constant difficulties involved, for in a certain sense everything within it has proven difficult — if only because it has faced entirely new tasks and challenges.

However, before taking up these questions, I would like to point out that in the case of Polish literature some of the complications have been associated with the specific situation in which it has functioned and developed. Its very existence, its evolution and its various transformations have been dependent on the broader political situation. We should be aware that changing contexts and circumstances have necessitated various approaches to both literary and non-literary speech about the Holocaust.

At times, the phenomenon found itself marginalized; at other times, it became the subject of more or less blatant falsifications and manipulations. In this respect, the question of the extermination of the Jews did not differ greatly from many other issues under discussion in communist Poland in the realm of contemporary history. Neither did it differ from other questions whose discussion was prohibited. In this 55 Ankersmit, F. Polish Literature on the Holocaust 65 case, these effects were linked with — and resulted from — much broader processes.

In certain periods, people were reluctant to talk about anything concerning the Jews. When this tendency appeared, there could be no place for accounts or images of the Holocaust. Any reflections on this subject became impossible. Clearly, we must mention here the first half of the s — the era of classic Stalinism — as well as the period of unrest in March , together with everything that preceded and followed it.

This is one of the Polish paradoxes.

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