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Brest: Brest formerly Brest-Litowsk , a city with a population , inhabitants in at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. History of Brest: History of Brest. Since Brzesc Ghetto: Brzesc Ghetto Ghetto in Brest , a World War II Jewish ghetto created by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland in December , six months after the German troops had overrun the Soviet-occupied zone of the Second Polish Republic under the codename Operation Barbarossa, less than a year after the creation of the Ghetto most of approximately 20, Jewish inhabitants of Brzesc were murdered, over 5, were executed locally at the Brest Fortress.

Vitebsk: Vitebsk , the capital of the Viciebsk Region, with , inhabitants in History of Vitebsk: History of Vitebsk. Culture of Belarus: Culture of Belarus. Jewish culture in Belarus: Jewish culture in Belarus. Languages of Belarus: Languages of Belarus - Belarusian language. Women and women's rights in Belarus: Belarusian women and women's rights. Children in Belarus: Belarusian children. Education in Belarus: Education in Belarus. Schools in Belarus: Schools in Belarus.

Colleges and universities in Belarus: Universities and colleges in Belarus. Health in Belarus: Health in Belarus. Disease outbreaks in Belarus: Disease outbreaks in Belarus. August timeline of covid pandemic in Belarus: August timeline of covid pandemic in Belarus, counting 69, confirmed cases and deaths on 18 August. Healthcare in Belarus: Healthcare in Belarus.

List of hospitals in Belarus: List of hospitals in Belarus. Since February Belarus government response to covid pandemic: Since February Belarus government response to covid pandemic. Censorship and harassment of media in Belarus: Censorship in Belarus - Harassment and censorship of independent media. October 9 October Journalists in Belarus face fines and arrest as they attempt to provide an alternative to pro-Lukashenko state channels.

Newspapers in Belarus: Newspapers in Belarus. Internet in Belarus: Internet in Belarus. Crime in Belarus: Crime in Belarus. Corruption in Belarus: Corruption in Belarus. February WWII mass grave: 22 February A mass grave containing bones from hundreds of bodies with gunshot wounds to their skulls, human remains belonging to men, women and children as well as clothes, shoes and other personal items, were discovered during construction atop what used to be the ghetto of Brest in present-day Belarus, as Nazi Germany forces killed three million civilians in Belarus, of whom , were Jewish.

Capital punishment in Belarus: Capital punishment in Belarus. Human trafficking in Belarus: Human trafficking in Belarus. Law and legal history of Belarus: Belarusian law - Legal history of Belarus - Constitution of 3 May - 20th century Constitutions of Belarus - Amendments of the Constitution of Belarus and and Belarusian referendums.

Law enforcement in Belarus: Law enforcement in Belarus. Foreign relations of Belarus: Foreign relations of Belarus. Treaties of Belarus: Treaties of Belarus. Belarusian membership in international organisations: Belarusian membership in international organisations. Since January Belarus member of the 'Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE ': Since January Belarus participating state of the 'Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE', is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization, as its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections.

July UN's human rights inquiry in Belarus: 6. Bilateral relations of Belarus: Bilateral relations of Belarus. October EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition calling for broader sanctions: 17 October EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels.

Jewish communities in Belarus: Jewish communities in Belarus, as Jews have been living in Belarus for more than six centuries and are an integral part of the ethnic structure of the Belarusian society, as today Belarus after German empire's Second World War, when about , Jews were killed, about , immigrants from Belarus live in Israel, as the number of Jews living in Belarus is considered to be around ,, but the number of Belarusians with Jewish descent is assumed to be higher.

Belarus-Israel economic, cultural and trade relations: Belarus-Israel economic, cultural and trade relations. Since Dutch reaction to Belarusian presidential elections and lack of political freedom: Dutch reaction to Belarusian presidential election, as Dutch FM convinced the EU that a planned Interpol summit planned to take place in Minsk be boycotted, as groups in the Netherlands protest what they call the lack of political and religious freedom in Belarus.

Belarusian minority in Poland: The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47, people in , most of them living in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. October Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base: 7 October Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base, Lukashenko says following protests against his rule and reported Russian plans to beef up military presence.

August Weissrussland verweist den schwedischen Botschafter, der sich mit Oppositionspolitikern getroffen haben soll, des Landes - 8 October Svetlana Alexievich wins Nobel prize in literature. August 26 August Independence of Ukraine and Belarus is only way to develop bilateral relations, Belarus FM during the opening ceremony of a residential complex of the Belarusian Embassy to Ukraine. Since USA introduced sanctions against Belarus individuals and companies: Following the Belarusian presidential election, USA introduced sanctions against Belarus individuals and companies for 'the actions and policies August USA and democracy and opposition in Belarus: After the August presidential elections in Belarus, USA's secretary Pompeo voiced concerns about how the election was 'not free and fair', urging the Belarusian armed forces to respect their citizens right to peacefully assemble, refrain from using force, and release persons who were wrongfully detained.

Environment of Belarus: Environment of Belarus. Environmental issues in Belarus: Environmental concerns and current issues in Belarus. Water in Belarus: Water in Belarus. Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - main industries include engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum.

Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium. Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders - the 5 most important agricultural products in are pork 1. Foreign trade of Belgium: Foreign trade of Belgium. Economic history of Belgium and economic cycles: Economic history of Belgium in the twentieth and twenty-first century - Industrial history of Belgium.

Since economic impact of the covid pandemic: Since economic impact of the covid pandemic and crises since March, as the pandemic caused the largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown. Labour and labour disputes in Belgium: Labour in Belgium - Labour disputes in Belgium - Belgian labour law - Labour Court in Belgium, dealing in first instance with disputes between employers and employees and disputes regarding social security - Court of labour in Belgium, the appellate court in the judicial system of Belgium which hears appeals against judgements of the labour tribunals.

Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium. Since Constitution of Belgium: Constitution of Belgium, dating back to Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium.

Political parties in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium. Trade unions in Belgium: Trade unions in Belgium. Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium. February bill: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to December PM Michel resigns: 19 December Belgian PM Michel resigns after he lost support of key coalition partner, the nationalist New Flemish Alliance, when backing UN bid to improve coordination on migrants , and after the parliament rejected Michel's appeal for its support for a minority administration, now bracing for a snap election in January.

May Belgian federal election: 26 May Belgian federal election. Opinion polling for the Belgian federal election: Opinion polling for the Belgian federal election. Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium. Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Belgium: Belgian society. Human rights in Belgium: Human rights in Belgium. Minority and employees' rights in Belgium: Minority and employees' rights in Belgium.

Province, municipalities, cities and ports of Belgium: Provinces of Belgium - Municipalities of Belgium, as the country comprises municipalities grouped into five provinces in each of two regions and into a third region, the Brussels Capital Region, comprising 19 municipalities that do not belong to a province, as in most cases, the municipalities are the smallest administrative subdivisions of Belgium - Ports and harbours of Belgium.

Antwerp city: Antwerp city , the capital of Antwerp province in the Flemish Region, with a population of , citizens the most populous city proper in Belgium, and with a metropolitan population of around 1,, people the second-largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Demographics of Antwerp: Demographics of Antwerp.

History of the Jews in Antwerp: History of the Jews in Antwerp, goeing back at least eight hundred years, as currently, the Jewish community of Antwerp consists of around 18, citizens. Economy and port of Antwerp: Economy and port of Antwerp. Timeline of Antwerp: Timeline of Antwerp since abt.

September-October German empire's Siege of Antwerp: September-October Siege of Antwerp after the German empire's invasion of Belgium in August - Since 28 September German bombardment, with German siege guns directed by observation balloons on gun emplacements, flanking positions and magazines. History and timeline of Mechelen: History and timeline of Mechelen since the early ages.

Early ages, Mechelen area, 8. Since March Mechelen transit camp during the Holocaust: Since March Mechelen transit camp, officially 'SS-Sammellager Mecheln' in German, a detention and deportation camp established in a former army barracks at Mechelen in German-occupied Belgium, serving as a point to gather Belgian Jews and Romani ahead of their deportation to concentration and extermination camps in Eastern Europe during the Holocaust. Heritage sites and places of interest in Mechelen: Places of interest and heritage sites in Mechelen since Middle Ages.

Leuven city: Leuven city , the capital and largest city of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region of Belgium, located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels, as the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighbouring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal, and as Leuven is the eighth largest city in Belgium with more than , inhabitants - History of Leuven - Education in Leuven.

Economy and companies based in Leuven: Economy and companies based in Leuven. Politics, elections and mayors of Leuven since Politics, elections and mayors of Leuven since Timeline of Leuven: Timeline and history of Leuven since the 9th century. September Battle of Leuven fought between East Francia and the Vikings: September Battle of Leuven, fought between East Francia and the Vikings, as the existence of this battle is known due to several different chronicles, including the Annales Fuldenses and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Since printing press in operation: Since printing press in operation, as Johann von Westphalen was the first printer in Leuven and possibly in Flanders, first active in Venice and in Germany before moving to Flanders as a printer. In May in World War II the German occupiers again destroyed, almost completely, the new University Library: In May , in the first year of World War II, the German war criminals again destroyed, almost completely, the new University Library, following their destruction on 25 August , using petrol and incendiary pastilles, as , volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, and as in January a permanent exhibit on these wartime events was installed over five floors of the bell tower.

Boortmeerbeek town: Boortmeerbeek town in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, as the municipality comprises the towns of Boortmeerbeek proper, Schiplaken and Hever. In April during the Warwaw ghetto uprising Belgian Resistance stopped a Holocaust train and freed dozens of Jews: 19 April attack on 'the twentieth convoy' as members of the Belgian Resistance stopped a Holocaust train and freed a number of Jews who were being transported to Auschwitz concentration camp from Mechelen transit camp, as in the aftermath of the attack, a number of others were able to jump from the train too, as in all people managed to escape, of whom ultimately survived, as the remainder were either killed during the escape or were recaptured soon afterwards, and as the attack was unusual as an attempt by the resistance to free Jewish deportees and marks the only mass breakout by deportees on a Holocaust train.

Brussels region: Brussels region of Belgium, comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, located in the central portion of the country and a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community. Brussels city: City of Brussels , the largest municipality and historical centre of the Brussels-Capital Region and capital of Belgium, also covering the immediate northern outskirts where it borders municipalities in Flanders, and also the administrative centre of the EU - History of Brussels - Education in Brussels.

Transport in Brussels: Transport in Brussels. Science and technology in Brussels: Science and technology in Brussels. January-February Siege of Brussels: January-February Siege of Brussels, when a French army in a bold and 'innovative' winter campaign besieged and captured the city of Brussels, which was then the capital of the Austrian Netherlands, from its Austrian garrison, as the French followed up the capture of Brussels by taking other key cities and fortresses in the Austrian Netherlands including Mons and Namur.

Subdivisions and cities of Walloon Brabant province: Subdivisions and cities of Walloon Brabant province. Wavre city: Wavre city and municipality in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant, of which it is the capital.

Waterloo town: Waterloo town , a municipality in the province of Walloon Brabant, which in had a population of 29, citizens, located in a short distance south of Brussels and immediately north-east of the larger town of Braine-l'Alleud, the site of the Battle of Waterloo, where the resurgent Napoleon was defeated for the final time in Demographics of Waterloo: Demographics of Waterloo, as nearly one-fifth of the current registered population 5, inhabitants is non-Belgian, as many such residents work for institutions or companies in Brussels, a centre of the EU, and as the most common non-Belgian nationalities include French 1, people , Italian , British , USA and Swedish people.

Economy, education and culture in Waterloo: Economy and education in Waterloo. Now, too, he will tread under foot all the rights of Man, indulge only his ambition; now he will think himself superior to all men, become a tyrant! History and since timeline of Waterloo: History of Waterloo, mentioned for the first time in designating a small hamlet at the limit of what is today known as the Sonian Forest, along a major road linking Brussels, Genappe and a coal mine to the south.

East Flanders province: East Flanders province , bordering the Dutch province of Zeeland and the Flemish province of Antwerp, Flemish Brabant, Hainaut and West Flanders, divided into six administrative districts containing 60 municipalities, and a population of 1,, citizens as of January , with its capital city Ghent, home to the Ghent University and the Port of Ghent.

Ghent city: Ghent city , a municipality in the Flemish Region and the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, also the third largest in the country, exceeded in size only by Brussels and Antwerp, and a port and university city. West Flanders: West Flanders province , the westernmost province of the Flemish Region, and the only coastal Belgian province, facing the North Sea to the northwest, as it has land borders with the Dutch province of Zeeland to the northeast, the Flemish province of East Flanders to the east, the Walloon province of Hainaut in the southeast and the French department of Nord to the west, and with its capital city Bruges.

Flemish people: Flemish people. Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia. Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature. Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14thth century.

Science and technology in Belgium: Science and technology in Belgium. Health in Belgium: Health in Belgium. Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Belgium: Medical outbreaks in Belgium - Disasters and man-made disasters in Belgium. Since February covid pandemic in Belgium: Since February covid pandemic in Belgium - Covid cases in Belgium by province, by location and day. Timeline of covid since February in Belgium: Since February timeline of covid in Belgium.

Belgian media: Belgian media. January threats against distribution of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo: 15 January Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris.

Internet in Belgium: Internet in Belgium. Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium. Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists. Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers. Since Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and Parliamentary investigation: Since Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence.

Racism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium. Antisemitism in Belgium: Antisemitism in Belgium. Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium: Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium. July Antwerp summer camp attack: July Antwerp summer camp attack on a group of 40 Jewish children - Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in , for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July May Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2, people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack.

July 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'. February 12 February Belgian police detain refugee for anti-Semitic hate crimes, filmed destroying at least 20 mezuzahs and vandalizing Jewish institutions in Antwerp. August 9 August Jewish couple in Belgium targeted with death threats.

December 21 December Belgian soccer fans sing chant about burning Jews. Since Since 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July , according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan.

August 6 August Charleroi attack - 6 August Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack. June On 20 June a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station.

August 25 August Brussels attack - 25 August A man who attacked and injured two soldiers with a knife in Brussels reportedly shouting 'Allahu Akbar' shot dead by the army - 27 August Islamic State terrorists says Brussels attacker belonged to group. Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium.

Judiciary and court system in Belgium: Judiciary and court system in Belgium. January 10 January Brussels Jewish museum terror attack trial opens in a Brussels criminal court, as Frenchman Mehdi Nemmouche faces life sentence if convicted of shooting. December Belgian court hearings end on Iran diplomat accused of bomb plot: 4 December Belgian court hearings end on Iran diplomat accused of bomb plot, as verdict for Assadollah Assadi expected on January 22, and as year-old faces 20 years in prison if convicted of plotting to target rally outside Paris.

Law enforcement in Belgium: Law enforcement in Belgium. Police brutality in Belgium: Police brutality in Belgium. May 18 May Authorities in Belgium have admitted that two-year-old girl Mawda who died after police opened fire on a van carrying migrants near Mons on Thursday was shot in the face - 25 May Police in Belgium who have admitted that one of their officers was responsible for firing the shot that killed two-year-old Mawda Shawri have been accused of mishandling the investigation into her death.

Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium. Treaties of Belgium: Treaties of Belgium. Belgian membership in international organisations: Belgian membership in international organisations. February UN Security Council Resolution after the killings of Patrice Lumumba: 21 February UN Security Council Resolution after the killings of Patrice Lumumba, Maurice Mpolo and Joseph Okito, urging the UN to immediately take measures to prevent the occurrence of civil war in the Congo, further urging the withdrawal of all Belgian and other foreign military, paramilitary personnel and mercenaries not with the UN and calling upon all states to take measures to deny transport and other facilities to such personnel moving into the Congo, also to launch an investigation into the death of Mr.

Lumumba and his colleagues promising punishment to the perpetrators. Since Congo Crisis and aftermath : Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War.

Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba: Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba in January Bilateral relations of Belgium: Bilateral relations of Belgium. November Belgian officials boycott trade delegation to Israel: 30 November Belgian officials boycott trade delegation to Israel, blaming alleged Israeli violations of international law.

October 10 October Belgium suspends funds for two Palestinian schools over name change honoring terrorist, renaming school near Hebron for Dalal Mughrabi, who led a attack against Israel that killed 38 people, including 13 children. September 15 September Belgium ends funding for Palestinian schools over honoring of terrorist. April 19 April Three Belgian companies are being prosecuted for exporting chemicals to Syria, one of which could be used in the production of sarin gas, as according to 'Bellingcat' and 'Syrian Archive' Belgium is the only EU country to have exported a chemical called isopropanol since July when a prohibition from the OPCW came into force.

Global warming in Belgium: Global warming in Belgium. Natural disasters in Belgium: Natural disasters in Belgium. Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina - main industries include steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicles, textiles, tobacco products, furniture, tanks, aircraft, domestic appliances, oil refining - Companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina by industry. Agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including fruit production, gardening production, crop farming production, mill and bakery industries, stock farming production, processing industries and a milk industry.

Business cycles and unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina unemployment rate since - 9 December South East Europe on slow road to recovery, World Bank says. Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina society - Human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina media: Bosnia and Herzegovina media. Bosnian War , war crimes, prosecutions and legal proceedings ongoing : Bosnian War, prosecutions and legal proceedings - War crimes in the Bosnian War.

Economy of Bulgaria: Economy of Bulgaria - main industries include electricity, gas and water, food, beverages and tobacco, machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel - Companies of Bulgaria by industry. Agriculture in Bulgaria: Agriculture in Bulgaria - products include wheat, corn, and barley, sugar beets, sunflowers, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, apples, grapes and tobacco, livestock products.

Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria. Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria. Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria: Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria - Since Bulgarian economic development following EU membership. Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria. Since Since economic downturn in Bulgaria following the international financial and economic crisis.

Taxation in Bulgaria: Taxation in Bulgaria - taxes in Bulgaria are collected on both state and local levels, the most important taxes are collected on federal level, including an income tax, social security, corporate taxes and value added tax.

February 20 February Bulgaria's government resigned from office after nationwide protests against high electricity prices - 25 February: Tens of thousands of people have taken to the streets across Bulgaria to protest against corruption and the country's rising cost of living - 28 February: Bulgaria will hold an early election on May 12, Rosen Plevneliev says as the government seeks a way out of a political crisis.

July 24 July: Twenty people including three police officers needed hospital treatment after long-running protests against the government turned violent overnight. July 23 July Bulgaria's PM Plamen Oresharski stood down amid protests against corruption, deadly floods and disputes over gas pipeline project, leaving an interim and later new government to sort out the Balkan state's worst banking crisis since the s.

October Bulgarian parliamentary election: Bulgarian parliamentary election 5 October - 5 October: The center-right GERB party set to win Bulgaria's snap general election but will fall short of a majority, a result that could mean another shaky coalition struggling to solve a bank crisis and revive growth. Protests in Bulgaria: Protests in Bulgaria. November 12 November Protesters across Bulgaria have held demonstrations against price rises and air pollution. January 16 January Hundreds of Roma protested yesterday in Sofia demanding the resignation of the PM following the destruction of a Roma settlement in Plovdiv and racist comments from the PM.

Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria. Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria. Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria. Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria. Since Since international and European refugee and migrant crisis.

Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria. Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria. Bulgarian media: Bulgarian media - Newspapers in Bulgaria. October 6 October Victoria Marinova murdered - 7 October TV journalist Viktoria Marinova brutally murdered in Bulgarian town of Ruse, while police investigate both personal and work related leads - 9 October Murdered Viktoria Marinova had reported on investigation into corruption involving EU funds - 12 October Bulgarian Severin Krasimirov was apprehended on Tuesday evening outside Hamburg on a European arrest warrant in connection with the death of Viktoria Marinova.

Crime in Bulgaria: Crime in Bulgaria. Corruption in Bulgaria: Corruption in Bulgaria. Human trafficking in Bulgaria: Human trafficking in Bulgaria. Organized crime in Bulgaria: Organized crime in Bulgaria - Bulgarian mafia. Terrorism in Bulgaria: Terrorism in Bulgaria. July Burgas bus bombing: July Burgas bus bombing.

Judiciary of Bulgaria: Judiciary of Bulgaria. Law enforcement in Bulgaria: Law enforcement in Bulgaria. Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria. Treaties of Bulgaria: Treaties of Bulgaria. Since international and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since International and European refugee and migrant crisis. Bulgaria's membership in international organisations Bulgaria's membership in international organisations. Bilateral relations of Bulgaria: Bilateral relations of Bulgaria.

July Burgas bus bombing: July Burgas bus bombing - 18 July: Deadly blast hits bus carrying Israelis in Bulgaria - 5 February Bulgaria blames Hezbollah for bombing that killed five Israelis, in a move that may open way for EU to join in branding Iranian-backed Hezbollah a terrorist organization.

February Bulgaria blames Hezbollah for bombing that killed five Israelis: 5 February Bulgaria blames Hezbollah for bombing that killed five Israelis, in a move that may open way for EU to join in branding Iranian-backed Hezbollah a terrorist organization. April tens of thousands of Syrian refugees: 11 April With all doors rapidly closing shut, tens of thousands of refugees from war-torn Syria end up in the EU's poorest state Bulgaria.

September foreigners detained: 3 September Bulgarian authorities detained foreigners in the capital Sofia for illegally crossing into the country without submitting an asylum request. Environment and environmental issues in Bulgaria: Environment of Bulgaria - Environmental issues in Bulgaria. Protected areas of Bulgaria: Protected areas of Bulgaria. Natural disasters in Bulgaria: Natural disasters in Bulgaria.

Floods in Bulgaria: Floods in Bulgaria. Demographics of Croatia Economy of Croatia: Economy of Croatia - main industries include chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminium, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism - List of companies of Croatia - Companies of Croatia by industry. Industry of Croatia: Industry of Croatia. Agriculture in Croatia: Agriculture in Croatia - products include organic foods, grapes, wine, olive oil, lavender, fish.

Water transport in Croatia: Water transport in Croatia. Tourism in Croatia: Tourism, a major industry in Croatia, as in , Croatia had Economic history of Croatia and economic cycles: Economic history of Croatia.

Since March covid caused more than Labor and trade unions in Croatia: Labor and trade unions in Croatia. Taxation in Croatia: Taxation in Croatia. December Croatian presidential election: 28 December Croatian presidential election - 29 December: Croatian presidential candidates Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic and Ivo Josipovic set for election run-off. January Croatian presidential election: 11 January Croatian presidential election - 12 January: Ex-foreign minister Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic elected Croatia's first woman president with a pledge to kickstart the country's ailing economy.

November Croatian parliamentary election: 8 November Croatian parliamentary election - 9 November Croatia's conservative opposition wins first parliamentary election since joining the EU in , but without enough votes to rule alone. December 21 December Croatians to vote on president after campaign dominated by hard right. July Croatian parliamentary election: 5 July Croatian parliamentary election - Opinion polling for the July Croatian parliamentary election.

Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia. Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Croatia: Croatian society. Cities and towns in Croatia: Cities and towns in Croatia. Zagreb: Zagreb , the capital and the largest city of Croatia, located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain, with an estimated population of , inhabitants in Demographics of Croatia: Demographics of Croatia.

Ethnic groups in Croatia: Ethnic groups in Croatia. Immigration to Croatia: Immigration to Croatia. December 17 December Croatia reportedly violating EU law by sending asylum seekers back to Bosnia. July 16 July Croatian police use violence to push back migrants, president admits, as Human Rights Watch calls on Croatia to end illegal practice of forcing people back over Bosnian borde.

Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia. Health in Croatia: Health in Croatia. Medical outbreaks in Croatia: Medical outbreaks in Croatia. July covid pandemic in Croatia: July covid pandemic in Croatia, as country counts pandemic victims. Healthcare in Croatia: Healthcare in Croatia. Sport in Croatia by sport: Sport in Croatia by sport. July 23 July Croatia's national soccer team celebrates with a nazi-supporting, fascist singer, dividing the county.

Media of Croatia: Media of Croatia. Newspapers in Croatia: List of newspapers in Croatia. Internet in Croatia: Internet in Croatia. Concentration and extermination camps of the Independent State of Croatia: Concentration camps of the Independent State of Croatia - Italian fascist internment camps in Croatia. Massacres in Croatia: Massacres in Croatia. Violence in Croatia: Violence in Croatia.

Corruption in Croatia: April 'Das meiste Geld ging direkt an Sanader' - Kroatischer Ex-Regierungschef in Korruptionsprozess von Zeugen schwer belastet - 21 November Former PM Sanader found guilty of taking bribes from two foreign companies, sentenced to 10 years in prison - 4 July As Croatia becomes the 28th country to join the EU, its battle with corruption enters a new phase.

Human trafficking in Croatia: Human trafficking in Croatia. Judiciary of Croatia: Judiciary of Croatia. Law enforcement in Croatia: Law enforcement in Croatia. Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia. Treaties of Croatia: Treaties of Croatia. Juni EU-Beitritt Kroatiens zum 1. Bilateral relations of Croatia: Bilateral relations of Croatia. The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia. Environmentalism in Croatia: Environmentalism in Croatia.

Water supply and sanitation in Croatia: Water supply and sanitation in Croatia. Natural disasters in Croatia: Natural disasters in Croatia. Earthquakes in Croatia: Earthquakes in Croatia. March Zagreb earthquake: 22 March Zagreb earthquake - 22 March A strong earthquake shook Croatia and its capital Zagreb, causing widespread damage and panic, as year-old girl was reported in critical condition and others were injured, as power was cut and several fires were also reported.

Economy of Cyprus: Economy of Cyprus - main industries tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products - List of companies of Cyprus - Companies of Cyprus by industry.

Agriculture in Cyprus: Agriculture in Cyprus - crops are cereals wheat and barley , legumes, vegetables carrots, potatoes, and tomatoes , fruit and other tree crops almonds, apples, bananas, carobs, grapes, grapefruit, lemons, melons, olives, oranges, and peaches. Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus.

Cyprus Merchant Marine: Its geographical position has promoted merchant shipping as an important industry for Cyprus, holding the 3rd largest merchant navy in the EU. Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus. Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus. May Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May Juli vor.

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Railway accidents and incidents in the Czech Republic: Railway accidents and incidents in the Czech Republic. February 6 February Czech Finance Minister Andrej Babis having put his shares of the Agrofert and SynBiol companies in trust funds to comply with the new conflict of interest law has not finally ended the dispute, some politicians say.

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May 17 May Following his attendance of the two-day Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing, Czech president Zeman visits Nanjing Massacre memorial hall, but scolds ambassador Bedrich Kopecky for China criticism and for having signed a non-public appeal for human rights observance in China also signed by 11 diplomats from EU countries, Australia, Canada, Japan and Switzerland.

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He showed great nerve during the mediation of Austria between Russia and Turkey. The streets of Stamboul were in the hands of a fanatical mob led by the Ulemas, who were greatly enraged by the negotiations that ended in the Treaty of Kainardji ; and a number of Christians had been openly murdered. Thugut on several occa- sions risked his life, going alone at night in disguise through the disturbed city to the secret meetings he held with the Turkish Ministers.

He had there two powerful and hostile colleagues in the Russian Stackelberg and the Prussian Lucchesini. That same evening at Court Stanislaus sat down to cards with the Ambassadors of the three Powers which were ere long to despoil him of the last remnant of his kingdom.

Power was his sole passion and object in life. He had no flagrant vices, cared for no pleasures, and was frugal to excess — habitually, it is said, supping off a few plums and a glass of water. Lord Mansfield, writing to Lord Grenville in July , distinctly says that Thugut had large sums of money in the French funds.

At home he repressed with the utmost severity a conspiracy headed by the Hungarian Bishop-Abbot Martinovitz, who had been a favourite of the Emperor Joseph. The object of this aristo- cratic plot was to make Hungary an independent kingdom, on the throne of which would be placed the then Palatine, the young Archduke Alexander Leopold, who was afterwards brought to an untimely end by his own fireworks.

It was the old, ever- recurring Magyar dream, and the chief dreamers were beheaded. In foreign affairs Thugut's main objective was the incorporation of Bavaria into the Habsburg dominions. For the attainment of this he was pre- pared, like Joseph II. This was the explana- tion of the slackness in military operations, the recall of victorious columns, and the mysteriously sudden Imperial departure from the front. Thugut was secretly bargaining with the Terrorist butchers in Paris. Madame de Stael, who had known Robespierre, speaks of " his ignoble features and the green tinge of his veins.

The Neuf Thermidor frustrated the discreditable contract as far as Austrian ambition was concerned, but not until after four of the strongholds that guarded the Belgian frontier had been sold to France for a few millions of francs. It was self-seeking intrigues such as these : the haggling of the Allies over Polish, or eventual Bavarian, spoil; and their half-hearted action and military jealousy which paralysed the magnifi- cent armies placed in the field by the first coali- tion, and prevented their crushing the raw levies of " Paris cobblers and tailors " before they had been welded by the fire of battle into those invincible battalions which swept Europe from one end to the other.

Nevertheless, to Austria and to Thugut — who, for all his intrigues, utterly loathed the French and their Republic — appertains the credit of maintaining the struggle when all the other Continental Powers had withdrawn from it. Austrian steel and British gold alone kept up what ere long became an unequal contest.

And, in the campaigns that immediately followed the desertion of Prussia at Bale and the break-up of the coalition, the Austrians did extremely well. Yet in October — six months after the peace of Bile — that tough veteran, Wurmser, heavily defeated the French at Mannheim, making a prisoner of the future Marshal Oudinot ; while the gallant Clerfayt — at that time the ablest of the Imperial commanders — took the besieging army before Mayence by surprise, inflicting a crushing defeat upon it, and capturing all its siege batteries.

In the following year the Arch- duke Charles laid the foundation of his great military renown by his magnificent campaign against the superior forces of Jourdan and Moreau. At Amberg he thoroughly beat the former, his cavalry under Wernek shattering the French squares with a loss to them of no less than three thousand killed and two thousand prisoners.

At Wurzburg again Jourdan's troops were completely worsted, with a still heavier loss of six thousand killed and two thousand pri- soners. The French were driven back to the Main, Bernadotte being beaten at Aschaffenburg, and the chivalrous Marceau at Allerheim, where he met his death. Moreau, fearing to be cut off by the victorious Archduke, then effected that masterly withdrawal through the defiles of the Black Forest which first made his great reputation, but about which a young general, who was then making his mark with a vengeance in Italy, contemptuously observed that " after all it was only a retreat.

Down south, in the plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, the fortune of war was being decided by methods that utterly disconcerted the old-fashioned tacticians of Austria and the ponderous Aulic Council, by whom their movements were inspired and too often marred. The amazing operations which began with the two victories of Montenotte and Millesimo on the i2th and 14th of April , carried the young Bonaparte in the space of less than a year into the very heart of Carinthia, not eighty miles from Vienna, after he had accounted successively for Beaulieu, Quasdanovich, Davidovich, Wurmser, and Alvinzi, who, with a blundering tenacity one cannot help admiring, renewed the campaign five times with fresh forces.

The preliminaries of Leoben led to the Treaty of Campo Formio in October , whereby the Emperor surrendered Lombardy, but acquired in exchange the territories of the Venetian republic, whose tottering Government the Corsican had over- thrown by the mere terror of his name. It looked now as if peace might be lasting. Already in April the assault made by the Viennese mob on the French Embassy, where Bernadotte had imprudently planted the hated tri- colour, was a sign of the hollowness of the peace.

The Congress at Rastadt, called together ostensibly to determine the compensations to be provided for the princes of the Empire who had been deprived of their trans-Rhenan possessions by the treaties of Bale and Campo Formio, afforded a short breathing time. It also gave Talleyrand, who first appears prominently on the stage at this period, an admirable opportunity to still further sap the loose foundations of the Holy Roman Empire ; for in a secret memorandum written then, he claims to have gained over to the French interest such states as Wurtemberg, Baden, Darm- stadt, and Nassau by promises of aggrandisement.

The Congress, which was suddenly broken off by a French declaration of war, was rendered memorable by the worst outrage recorded in modern diplomatic history. The explana- tion it was sought to give of it was that the troop of Hungarian Szekler Hussars who attacked the defence- less travellers had exceeded their instructions, which were simply to give the Frenchmen a good thrashing and seize their papers. Being severely wounded, he shammed death in a ditch he had fallen into, and was rescued by a secretary of the Prussian Legation.

Any proofs of this which may have existed had been carefully deposited by the French Envoys at their departure, with all their papers, in the hands of the Prussian Plenipotentiary, Count Gortz, which, it must be admitted, was in itself a suspicious circum- stance.

The atrocious deed was therefore committed in vain. An Imperial declaration expressing horror and detestation of the crime was published at the Diet at Ratisbon ; but some degree of mystery still attaches to the affair, and it has left a deep stain on Thugut and his subordinate. The second coalition which now appeared on the scene contained a new and powerful element in Russia. Fortune at first cast her brightest smiles on the Allies. The dreaded Bonaparte was far away in Egypt, and a new spirit animated the Imperial forces.

In Italy, at the same time, Kray was victorious over Scherer at Magnano, and the veteran Suwarow, soon reinforcing the Austrians, took the supreme command and entered upon the brief meteoric campaign which has immortalised his name. He suc- cessively defeated Moreau at Cassano, Macdonald on the Trebbia, and Jourdan in a great battle at Novi, where that ill-starred commander was killed.

The Austrians conceived a great jealousy of the semi-barbaric Suwarow, who for his part had an ill-disguised contempt for the Austrian strategy. The Archduke Charles, instead of being left in touch with the forces to the south of the Alps, was directed from Vienna to march northwards, with the vague object of co-operating with a British expedition under the Duke of York in Holland. Suwarow, on the other hand, received peremptory orders, which could only have emanated from the crazy brain of the Emperor Paul, to join a fresh Russian army of 30, men under Korsakow on the upper waters of the Rhine.

This led to his astounding march across the St. Gothard and the mountains of Schwyz to Glarus, whence he finally reached the valley of the Rhine over sheer mountain tracks several feet deep in the October snow, losing all his guns and one-third of his army. Korsakow, meanwhile, had been pent up by Massena in Zurich, and had to cut his way through with barely 10, men out of his entire force.

The rift between the two Allies had now widened to a complete breach. At Vienna the most ambitious designs in the Mediterranean were imputed to the Emperor Paul, who, not long before, had accepted the Grand Mastership of the Order of Malta. The Russian Emperor on his side, being naturally indignant at the withdrawal of the Arch- duke from active co-operation with his victorious general, recalled the latter with his entire army, and the promising campaign thus came to an end ; not, however, until after the Imperial forces under Melas had routed Championnet at Savigliano.

Suwarow Italinsky disappears from the scene where for a short time he loomed so large, as sud- denly as he had first burst upon it with his brilliant victories. Seven months after his daring and disas- trous Alpine march he died at St. Petersburg in dis- grace, and was spared seeing the fatal day of Marengo, just four weeks later, which undid all his splendid work and restored to the French the Italy he had wrenched from their grasp. His was a strange and unique figure, even in that dazzling age where there was so little room for the commonplace.

Bonaparte, eluding the vigilance of British cruisers, unexpectedly returned to France, and on the famous Dix-Huit Brumaire November 9, , overturned the effete and nerve- less government of the Diredoire and assumed quasi- regal powers under the title of First Consul. He crossed the St. Bernard with 50, men, and took the supine Austrians in Lombardy so completely by surprise that he entered Milan on the 2nd of June in the rear of their forces, and seized an immense depot of military stores at Pavia almost without having fired a shot.

The Imperial generalissimo Melas had just reduced Genoa, and was intent on an invasion of Provence with a large army, part of which was to be composed of English and Neapolitan contingents. The Austrians, numbering some , men, of whom he disposed, were echeloned in a long line extendinor from the centre of Piedmont to the river Var. Melas hastily collected the troops nearest at hand, and seeking to bar the advance of the French, met them at Marengo on the fateful 14th of June.

Never was battle more completely both won and lost. The success of the seasoned Austrians, inured of late to victory, was at first so decided that Melas, who had been slightly wounded, rode back to his quarters in Alessandria and despatched couriers to Vienna with the tidings of his success. Then came the heroic rallying by Desaix, and the fury of his onslaught, followed by Kellermann's cavalry charge ; for which the Austrians, who had almost driven the enemy from the field, were quite unprepared, having broken their ranks and being entirely off their guard.

The disaster became so overwhelming that Melas was forced to capitulate the next day, and Italy was once more lost to the Imperial crown. The Emperor had to sue for peace, which was concluded at Luneville on the 9th of February Thugut, who for seven years had wielded absolute power, and whom Talleyrand always referred to as " the sovereign of Vienna," was the most prominent victim of Hohenlinden. He retired to the estates which the Em- peror had bestowed upon him in Croatia, and living to the age of eighty he died in 8 , saw the down- fall of Napoleon and the prostration of the country he had contended against so persistently and un- dauntedly.

Shakespeare's historical plays were prohibited on account of their dangerous references to the murder and deposition of kings, while Schiller's Maria Stuart was held to be objectionable, as reminiscent of the fate pf Marie Antoinette, and Egmonty Wilhelm Telly and WalUn- stein as inciting to rebellion. When Thugut died Prince Franz Dietrichstein, much to the annoyance of his relations, caused his friend's remains to be interred in the Dietrichstein family vault at Nikols- burg in Moravia.

This was but one of the eccen- tricities of the Prince, who, though in many ways gifted, made himself conspicuous as a frondeur in politics, and led a restless, irregular life. He was married to a Countess Schouvalow, but proved a very inconstant husband.

One of his illegitimate children was the celebrated pianist Thalberg, whose patronymic was derived from the barony of that name, one of the oldest titles in the Dietrichstein family. Prince Franz Dietrichstein was the great- grandfather of the present Austro-Hungarian am- bassador at our Court. Count Louis Cobenzl, who now replaced Thugut, was an experi- enced diplomatist of good old family in Carniola, and in his early days had graduated at the then renowned University of Strasburg, where Talleyrand was one of his fellow-students.

He was a protege of Prince Kaunitz, and had held for twenty years the important Embassy at St. Petersburg, where he was in the good graces of the Empress Catherine. He cannot have owed the distinction with which he was treated by that sovereign to the good looks that were so often a passport to her favour, for Hormayr draws a positively repulsive portrait of him.

His head, says that gossiping historian, was in shape like that of a cat, his hair whitey-brown, and his complexion of a sickly, pallid hue. He was short and obese, or, as Hormayr prefers to call it, bloated and flabby. In spite of these serious drawbacks, he must have been endowed with some special charm ; "his ugliness," we are told, ''being interesting, and even graceful! He wrote plays for Catherine's private theatre, and by means of these, says Hormayr, sometimes contrived to attenuate the effect of unpleasant communications he was charged with for the Russian Government.

One day the Empress, with unconscious prescience of what lay in the near future, twitted him by saying that probably his best play would be written when the French were at Vienna. It was Cobenzl who had finally signed the treaty of Campo Formio, after protracted negotiations, during which he was in daily contact with Bonaparte. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that be- tween the sleek, podgy, middle-aged Austrian and the lean, sunburnt young general with the stern features and the eyes that flashed lightning — those ''rai fulminei,'' as Manzoni so splendidly describes them.

Bonaparte was just then playing a regular game of bluff. The army at his disposal in Italy barely numbered 70, men, and was very deficient in cavalry. The Directoire, whom he was very soon to overthrow, would send him no reinforcements. October, too, had now come with its early snows, and it would be madness to attempt to repeat the audacious march on Vienna over the Julian Alps into Carinthia, where almost the whole of the Imperial forces had now been con- centrated for the protection of the capital.

Cobenzl, conscious of the resources at his back, made a bold front and stubbornly held out for the retrocession of Lombardy, which the Emperor had ceded in principle at Leoben. His tone indeed was haughty and bitter hautain et amer , says Thiers. The young Corsican determined to shake his nerves, and treated him to one of those tantrums into which he was wont to lash himself on special occasions.

They had met at Cobenzl's lodgings in Udine, and from the turn the discussion had taken a final breach seemed unavoid- able. Bonaparte strode across the room to a table on which stood a cabaret with a set of valuable china — a gift of Catherine. Seizing this he dashed it to the ground, saying as he did so, that since the Austrians wished for war they should have it, but he would smash their monarchy as he had the porcelain.

He then at once drove off to his own quarters, and despatched an officer to inform the Archduke Charles that he would recommence hostilities within twenty- four hours. Next day the treaty was signed. But Russia no less than France had to be carefully watched. His son and successor, Alexander I. As for Prussia, since the day of her defection from the First Coalition her relations with Austria had been those of mutual jealousy and distrust, while her general attitude towards the Holy Roman Empire, of which she was the first feudatory, could scarcely be deemed other than disloyal.

That venerable fabric was rapidly nearing its end. It had long lost all real vitality or vigour. The strain of war and the destructive revolutionary wave which had swept over it from the Rhine had shaken its ancient foundations to their base. The trunk of the majestic oak planted by Charlemagne was still standing, but it was hollow and sapless and only cumbered the ground. A fully equipped French force of some 30, men was to join the Russians on the Danube and reach the Indus by way of the Black Sea and the Caspian.

On the 25th of February the Diet finally issued the notorious Reicks deputations kattpt- schluss — a terrible word of twenty-nine letters — which gave its death-blow to the Empire in its traditional shape. The sovereignty of almost countless bishoprics and abbeys was abolished, and their lands parcelled out among the princes to be provided for.

The territories of the smaller princes, counts, and knights remained intact, but only for a time. The worst feature of these high-handed proceedings was their being in great measure dictated from Paris ; several of the claimants for compensation looking chiefly to Bonaparte for support in their pretensions. Prussia, as a recompense for her ill-judged neutrality, had already secured considerable extensions of terri- tory by a private treaty with France, to which Russia was a consenting party.

The dominions of the young Bavarian Elector, who was completely under French influence, were likewise greatly augmented. The circumstances in which the extinction of the Holy Roman Empire took place offer at first sight a decidedly unedifying spectacle. On the other hand, as has been justly observed, the decree by which it was accomplished can scarcely be said to have brutally closed a glorious past, but should rather be looked upon as a necessary, however severe, surgical opera- tion performed on an utterly diseased body politic.

The enlarged States that came into existence under the new arrange- ments were able to confer on the Fatherland many benefits which had been almost entirely denied to it when it was parcelled out in wretched little sovereign- ties, which had neither the means nor the organisation required to effect any useful improvements — to build roads, to found public institutions, to put some life into the stagnation of centuries. Surely the German people were well rid of their fossil Holy Roman Empire.

Gross abuses, which the Emperor Joseph had grappled with in vain, likewise attended the adminis- tration of justice in the Imperial Courts. The supreme tribunal, or Reichskammergerichty had be- come a veritable Augean stable. The papers relating to pending lawsuits lay piled up in heaps, untouched, year after year. A suit between the Elector of Brandenburg and the city of Niirnberg, for instance, dating back to the middle of the sixteenth century, still remained undecided years later.

When the Empire was finally dissolved, eighty thousand untried cases were found stacked in the registry of the Supreme Court. Yet more deplorable were the military system and resources of the Empire. The contingents to be furnished in time of war by its feudatories more or less corresponded with the size and population of their territories.

The raw levies joined in every variety of uniform ; these motley forces being mostly armed with muskets of different calibres. Making every allowance for the palpable exaggerations of this grotesque description of the Reichsarmee, the Empire per sCy as a military power, had long ceased to be redoubtable. The burden of its defence really fell on the Emperor himself and the troops, more or less disciplined, he drew from his hereditary dominions ; and also on Prussia, but only when the latter was not too much absorbed by her personal aims and ambitions.

The assumption of the Imperial dignity by General Bonaparte, and his coronation in , led to a further step towards the complete severance of the ties be- tween the German Empire and its Emperor ; for Francis II. Meanwhile the daily increasing power of France, and the defiance of public opinion shown by such outrages as the kidnapping and execution of the Due d'Enghien, and the seizure of the British repre- sentative at Hamburg, Sir George Rumbold, excited such fears and aroused such horror and indignation throughout Europe that a fresh coalition was soon formed against what was felt to be the common enemy.

Pitt, who had now returned to power, was the life and soul of the new league, and greatly con- tributed to wean Alexander of Russia from his French proclivities and make him join the alliance. In the summer of Francis II. In an evil hour the coterie of the Empress, which included the Ministers Cobenzl and Colloredo, en- trusted the command of the Imperial forces in Ger- many to the notorious Mack, who had been chief of the staff to the Prince of Coburg during the first campaigns against the French Republic.

Fatal though the choice of Mack turned out, it is but fair to remark that he had been received with marked distinction in England, when sent there on a mission in , and had been presented with a valuable sword by George III. Austria paid dearly for this selection of the most incompetent general ever placed in charge of her armies. Mack committed mistake upon mistake ; rashly moved for- ward through Bavaria without awaiting the arrival of the Russians under Kutusow, and, taking up a most unfavourable position at Ulm, allowed himself to be surrounded, and his line of retreat cut off, by Napoleon.

Finally he shamefully capitulated on the 20th October , the whole of his fine army of 80, men being lost to the Empire in a few weeks. There was nothing now between Napoleon and Vienna, which he entered on the loth of November, capturing there an enormous amount of booty in military stores of all kinds, with some cannon, which presently went towards making the splendid column erected in the Place Vendome in glorification of this campaign.

Vienna was no safe residence for him, the temper of its inhabitants being very hos- tile to the invaders. Only after dark did its conqueror venture into the city, attended by the trusty Savary and an Alsatian secret agent of the name of Charles Schulmeister, who was specially attached to his person and did him very good service. Three years later, at the great gathering of princes at Erfurt, this man preserved him from an attempt at assassination, and with a body of detectives which he had organised, watched admirably over his safety.

Those who re- member Vienna as it was forty odd years ago can picture to themselves the new-made Emperor, pacing the ancient bastions — which some two centuries before had withstood Kara Mustapha and his hordes — and looking down exultingly on the city he had wrested from the heir of the Caesars. The intoxication of those days must have surpassed that of all the subse- quent triumphs of his astounding career.

The Austrian Court had hurriedly withdrawn to Olmlitz, where Francis was joined a few days later by his Russian ally. It was but mid-November, and the disaster might still be repaired. The main Russian army, which had retreated into Moravia after the fall of Vienna, was practically intact. And if Prussia could now be brought to join, all might indeed be well. Hanover, held out to him as a bait by Napoleon, proved too strong a temptation for the Prussian monarch.

The great overthrow soon followed. The incidents of the great battle of December the 2nd, , are only too well known. The bitter cold ; the thick fog shrouding the heights and the field of battle with its swampy ground ; then, suddenly, the red sun — the legendary soleil d'Auster- litz — bursting forth through the mist ; the hard-fought contest ; and finally the victory with the disorderly retreat of the Russians across the frozen meres of Satschan, the French batteries pitilessly pounding the ice to engulf the shattered columns that had ventured on it — all this has been often told, and by no one more vividly than by Marbot.

The loss of the battle must be in a great measure attributed to the in- competence of the Austrian chief of the staff, Weyrother, a perfect understudy of the wretched Mack. It was indeed a colossal disaster, such as should have made old Kaunitz, resting hard by in the family vault at Austerlitz, turn in his grave and curse the French, on whose alliance he had so prided himself. There was a painful meeting two days later at the mill of Poleny, half-way between the armies. Napoleon brought to it a numerous and resplendent staff, while the Emperor Francis was attended by a single aide-de-camp.

Napoleon apologised for receiving the visit in so poor a place ; the Emperor aptly replying that his host certainly knew how to make the best out of bad quarters. History, it has been well said, repeats itself.

Sixty-five years later a similar meeting, under nearly identical con- ditions, took place between victor and vanquished. The positions, however, were almost exactly reversed. In the weaver's cottage at Donchery the hour of tribulation had struck for the nephew of the conqueror of Austerlitz, and the monarch who received his surrender was he who was to restore to the pleni- tude of dignity and power an Empire very different from that which slipped from the nerveless hands of Francis.

Greatly though they needed peace, the treaty of Pressburg signed on the 25th of December was a sorry Christmas gift for the people of Austria. The Emperor gave up Venice and Dalmatia to the French, and was shorn of his ancient possessions in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Upper Suabia, and the Breisgau, in favour of Bavaria, Wlirtemberg, and Baden, who had all three unpatriotically thrown in their lot with the foreign invader.

He is said to have drawn at one time considerable British pay, 5 ee THE. Nothing could be more reprehensible than was the conduct of the minor German sovereigns at this juncture. The new kings and grand-dukes who accepted not only the Austrian spoil but their titles from the conqueror of their own liege lord, and were content to be his satellites as long as victory followed his eagles, stand out in ugly contrast to the Imperial power which, undeterred by misfortune and defeat, stubbornly renewed the contest with him time after time.

In looking back at the records of that period it is impossible not to feel that Austria has since then fared badly at the hands of that Germany for whom she fought so valiantly in those days of its national adversity. An immediate and important result of the treaty of Pressburg was the dismissal of the Chancellor Cobenzl, who survived his fall only three years.

With him disappeared the baneful camarilla, whose rashness and incompetence had cost the Empire so dear. Its animating spirit, the poor, frivolous Empress Theresa, died not very long after Austerlitz. His principles and policy were much more enlightened than those of his predecessors. The heavily taxed and police-ridden Austrian people breathed more freely under his administration.

His efforts were chiefly directed to putting heart into the dispirited nation and rousing its dormant patriotism. The military forces of the Empire were completely reorganised ; the Archduke Charles, who now pre- sided over the Aulic Council, taking a leading part in this work. In the years that immediately followed the treaty of Pressburg, the course of events placed Austria in a position of great isolation and danger.

The destruction of the Prussian power after Jena ; Napoleon's daring and successful Polish campaigns ; and finally, after Friedland, the treaty of Tilsit and the famous interview of Erfurt, at which Europe was practically divided between Russia and France, ex- posed Austria to the most formidable of combinations. On the other hand.

Napoleon was now deeply engaged in that weary contest in the Iberian peninsula, which led to such serious results for him. The time was, therefore, not ill chosen for a last attempt to free Germany from a hateful yoke. The tidings of the sturdy resistance offered by the Spanish guerillas to Napoleon's seasoned troops likewise greatly helped to stimulate the national movement all through the Empire for a war of revenge. Once more Francis II. The year may be called Austria's risorgi- mento.

The war fever had seized upon the whole country ; the Hungarian half of the monarchy being equally inflamed by it. He had, it is true, called the capable Stadion to power, but he himself it was who gave the final decision on every measure that had to be taken. Instead, however, of advancing rapidly and scattering the feeble forces of the Rheinbund, he did not move the great body of his army beyond Ratisbon.

Some mystery attaches to so consummate a commander's feeble conduct of the campaign. He showed unwonted vacillation, thus giving Napoleon time to hurry back from Spain ; to throw himself upon the advanced Imperial corps, and to beat them in detail.

It seems not improbable that one of those sudden attacks of illness which from time to time prostrated Charles now incapacitated him. Hormayr's explanation of this apathy, says Mr. The direction of the operations was thereby left in the hands of his incompetent chief of the staff, Prohaska, who had been forced upon him by the War Office. The Austrians were finally attacked by superior numbers at Eckmuhl on the 22nd of April, and totally routed.

Once more the road to Vienna lay open, and the Imperial capital was occupied on the 13th of May after a short bombardment. The week that followed is rendered memorable in Austrian annals by the terrible days of Aspern and Essling. The Archduke boldly took the offen- sive with fresh forces, and by sheer hammering at them, drove the French out of all their positions on the Danube into the island of Lobau — now an Imperial preserve, where the privileged sportsman may see abundant pheasants rocketing above the trees which, during that critical period, sheltered the bivouac of the great Napoleon.

The carnage on the two days was fearful. The Hungarian regiments took a great share in this gigantic and glorious conflict. At last, on the 5th of July, Napoleon broke through, and assaulted the Austrian position at Wagram with very superior forces. In the two days battle that ensued the Austrians not only held their own but made a determined attempt on the second day to cut Napoleon off from the river.

The sanguin- ary struggle, which in view of its results justly ranks as a great victory, was in reality undecided, but the Archduke, waiting in vain for the coming of the pro- mised forces under his brother John, and having lost 30, men, or one-fourth of his entire strength, drew off his army to Znaim. An armistice was concluded, and, after protracted negotiations which lasted until October, peace was signed at Vienna.

A peace by which the Empire was still further dismembered ; Trieste, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Carniola being ceded to the so-called kingdom of Italy, and Salzburg and Berchtesgaden to Bavaria. One of the conditions im- posed by the conqueror was the removal from office of the energetic and high-minded Stadion.

There are many circumstances attending this fatal campaign which remain unexplained, as for instance the failure of the Archduke John to reinforce his brother in time at Wagram. But, meanwhile, further off in the Emperor's dominions, the heroic spirit was not extinct. The Tyrolese, who had been handed over to Bavaria after Austerlitz by the treaty of Pressburg, rose en masse in the spring of and expelled all the Bavarian garrisons and their French allies.

After severe fighting, in which a great number of the Tyrolese women took an active part, the invaders were again driven out of the mountains, and Hofer installed a provisional government at Innsbruck, which he administered with much ability until, yielding to the peremptory orders he received from Vienna after the signature of peace, he made his people lay down their arms and retired into obscurity.

He was forced, how- ever, once more to put himself at the head of another successful rising, but was finally betrayed to the French and taken to Mantua, where he was shot by express orders sent from Paris by Napoleon in Feb- ruary , on a day which, as it happened, marked a very conspicuous event in the Napoleonic annals. The story of the rough Tyrolese innkeeper and his faithful mountaineers sheds a brilliant lustre of its own on this last struggle of Austria against her irresistible adversary.

By their loyalty and un- daunted pluck they made up for much of the slack- ness, the divided counsels, and the incapacity that marred this great effort in which, by the fatuous ex- pedition to Walcheren, we ourselves took so inglorious a part On the morning of his execution Hofer wrote from the citadel at Mantua a few parting lines to his brother- in-law Pohler. She must have prayers said in both parishes, and take care that the friends are each of them given soup and meat and a pint of wine.

Fare- well to you all from this world till we meet again in heaven, and praise God without end. Dying appears to me so easy that my eyes are not even wet. Written at five in the morning, and at nine I shall journey sic with the help of all the saints to God. The men bungled their work abomin- ably, and after two salvoes a corporal had to give him the coup de grace.

It was the morning of the 20th of February. Only four days before at Vienna the formal betrothal of the Emperor's eldest daughter to Napoleon had been decided upon. This celebrated statesman was a cadet of a very distinguished family which ranked high among the oldest nobility of the Rhenish pro- vinces, and had furnished Electors to the great sees of Treves and Cologne in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

He early entered the Imperial service, where he attracted the favourable notice of the old Chancellor, Prince Kaunitz, whose grand-daughter he subsequently married in By this match Metter- nich at once acquired a privileged footing in the most exclusive circles of the aristocracy of Vienna. In 1 , at the early age of twenty-eight, he was appointed Envoy at Dresden, and five years later was trans- ferred to Paris, where he found Napoleon on the very brink of the Jena campaign.

His remarkable good looks, his subtle wit and charm of manner, soon made him conspicuous at the brand-new French Imperial Court, and specially commended him to the good graces of Napoleon's favourite sister, Caroline Murat. There is a curious story which shows that some years later, when fortune had deserted the great conqueror and he was making his last desperate stand against the Allies in France, Metternich was still mindful of Caroline Murat's early friendship for him.

An Eng- lish man-of-war captured in the Mediterranean a Neapolitan vessel, on board of which were found some letters addressed by Metternich to the Queen of Naples warning her, in very affectionate terms, of the dangers which she and her husband, Joachim Murat, were incurring by the dubious attitude of the latter towards the Allies. These letters were sent by the Austrian General Nugent to the allied headquarters at Troyes, where they naturally made a considerable sensation.

Metternich, in the course of his mission to Paris in the dark and difficult days that divided Austerlitz from Wagram, acquired a diplomatic experience such as seldom falls to the lot of a foreign representative. To thread his way safely and imperturbably amidst the wiles and snares of Talleyrand and Fouchd, and the alternating brutal or cajoling moods of their mighty master, without detriment to his own position or to the interests of Austria then still reeling under the stunning blow of Austerlitz, was an achievement of the first order.

His Embassy to France, therefore, in every way qualified Metternich for the conduct of the Imperial Foreign Office, and his first care, in entering upon his duties after the crowning disaster of Wagram, was to guard against the closer understanding between France and Russia, which was then ominously grow- ing up, and must, if perfected, inevitably complete the ruin of the Austrian monarchy.

At this critical juncture it was that the French Emperor, after repudiating the childless Josephine, was devoting all his energies to effecting a matri- monial alliance with one of the great European dynasties. He had some time before initiated nego- tiations for the hand of one of the Russian Grand Duchesses, but had hitherto only received evasive replies, and met with stubborn opposition on the part of the Empress Dowager.

No alliance could be more alluring to the parvenu instincts of the master of legions. On the other hand, Habsburg pride of race, and the abhorrence of the Austrian Emperor for the revolutionary origin of his victor and oppressor, seemed insuperable obstacles to his consent to such a project. Yet it was carried out with surprising ease and rapidity.

The pressure, whencesoever it came, was thoroughly effectual, and in less than six weeks from the commencement of the pourparlers, the last obstacles were overcome, and the marriage by proxy took place at Vienna on the nth of March , the Archduke Charles representing Napoleon.

Unfortunately some of the incidents of the young Archduchess's journey to France throw an unplea- sant light on the whole affair. At Braunau, on the Bavarian frontier, Marie- Louise was to be formally handed over to the care of Berthier, Prince of Neu- chdtel, who had been deputed to receive her.

Here, however, she was met by Caroline Murat, and was informed, to her infinite distress, that her lady-in- waiting. Countess Lazanski, who had been with her since her childhood, would not be permitted to pro- ceed any further on the journey. She was to part with all she had brought from Austria. Even her favourite little Spitz, M. Masson tells us, was sent back to Vienna, for Napoleon could not endure dogs. As some amends, however, for this inexplicable and unpardonable slight should be reckoned the incident of the first meeting between the strangely mated couple.

The mighty conqueror — so engrossed by his desire to make himself acceptable to the youthful bride as to send for tailors to fit him properly, and dancing-masters to teach him the Vienna waltz — set out, in a fit of knight-errantry, to meet her incognito on the road, in the character of a messenger charged 78 THE AUSTRIAN COURT with a letter for her. He wore the plain uniform of an artillery officer, and, but for the blundering zeal of a Court official, who, on his riding up to the car- riage, called out : " I'Empereur!

Yet, in brutal contrast to this, at Compiegne, where the cortege rested for the night, his evil instincts got the better of him, and, in fact, he boasted the next morning to his intimates of having disloyally anti- cipated his conjugal rights. The nuptials were only solemnised on the ist of April with the greatest imaginable pomp. Their splendour, however, was soon sadly marred by the fatal fire that took place at the ball at the Austrian Embassy, among the victims of which were the sister-in-law of the Ambassador, Prince Schwarzen- berg, with her daughter and other ladies.

But in spite of this sinister omen, which recalled to mind the catastrophe that marked the coming of that other Austrian Princess, Marie Antoinette, the dawn of Marie-Louise's wedded life gave promise of much happiness. Her innocent grace and gentleness and her innate and simple piety made a profound impres- sion on the most domineering spirit of the age, and awakened in him a tenderness and devotion which seemed utterly foreign to his nature.

He came down, so to speak, from the pinnacle to which he had raised himself and where, till now, he had dwelt sternly alone with his soaring dreams and his boundless ambition, and found a delight he had never deemed to be pos- sible in the sober joys of married life. But M. The only draw- back to Metternich's satisfaction, and a very serious one, was that he saw no certainty of the influence of the young Empress procuring for Austria the abroga- tion of the humiliating article of the last treaty of peace, whereby she bound herself not to keep on foot more than 50, men.

The splen- dour and brilliancy of her surroundings far outshone the old-fashioned grandeur of her father's Court. Nor could the young Empress, with her quick intelligence, fail to be impressed by the wonderful glamour which, for a brief period — the interval between Wagram and Moscow — surrounded the throne she was sharing with a husband who made her slightest wish his law.

The short-lived French Empire reached its zenith at this time. Already, in , Napoleon had, in a rescript audaciously dated from Schonbrunn four days before Aspern, proclaimed himself the successor of Charle- magne, and, revoking the gift of the territories granted by that monarch to the Holy See, had annexed Rome itself to his other Italian dominions, and made a pri- soner of the recalcitrant Pontiff.

Before long Marie- Louise's maternal pride was gratified by the bestowal of the title of King of Rome on the infant to whom she gave birth in March 1. It was a strange dis- pensation that conferred on the son of a successful soldier of fortune the time-honoured designation borne for centuries by the heirs of the German Caesars from whom Marie-Louise herself descended.

But her con- sort was now the undisputed Emperor of the West and master of the world, and at no time did he assert his omnipotence so ostentatiously as during the halt he made at Dresden in 2, when mustering his forces for a final trial of strength with, as yet, unsubdued Russia. The proudest houses of Germany, Hohenzollern and Wettin, and Hesse and Zaehringen, waited upon his pleasure like the satraps of some Eastern potentate. Whate'er was petty now has disappeared, For see! Francis and his consort accordingly came from Vienna to this pompous celebration of the pax Germanica.

Of the principal personages present at it two, however, could not but view it with distaste and displeasure. The one was the unfortunate King of Prussia, whom policy compelled reluctantly to attend, but who, according to Segur, was treated by » The sun is less great and less bright than he. Das Kleinliche ist alles weggenommen, Nun steht das Reich gesichert, wie gegriindet.

The other was the Empress Maria Ludovica, who, besides being a violent Gallophobe, found herself quite eclipsed by the wonderful display of jewels and Parisian millinery of her now Frenchified step- daughter. The meeting may well have been uncom- fortable in many ways, but, outwardly, things passed off smoothly ; Napoleon adroitly humouring his father- in-law's prejudices about birth and long descent by saying that he must look upon him as the Rudolph of Habsburg of his family.

As for the Emperor Francis himself, he made a considerable impression on his son- in-law, who confided to Metternich that he found his master vastly superior to what he had imagined him to be, and that, in their discussions, he often saw him- self reduced to silence by him.

Austria agreed to furnish to the invasion of Russia some 30, men under Prince Charles Schwarzenberg, who would operate independently in Volhynia. The great assem- blage that had met to do homage to the master of the Western world then broke up ; Marie-Louise, to her delight, accompanying her parents to Teplitz and Prague, whilst her husband hastened to the front to join the host of more than half-a-million of men, gathered together from every nation on the Continent — one-third of them at least Germans — whom he was launching on the maddest and most disastrous of military enterprises.

In June 18 13 Napoleon was at Dresden again. But, though victorious, he was at bay, for on his flank his recent, but reluctant Austrian ally stood wavering, and might at any time, like Prussia, turn upon him and render the combination against him fatal. During the long truce that followed his last successes he made the Marcolini Palace his head- quarters, and, although doubtless consumed by anxiety as he watched the course of the armed mediation which had been undertaken by Austria, he kept up a semblance of his habitual court life.

He sent for his favourite comedians from Paris, and gave dramatic entertainments. The poor King of Saxony, whom he had dragged back in his suite and re-installed in his capital, had to be present at these performances, but was always careful, it was said, to make his peace with Heaven afterwards by getting his confessor to grant him absolution before retiring to rest.

At the Marcolini Palace, on the 28th of June, took place the famous interview with Metternich which finally turned the scale in favour of war. In his old age the Chancellor never wearied of relating the incidents of the meeting. He threatened and stormed at him and then, by turns, endeavoured to tempt and cajole him. But when it came to the terms he was asked to accept, and which — but for the retrocession of the Illyrian provinces and of the Prussian territory east of the Elbe, and the dissolution of the Duchy of Warsaw — would have left the rest of his conquests untouched, 84 THE, AUSTRIAN COURT he would hear of no abandonment of territory what- ever, and indignantly asked what manner of truncated empire the Emperor Francis proposed should be left for his daughter and grandson.

In the end he grossly insulted Metternich by demanding point-blank how much he had got from England for playing such a part against him. With his habitual restlessness he strode up and down the room, while he either menaced or expostulated with him. But Metternich, walking by his side, took no notice of this pettish display, so that at last, picking up the hat himself, the baffled Emperor flung violently out of the room.

Napoleon, in his fury, real or simulated, had divined rightly. The Austrian Minister had come to the interview prepared for war, though anxious, if possible, to avoid it. But when he left the Imperial audience chamber his mind was quite made up.

He was met at the door by General Berthier, who, alarmed at the length of the interview, asked him whether he was satisfied with the Emperor. There is good reason to beheve, however, that it forms part of the Metternich family traditions. But Metter- nich's master had yet to be reckoned with. Francis was strongly opposed to war, and very loth to break irrevocably with the consort of his favourite daughter. On the other hand, throughout the length and breadth of Austria- Hungary there was a fierce longing to wipe out past defeats and humiliations by the final over- throw of the oppressor.

And that feeling it was which found vent in the refrain to the popular ditty of the day : — " Franciscus auf! Dich binden keine Bande, Das Vaterland hat keinen Schwiegersohn. It had been stipulated that unless by the loth of that month the French Emperor signified his acceptance of the conditions formulated by Austria, that Power would join her forces to those of the Allies.

No com- munication from him having been received on that fatal date, the die was cast, and at night great fiery beacons on the summits of the Riesengebirge pro- claimed to the whole country around, and to the French over the border, that at last Austria had drawn the sword.

When, after the abortive Congress of Chatillon, the Russian Emperor and the Prussian King resolved to march straight to Paris, which they entered on the 31st of March, Francis went to Dijon with Metternich, Stadion, and Lord Castlereagh, and it was only after the formal abdica- tion of Napoleon that he joined the other sovereigns in the French capital.

By thus deliberately tarrying on the way the Austrian Emperor unconsciously did the greatest dis- service to the Napoleonic cause and to the interests of his daughter and grandson. He thereby left an entirely free hand to the Tsar Alexander, and enabled that sovereign to deal, without consulting him.

Not only Napoleon, but the possi- bility of a regency under Marie- Louise, was practically excluded by this arbitrary decree of Alexander, who harboured the most vindictive feelings against the ravager of Moscow, and now opened the door wide for the return of the unpopular Bourbons. Peace was signed at Paris on the 30th of May, and on the 13th of June Francis was back again in Vienna, after an absence of a whole year.

Metternich meanwhile, who had been rewarded for his services by the title of Prince, and was now promoted to the Chancellorship of the Empire, went on from Paris to England and shared in the enthusiastic welcome given to the Prussian and Russian monarchs during their visit to these shores.

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