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What is unusual is the manner in which Isou decides to explore this polyvalence. He would have not been the only one to write or to talk about himself in the 3rd person, but he certainly would be one of the few, if not the only one, who would deliberately oscillate between the two.

He thought nais pour le Messie. In other words, if Isou decides to introduce a heterodiegetic discourse in his theoretical writings, it is for much more than a simple rhetorical distance. Je ne suis istent zone. I no longer am! I no longer plus! I sign my name on a sheet of pa- sur un papier. As pronouncing a magic formula, une formule magique, je reviens. It is precisely this promise, which seems to be guiding Isidore Isou throughout his artistic practice. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations are by the author.

Italics in the original. Foucault, What is an author? Rabinow ed. Rabinow Paul ed. On ne trouve pas ce topos dans les chansons des Lost. Selon Victoria A. Villancicos, glosas, canciones etc. Dans les textes du Cancionero General on mentionne le noir, le blanc, le jaune et le vert. Dans Mena Dans la chanson Semplice de Walter Fontana on cite deux couleurs: le rose et le noir.

Dans la glosa de mote GM 4. Dans Mena 7. Walter Fontana emploie seulement le substantif baby. Dutton, El Cancionero del siglo XV c. Compagno, Glossario cit. I-II; H. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires ; R. De Riquer, Los trovadores, Ariel, Barcelona , vol. III; P. Rodado Ruiz, «Tristura conmigo va» Salinas, Jorge Manrique, cit. De Riquer, Los trovadores, cit.

Compagno, Glossario, cit. Alvar, V. Alvar, El dolce stil novo: 47 sonetos y 3 canciones. I, pp. Ferroni, Storia della Letteratura Italiana, cit. III, pp. Antonelli, Le origini, cit. Lausberg, Elementi di retorica, Il Mulino, Bologna Alvar Carlos, El dolce stil novo: 47 sonetos y 3 canciones. De las jarchas a Jorge Manrique , Hermes, Barcelona Botta Patrizia, Una tomba emblematica per una morta incoronata.

Burrus V. Cancionero General, recopilado por Hernando del Castillo, Valencia, Denomy A. Estudio, notas y comentario de texto, Narcea, Madrid Duncan R. Beardsley et al. Ferroni Giulio, Storia della letteratura italiana, Mondadori, Milano , voll.

I e III. Gerli E. Green O. Hernando del Castillo, Cancionero general, ed. Caravaggi, Taurus, Madrid Lausberg Heinrich, Elementi di retorica, trad. Ritter Santini, Il Mulino, Bologna Lewis C. De Nigris, Liguori, Napoli Rodado Ruiz A. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music First it spread predominantly through the Anglophone countries, but soon opened up to ideas coming from a wider arena. It had the merit of stimulating reflections on the status of the canon, interrogating scholars on what the canon was, on how it should have been constructed, on the func- tions it should have had, and, more specifically, on the necessity of creating a canon, with all the responsibilities, duties and risks that its action was to have in literary and cultural systems.

As a premise, it is important to underline the fact that the concept of canon relates to every art form, i. It is thus possible to talk of a canon in the fields of painting, music, and so forth. Secondly, it is important to keep in mind that canons refer, by convention, to a selection of works that are seen as fundamental and exemplary in the realm of a given culture: for example the Western canon.

But they can also refer to a specific period, such as the Mediaeval canon, or the Renaissance canon, etc. A Canon has normative functions and exemplifies modes and ways of providing mod- els. It sets standards and offers examples perceived as good to follow and emulate, thus influencing society. It aims at pre- scribing prototypes and models whose influence one may see in the field of education as well as cultural and social life. One of the main achievements of the debate carried on over the last years has been to question the very concept of canon and its validity.

Starting from its definition the canon has been deconstructed and contest- ed. Most scholars have lately agreed on the fact that the hypothesis of a universal canon posited years ago can never work, since the canon is the result of a precise ideology that cannot be universally valid and widely accepted, and that reflects the principles and interests of those who make it up. Moreover, the canon mirrors specific values that may be valid only in a given space and time.

A canon reflects the identity of a specific social, ethnic and linguistic group, so that, in modern times, in an era of relativ- ism and multiculturalism, a rapid and prolific multiplication of different canons is governing the current scenario. This new trend is due to the fact that today the world is inhabited by thousands of different social, ethnic and linguistic groups that are extremely heterogeneous.

In addition to this, it is also important to stress the fact that canons have to do with value judg- ments, expressed according to different parameters, by complex, stratified and multi-faceted societies, and are thus very far from being unique and monolithic models.

Whilst the debate on the issue of the canon was being carried on, schol- ars progressively came to acknowledge that a canon, understood as univer- sal and hegemonic, would never exist. Canon is in fact epochal, ideological and tied to classifications operated in different cultural atmospheres, and therefore, it varies. Once having questioned the essence and form of the canon, its necessary revision has eventually taken place.

Today, due to the wealth and diversity of social groups, many different canons have emerged. The idea of a common identity gave place to the proposal of new models such as the American melting pot, made up of multiple identities, or the Canadian mosaic in which every social group creates its own canon, trying, sometimes succeeding sometimes not, to establish a system of co- existence, if not acceptation.

Moreover, the era of globalization and multi- culturalism has led to a fragmentation of identities, and, since the canon is strictly linked to the idea of identity, if the societies today are multicultural, the canon also necessarily has to be the same. So, a unique and hegem- onic canon can no longer exist, what now exists is the idea of fragmen- tation.

Therefore the canon, as it has been traditionally understood, has disappeared. In such a frame, the concept of hierarchy that the canon, as it was con- ceived in the past, entailed, has also vanished. Today the axis of the system has rotated, from being a vertical and hierarchical one it has become a hori- zontal one, where different canons simultaneously develop side by side.

Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 69 on, in which it reflects ideas, values and principles that respond to its own specific requirements. Hybridization is wished for, and may occur among different canons and arts, however intersection and contact are not funda- mental for their life.

So, every canon develops independently. As for schooling and the issue of education, a field where selection is required for obvious reasons of time, and where therefore it is important to give priority to certain forms and works of art, every country and society makes subjective choices, even though with variants, so that one can argue that an Italian canon may exist, and be different from an English one, and so forth. Canons may change over time and according to the social back- grounds they are exposed to.

The spontaneous emergence of these new canons questions the world of high arts and tradition. The contours of what has been understood as high, low, and mass culture are being redesigned and their boundaries weakened. Graffiti, in figurative arts, for example, are beginning to be part of the collective heritage through the improvisation of the Writers, as are the performances of the Breakers, by means of rap music.

It is possible to claim, then, that the setting up of new canons today no longer seems to be due to academic decisions made by restricted elitist groups but, on the contrary, it is becoming clearer and clearer that these canons are emerging according to the contingencies of reality. The power- ful machine of marketing is also an important instrument to decide which cultural products must be placed in the world economy and which must not.

This mechanism functions in the literary system, in which, for ex- ample, new fields of study Postcolonial Studies, Black Studies, Women Studies, Gay and Lesbian Studies, etc. In such a way it is evident that only certain products are encour- aged to enter, or are deliberately placed on the market, sometimes because they respond to the taste of the public, sometimes because they are more in tune with the time, and are able to embody new sensibilities, and represent new identities, and progressively substitute old models.

It is History that makes the canon. Hegemonic discourse, hegemonic culture, subaltern culture be- came the centre of the debate and the relationship among these forces has been changing and also reversing over time; notwithstanding this, the truth is that «history is a tool able to dominate Time, past, present and thus also future»5. What creates new cultural products and makes them enter the can- on of History are ideas, or better, ideologies.

Indeed, globalization and the formation of multiethnic and multicultural communities through migration have contributed to re-assetting the reality of the various communities. The world of arts is therefore constantly questioned by everyday reality and the market demand, accord- ing to which it expels, includes, and hybridizes itself with new forms.

One piece of evidence of all this is the modern phenomenon of rap- ping. A form of poetry, music, body performance, that is sung and danced. It is born in the metropolis and street life feeds it. It uses all the power- ful elements of the urban atmosphere: rhythm, vibration, polyphony. It consciously uses its linguistic colloquial modes and slang. It conveys mes- sages, often polemical ones. Rappers claim their ethnic identity but especially room within the world cultural panorama. Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 71 hop: a culture, a way of life; whoever follows it has to respect specific charac- teristics and adhere to the hip hop lifestyle, be it the way of wearing clothes, using a specific body language, showing symbols to wear with pride, or us- ing a typical slang.

It is a sort of confraternity, a school, a community whose members come from the most diverse parts of the world, and who share ideas and principles and interpret them with homogeneity. Even if hip hop culture and its subgenres, such as rap music, have not emerged from the inner city, they have recently attracted the attention of the academic world by which they have been studied and monitored.

One of the many achievements has been the creation of an anthology, entitled The Anthology of Rap5 , by Adam Bradly and Andrew Dubois, two young scholars and researchers, both of them PhDs at Harvard. The book came out in and had the purpose of enquiring into the genesis and history of rap music and culture. Fundamental help, source of information and premise to the book was the Hip Hop Archive, previous- ly created by the same university, which came out in in collaboration with the W.

These are just a few of the many examples of books published and research activities on this topic, but they are indeed meaningful to understand the emergence of such a culture and the importance of this field of study. Rap music generates a text whose content is strictly linked to the context in which it develops.

The knowledge and awareness of it is fundamental for a correct interpretation of the phe- nomenon. The book discusses an important network of links between high culture and mass culture, claiming that one is fundamental for the other; and moreover that in between them, there is frequent hybridization; this process leads to the creation of new fertile combinations and possibilities. Much emphasis is also given to the important role of mass media, especially the Internet, for a freer and more equalitarian access to information.

The study eventually focuses on the rappers themselves and defines them as «active, creative agents», who use everyday reality and life and make them the core of their discourse; they deal with topics such as poverty, non-success, failure, weakness, and many other issues. Rap music includes a discourse of revolt, «future is encrypted in my troubled lyrics», says Lowkey, as well as subversion against a hege- monic system of privileges, no longer bearable. It is not by chance, in fact, that the majority of rap lyrics were generated in the ghettoes of the early black communities in contact with mainstream culture, which has tended to minimize and criticize the culture of rap in its forms and essence.

Moreover, Haupt wishes to explore «the conscious hip hop», and by this, he intends: [ In this respect, the phrase knowledge of self has often been used by hip hop artists to refer to this form of self-reflexive consciousness, which has often been associated with the ideals of black consciousness.

This frame of revolt is well ex- emplified by the symptomatic titles given to the lyrics. For example Lowkey, one of the major rappers of the international scenario, entitles some of his lyr- ics: Everything Must Change , Voice of the Voiceless , Rise and Fall ; Beastie Boys sing Sabotage , For Tomorrow , and moreover Mr.

The message conveyed is a personal, subjec- tive one; the rapper tells his or her own story, experience and life. Rap is thus a highly emotional genre. The language and the slang used are based on onomatopoeias. The sounds dress the words, wrapping them up, em- bracing them. The references are multiple: God, money, power, illness, pol- itics, drugs, war, slavery, racism, and are deeply linked with reality.

The voices of the rappers are polemical and aim at generating long lyrics, as if they were never enough to make the change happen. It is extremely fertile, ready to blend with local proposals, to be played with local instruments, autochthonous rhythms, local phe- nomena appropriate to rap culture and music mixing them with tradition. Moreover rap is a common language, shared by artists coming from the most different parts of the world, with different traditions, though rap music is predominantly performed by young artists whose target are the younger generations.

In it, different social, political and historical contexts are interwoven among themselves; besides reflecting reality, rap music, as shown by the lecture delivered at Harvard, can also be used as a teaching tool to provide students with new keys for the comprehension of everyday reality. So, if to make a canon means, for a given form of art, to be analyzed, se- lected, organized, put into anthologies, published in books and journals, trans- mitted by multi-media channels TV, radio, cinema, movies, PC games, the Internet , taught in school, and given attention by the academic world, for all these reasons it is possible to claim that rap culture creates its own canon, the canon of rap music, be it the British canon of rap or the American one, and so on.

Its global diffusion has been achieved thanks to modern technology, the market then has validated rap as a real genre and as an item that is easy to sell. Communication does not merely express the direction that globalization is taking, but also has the power to organize it, to establish communicative networks. These communicative networks, offer marginal subjects the opportunity to issue challenges to the iniquities and imbalances produced by corporate globalization.

It is advisable to create and aliment the debate around this issue so that it may constantly be renegoti- ated and up-to-date. Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 75 ing under the pressure of many forces: past and present, centre and pe- riphery, mainstream and subaltern. However these canons should always be renegotiated forms of co-existence, because, in the end, mainstream and subaltern are traversed by constant relations of inclusion and exclusion, derivation and production.

Canons should be seen as possibilities, dynam- ic organisms open to modifications, new entries and old ones. The history of canon is in conclusion a history of continuity and fracture, of a constant re-making and re-fashioning.

While the two opponents in the debate, the pro-canon and the anti-canon, were fighting each other and re- spectively contesting their positions, new canons were independently and spontaneously coming about. The answer eventually was a self-made one, under the pressure of all the changes of current days, willingly or not willingly, new canons have emerged and others will keep emerging in the future. Far from belonging to the «school of resentment»16, as Harold Bloom has de- fined it, the trend in research is today oriented towards openness and multiple options.

What is sure, is that despite the different opinions the debate has to go on, constantly acting as an engine to strengthen dialogue and confrontation and, in them, look for a relationship with diversity. Notes 1 F. Olivieri a cura di , Un canone per il terzo millennio. Testi e problemi per lo studio del Novecento tra teoria della letteratura, antropologia e storia, Mondadori, Milano , p. Domeni- chelli, Il Canone letterario occidentale al tempo della globalizzazione: mutazioni, ibridazioni, prolifera- zioni, «Moderna», 1, , pp.

Domenichelli, cit. Bradley, A. References Albertazzi Silvia, Canone, in S. Albertazzi, R. Vecchi a cura di , Abbecedario postcoloniale. Ascari Maurizio, Canone e anticanone: la parola e il potere, in Id. Cieli comuni, orizzonti di- versi, Napoli, Liguori Domenichelli Mario, Il Canone letterario occidentale al tempo della globalizzazione: mutazioni, ibridazioni, proliferazioni, «Moderna», 1, , pp. Guillory John, Cultural Capital. Lyotard J. Olivieri U.

Testi e problemi per lo studio del Novecento tra teoria della letteratura, antropologia e storia, Mondadori, Milano Una volta terminata la Prima Guerra Mondiale, molti artisti ed intellettuali che avevano soggiornato come profughi a Zurigo in quegli anni abbandonaro- no la Svizzera; tra questi, anche Tzara, Arp e gli altri dadaisti.

Tirol 14 Aug. Wir hoffen sie mit dieser sache nicht zu belestigen und werden ihnen gerne auch einmal behilflich sein. I buchi nelle nostre suole si richiudono e le parti marcite dei nostri denti guarisco- no. Con grande impazienza attendiamo la sua antologia.

Con la presente le alle- ghiamo mila corone. La preghiamo di detrarne 5 franchi per la matrice e di utilizzare il resto per le antologie da spedirci. Inoltre ci impegneremo molto a venderne anche in Svizzera. Ovviamente poi le invieremo danaro svizzero. Ma ora vengo al nocciolo della nostra lettera. Tzara infatti siede sulla macchina da scrivere ed io canto. Le chiediamo cortesemente di aiutarci. Per un accurato conteggio, la lettera acclusa va consegnata, insieme ai dattiloscritti da conservare con cura, ad un tipografo di sua fiducia.

La risposta va inviata quanto prima pos- sibile a Tzara. Le aggiungiamo anche corone per la risposta telegrafica al monsieur Aa. Ci telegrafi quindi per favore il prezzo approssimativo richiesto dal tipo- grafo per il nostro libro. Maass La prego di inviare gli esemplari per Arp e Taeuber a Zurigo, [ Traduzione dal tedesco di Alberto Ricci. Traduzione dal francese di Marta Russo 2. Mi sarei presentato molto volentieri per salutarLa con sincero affetto, ma purtroppo sono ammalato per cui La accolgo nel nostro paese solo tramite questa breve lettera.

Sono contento che noi due procediamo nella stessa direzione, verso gli stessi obiettivi. Si sono ipotizzate diverse spiegazioni. Ora approfitterei del suo aiuto. Caro amico, penso spesso e con affetto al nostro incontro a Budapest. Pas- sammo una bella giornata insieme. Sarei contento se potessimo stringerci la mano ancora una volta a Parigi. Baal, H. Baal, Introduction, in Id. Farkas s. Schulcz Hrsgg. Baal, Introduc- tion, in Id. Benson ed. La cortina di ferro del tempo?

Per il facsimile della lettera si rinvia a E. Ringrazio la dottoressa Katalin Schulcz per il suo aiuto nella trascrizione della lettera. Collocazione: KM-lev. Gergely, P. Pataki, F. Imre, Meghitt idegenek Collocazione: KM- lev. Baal Georges, Introduction, in Id. Benson T. It is generally accepted that the new literary history focuses less and less on national literatures. Actually this concept has become very problematic over the past twenty years. Contemporary theorists have empha- sized the image of a global literary field see Damrosch ; Moretti ; Petersson The recent shift towards Weltliteratur and its study owes a lot to the revival of comparative literature.

Both these disciplines — literary history and comparative literature — are facing this new object of study and are looking for new tools and meth- odologies to approach it. One of the main issues that literary research has come across lately is certainly the relationship between national literatures and broader literary spaces European, world, or global literature.

These latter additions to the research field are not to be seen as mere collections of national literatures. They question the very relevance of this concept of national literature , and consequently provoke it to reinvent itself.

I am obviously referring to the totalizing view over the object, to the prevailing nationalist stakes of literary historical discourse, to the glorification of the literary heritage in a conservative vein. The compara- tive principles of this discourse were more often than not oriented towards the description of the influence of a certain school or movement over differ- ent literary spaces, and pictured the literary space as a fixed planetary sys- tem where the centre was well-established and could not be displaced.

What defines most of the recent that is, post literary histories is their programmatic relativism that avoids sweeping generalizations or predefined axiological perspectives. By exercising a distant reading as the- orized by Moretti or Perkins , by focusing on differences rather than similarities Petersson , the historical discourse on literature also distances itself from traditional comparativism and its legitimating strate- gies.

Thus we are more likely to find thematic and generic approaches in- stead of strictly chronological ones. The mere figure of literary evolution that has been constitutive for literary history is no longer trustworthy; what took its place is rather a picture of the literary space that rejects any canoni- cal privilege Damrosch What happens to this framework when it is applied to a specific case Romanian literature under Western eyes is the main concern of the following analysis.

Romanian Literature in a Nutshell. A Few Case Studies In order to see how the foreign gaze has shaped the image of a minor literature, one that is also hard to locate on the European map, I have cho- sen several recent literary histories or literature dictionaries authored by Western academics. Their stakes are transnational and comparative. They are all published after in French, English, or Italian.

I have considered three main categories that include chapters or entries on Romanian litera- ture: regional histories of Eastern or Central Europe , European literary histories or dictionaries, and world literature histories or dictionaries.

How to Write a Comparative Histoty of Romanian Literature 93 An ambitious project in four volumes that encompasses almost two centu- ries and more than ten literary spaces, this History certainly allots more space for Romanian literature than scientific works in the other two catego- ries.

Thus any historical aspect of Romanian literature that falls under the scope of a certain thematic grouping can be taken into account for instance, cities, borders, literary institutions, national authors, etc.

The foreign read- ers can find out details of the literary debate that opposed modernism and traditionalism in the s and s, they can get a comprehensive account of the voices and narrative techniques employed in the Romanian novel, or on the Romanian diaspora in Paris to name but a few points of interest.

This regional literary histo- ry, innovative in structure and wide-ranging in its choice of subjects, allows for an in-depth knowledge of Romanian literature and its interconnections to the region. Obviously this kind of rhizomatic historical structure makes way for peculiarities and boundaries rather than firm canonical positions. Its main advantages are, in my opinion, the analytical passion and the over- coming of the traditional east-west opposition in interpreting literary issues in the region.

Yet the person responsible for the articles on Romanian literature and the one on E. Cioran the only Romanian writer to be treated separately in this work is a certain Titus Barbulesco. The general editors have placed rather unexpectedly Romania in Central Europe, which is distinct from Europe balkanique that contains only Serbian and Croatian literatures. Although the composition of the chap- ters try to consider each particular, i.

Usually the edges of Europe — Portugal and the Balkans — are exiled to the final phrase of a chap- ter. The references to major figures often miss their original points and dis- cuss instead minor issues. For instance, Ion Luca Caragiale undergoes only a brief thematic treatment that omits even the comical dominant of his writ- ings: his works, we are told, display [ De-ale carnavalului [Aventures carnavalesques], 2 I will not draw attention to the errors pertaining to the literary historical accuracy of the text, but I will instead focus on some misrepresentations and axiological mistakes.

The termi- nology is used inconsistently: the chapter on European postmodernism does not employ the notions of Central or Balkan Europe anymore, but of Eastern Europe. Many important aspects of Romanian literature or canon- ical authors are not mentioned at all. Even though this history of European literature could have done better in many ways, at least it tries to offer a comparative, relational perspec- tive on the various literatures of the continent.

As to the insignificant place that Romanian literature occupies within it, not only are the editors to be blamed, but so are the lack of good translations and the consequent limited circulation in other cultural spaces. A spe- cialist in Romanian literature can gladly note here the impressive number of separate entries dedicated to Romanian writers. When she offers an overview on the history of Romanian literature, Cleynen-Serghiev pro- vides enough information and adequate commentary.

Her comparative reference point is of course French literature. The bibliography for this sec- tion is rather conservative but generally relevant. What strikes us when reading the contents of La Nuova Enciclopedia della letteratura Garzanti is the recent inclusion of Romanian literature.

This mas- sive work of more than 1. Obviously the space alloted to a certain writer differs according to canoni- cal and circulation criteria. Eliot, and twenty times smaller than to Shakespeare. The biographi- cal presentation shows an appetite for sensational details such as the con- troversy over the cause of his death.

The section devoted to the canonical core of world literature does not discuss any Romanian work it was quite unlikely for it to do that, anyway. Nevertheless, the historical profile of Romanian literature is accurate and comprehensive, despite small typographical errors. Concluding Remarks. The Europeanness of Romanian Literature — an Open Issue To summarize this review of historical works I want to briefly assess the relevance of a hot issue — that of the Europeanness of Romanian litera- ture.

Its hesitation between synchronizing itself with European trends and movements and preserving its traditions is too well known perhaps it is its very cultural mark to be necessary to re-present it here. The image that all these literary histories and literature dictionaries construct of Romanian literature is that of a European literature, albeit a minor one.

The canonical selection is not the same as in most Romanian literary histories, but this is perfectly acceptable. Obviously the specific features of Romanian literature are not taken into account in this comparative context that mostly values influences and exchanges between various cultural-literary spaces.

I think that an interesting opening of Romanian literature in our mul- ticultural and global literary field would be to assume the very attractive status under foreign eyes of an emergent literature. In addition, the postcolonial and post-communist, I would add interest in redefining the concept of syn- chronization as hybridization — as Homi Bhabha does4 — would also prove rewarding for our present view over the literary tradition.

We can only regret that Romania-based literary historians, with few ex- ceptions, have shown little interest in contextualizing their object in such a manner, beyond the traditional study of influences. Benoit-Dusausoy, G. References Bhabha H. Damrosch David, What is World Literature? Petersson Margareta, Helgesson Stefan, et al. Le terme «antho- logie» provient du mot grec qui signifie «choix des fleurs».

Le canon vit de son agrandis- sement. Notes 1 A. Berardinelli, La poesia verso la prosa. Controversie sulla lirica moderna, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino , p. Mengaldo a cura di , Poeti italiani del Novecento, Mondadori, Milano Re, De consructing the Canon, cit.

Cucchi, S. Giovanardi a cura di , Poeti italiani del secondo Novecento: , Monda- dori, Milano Anceschi a cura di , Lirici nuovi: antologia di poesia contemporanea, Hoepli, Milano Cucchi, A. Riccardi a cura di , Nuovissima poesia italiana, Mondadori, Milano Berardinelli, F. Cordelli a cura di , Il pubblico della poesia, Lerici, Cosenza Galaverni a cura di , Nuovi poeti italiani contemporanei, Guaraldi, Rimini Galaverni, a cura di, Nuovi poeti italiani contemporanei, cit.

Ostuni, a cura di, Poeti degli Anni Zero, cit. Mengaldo, Poeti italiani del Novecento, cit. Berardinelli Alfonso, La poesia verso la prosa. Controversie sulla lirica moderna, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino Galaverni Roberto a cura di , Nuovi poeti italiani contemporanei, Guaraldi, Rimini Mengaldo P.

Pieri Marzio, Biografia della Poesia. Sul paesaggio mentale della poesia italiana del novecento, La Pilotta, Parma Inoltre, la prima lingua e quella di attribuzione possono appartenere a classi ritmiche differenti. Usualmente la sindrome regredisce con il miglioramento della situazio- ne neurologica del paziente.

In Trumper, Maddalon, Romito e in Romito, Molinari, Sprovieri vengono eseguite delle analisi acustiche sul parlato di una donna italiana di 29 anni al momento della diagnosi SAS associata alla contusione bilaterale dei lobi frontali e ad emorragia subaracnoidale come conseguen- za di un incidente alpinistico. Secondo Moen , p. Essa vede alla base della rappresentazione fonologica i mo- vimenti degli organi vocali, o gesti Browman, Goldstein , p. Gli elementi distintivi al centro della gestural phonology possono essere maggiormente compresi confrontando la struttura dei modelli dinamici con la struttura dei modelli fonologici basati sui segmenti.

Nella gestural phonology, gli elementi strutturali sono le variabili del trat- to vocale, i gesti e lo spartito gestuale. Questi livelli rappresentano le variabili del tratto vocale. Sono presenti tre livelli articolatori relativamen- te indipendenti: glottico, velare e orale. Il livello orale ha tre sottosistemi: labbra, lingua, punta della lingua e corpo della lingua.

I livelli articolatori possono essere completati da altri livelli per offrire una rappresentazione fonologica migliore. Ad esempio, il livello ritmico che assegna i livelli di accento lessicale a costellazioni gestuali delle dimensioni di una sillaba ed un livello funzionale che esegue una sovrapposizione articolatoria tra vo- cali e consonanti.

Moen ritiene che il task dynamic model possa applicarsi al caso di SAS di una donna di 61 anni, nata vicino ad Oslo e ivi sempre vissuta. La donna, probabilmente in seguito ad un ictus, era stata colpita da emiparesi de- stra e manifestava delle alterazioni del parlato che potevano far pensare ad una parlante di madrelingua inglese , p. La paziente usa una laterale lamino-alveolare con una seconda articolazione velare in tutte le posizioni.

La paziente utilizza una vibrata apico-alveolare con una seconda articolazione velare in tutte le posizioni. Il sistema vocalico nel dialetto di Oslo ha nove coppie di vocali lunghe e brevi. Cinque di queste coppie sono pronunciate con ar- rotondamento delle labbra.

A livello prosodico vi sono delle alterazioni negli schemi di F0 delle sil- labe accentate: discesa troppo ripida, mancanza di ascesa e un disallinea- mento dei contorni di F0 con il livello segmentale. Come in molti dei casi SAS, le alterazioni segmentali e soprasegmentali sono fluttuanti. Nel soggetto in questione le alterazioni presentate possono essere ricondotte ad una anormale gradazione dei gesti articolatori e ad una sfasatura delle alteranze dei gesti.

Gli studi concernenti la SAS hanno spesso identificato alterazioni nel parlato a livello prosodico quali ritmo ed intonazione come responsabi- li della percezione di un accento straniero Blumstein, Alexander, Ryalls ; Kurowsky, Blumstein, Alexander Browman, L.

Browman C. Katz W. Kurowski K. Munson P. Such a shift involves not only a change in the coordinates of literary analysis, but also a re-examination of the axiomatic dimension of an entire set of con- cepts. If such notions have been sent to the conceptual purgatory of literary theory, others have gained their redemption and are now being reinvested with major importance. Such circumstantial data are reconsidered and appreciated as being relevant again for literary studies.

The importance of the context be it a biographical, social, histori- cal, cultural or political one oscillated from prevalence in the mid-nine- teenth century to minimization under the action of Formalism and New Criticism, only to regain a central position in a number of recent move- ments like New Historicism, Feminism or Post-colonialism. It seems that the oscillation that a theory undergoes in literary debates, between a major and a minor position, is determined not by its relation I.

Theoretical perspectives are in a state of conflict, influencing each other and bringing amendments to their own argumentation according to the answer received from the opponent. The very existence of a theory is due to refusal to accept the principles that, at some point, represent the current rule.

This polemical and even subver- sive dialogue that is established between literary theories is responsible, in our opinion, for the periodical change of the truth value of the fundamen- tal concepts of literary studies. The fact that theory is polemical by nature seems to be the only fixed point in a field characterized by an almost Brownian motion.

Antoine Compagnon, in a book about literature and common sense, claimed that «theory comes about when the premises of ordinary discourse on literature are no longer accepted as self-evident, when they are questioned, exposed as historical constructions, as conventions»1. Considering it as a real start in overcoming naivety, Compagnon identifies literary theory with a polemical reaction which contradicts or discredits the practice of others.

Denying a set of concepts means, implicitly, the denial of those practices in which such no- tions were operational. The subversion that the French professor identifies in any theoretical act leads him to equate theory with a critique of ideology. In a similar vein, Terry Eagleton stated, in a trenchant way, the political dimension of literary theory. Defining politics as the way in which social life is organized and the power relations that this organization involves, Eagleton considers that the modern history of literary theory is a part of the political and ideological history of the contemporary period.

For Eagleton, the shift from conceiving theory as an object of intellectual research to that of projecting it into a perspective that attempts to understand contingent reality, comes in a natural way because [ The opposition between an ideologically uncontaminated theory and one characterized by militan- cy is dissolved and reduced to the recording of different degrees in which the political dimension is hidden or displayed by various theories.

But this objectivity is a constructed one and, in this point, both Compagnon and Eagleton identify the ideological and political dimension of literary theory: [ The difference between a tra- ditionalist perspective and a feminist, post-colonial or neo-marxist one is, essentially, the difference between distinct and alternative values regard- ing the world.

Moreover, Eagleton continues, they are distinguished from one another by developing various strategies to achieve these values, be- liefs or goals. The conflictual state characterizing literary theories and their dispute for dominance over the literary field is motivated by the power that theo- retical discourse holds. This power becomes visible not only in the ability to dictate what it is acceptable to say about a literary work, and what it is not, but most of all in delimiting the literary from the non-literary, in determining the value of a literary work and thus making the difference between canonization and oblivion.

Going beyond the literary field, such a power can legitimize or discredit a discourse, a practice, or a group of indi- viduals, entering into a network of power relations [ The efforts to maintain an authority, as well as the attempts to undermine it, can find in the practice of rewriting a very useful tool. For Lefevere, the concept of rewriting includes interpretation, criticism and translation, in other words those discourses that have the power to deter- mine not only the literary canon, but also the way in which a particular literature will evolve and develop.

The remarkable struggle that a literary theory engages for obtaining a privileged position in the cultural de- bates becomes visible even in the relationship between the two approaches concerned with the dialogue between texts. The assault led in recent decades on literary influence has resulted in transforming it from a fundamental con- cept for literary studies into a marginal one, whose explanatory model is not able to be convincing anymore.

After dominating the literary field for centu- ries the notion of literary influence emerges in the mid of the 18th century the notion of literary influence began, in a relatively short period of time, to be considered outdated, if not obsolete, and to lose ground in favour of inter- textuality. The few moments in which literary influence still appears as the protagonist of a theoretical discourse are conditioned by a strong and radical revision of its initial operating formula.

Rather than establishing a complemen- tary relationship, literary influence and intertextuality are placed in a state of tension. Leaving aside the different positions they take on technical issues such as practice and method, it becomes clear that their incompatibility is, in fact, of an ideological nature. Having different agendas, these two theories are placed in opposite positions not only in the literary, but also in the socio- political field, and even a quick glance at the ideational core of these two theories will highlight this aspect.

Notions such as author, genius and originality were essential for the study of literary influence, but after a recent critical examination these concepts have lost the major credit with which they had been invested.

The catalyst of this process of devaluation was represented by the revolutionary moment of that aimed to undermine all forms of hierarchy and hegemony, wheth- er political, social, or cultural. In such a context of attempting «to dislocate the mainstays of the bourgeois world»6 the study of literary influence re- called «elitism, the old boys networks of Major Authors and their sleek en- tourages»7.

The evaluative, hierarchical and legitimizing criteria with which the study of influence operated, by distinguishing between minor and major works and establishing artistic genealogies, became incongruent with this subversive moment «that denounced the social function of academic bour- geois criticism as complicit with a social system of real injustices»8.

Under the action of intertextuality, the cardinal elements of literary influ- ence began to show signs of weakness and, read from an ideological perspec- tive, they were reduced to a biased and subordinate view of the dominant order.

Compared with the authority and oppressiveness of literary influence — the power of certain literary models outlined in advance the coordinates on which the artistic imaginary of the newcomers should unfold — inter- textuality seemed to represent a real democratization of all the relations within the literary field. A very interesting turn of events takes place when we analyze intertextuality not in its contesting and conflicting dimension of the dominant order, but from the perspective of a theory that, by win- ning the conceptual battle, becomes itself the current rule and the official discourse.

Once invested as the new orthodoxy, the profile of intertextual- ity will begin to acquire the same features that were previously blamed: its programmatic plurality will take the form of monologism and its democ- racy will turn into confinement and exclusion. Such an effect of exclusion was generated by the so-called democra- tization installed after the removal of the authorial figure. For a number of movements such as Feminism, Post-colonialism, or sexual minorities, replacing the notion of the author with the anonymous network of quo- tations represented a cancellation of their particular note.

In a society con- sidered to be dominated by patriarchy, Eurocentrism and heterosexuality, it becomes very relevant if the auctorial voice is the product of the centre or of the periphery. In other words, who is speaking and, especially, in whose name is not at all negligible. But the death of the author proclaimed by Roland Barthes changed the centre of gravity in literary studies and can- celled the authorial subject as the place where these discourses are being produced.

From the point of view of the above mentioned movements, the removal of the author acquires the features of a conservative, rather than subversive act. Nancy K. Miller, a feminist critic, considers that [ Rewritings are not neutral or innocent in relation with the texts that they rework. On the contrary, they prolong the conflict between a dominant order and the attempts to undermine it. On these coordinates of an ideological struggle, hypertextual practices can be classified in two categories: one that conserves a literary model and an- other that tries to subvert it.

In the first category we can include imitation, adaptation, pastiche, allusion and quotation, while in the second category we can place all those textual transformations made in a playful, polemical, satirical or ironic manner. This second type of rewriting shapes itself as be- ing more than just a re-interpretation and critique of the work rewritten: it expresses the fact that each literary text stands for a certain socio-political and cultural code, and when rewriting occurs, it signals that a mutation took place in the way that particular code is now perceived.

The rewriting of canonical texts is characterized by a strong political and ideological dimension. Using the terminology of Christian Moraru12, we can say that rewriting is both intensive, in the programmatic way in which it enters into a dialogue with a canonical text, as well as extensive, by trans- gressing the literary field, involving a critical remark on the socio-cultural context in which this new text is produced.

Therefore, such a rewriting sets in motion «literary and trans-literary […] permutations»13, by refurbishing those «identity narratives» or «grand narratives» around which a commu- nity or a society is organized. Such narratives acquire, in time, the features of a super-text, functioning as a quintessence for the mentality of an entire epoch. For example, The Tempest , by Shakespeare is illustrative for the 17th century, Robinson Crusoe for the 18th century, Jane Eyre for the 19th century, and Heart of Darkness ; for the turn of the 20th century.

It is not a coincidence that most of the feminist and post- colonial rewritings chose these particular works as pre-texts when aiming to disarticulate and reconfigure the internal logic of a dominant order. Such re- writings represent alternatives to the official discourses, counter-discourses that have the power to influence the official ones.

The same happened with Michel Tournier or J. Coetzee who, by rewriting Robinson Crusoe, have managed to highlight, in a convincing manner, the blind spots and the biased feature of this novel. Rewriting is more than just re-polishing old texts, it becomes a strategy to subvert, undermine and jam a discourse. To initiate a process of rewrit- ing cannot be considered a random act, but rather a manifesto, charged with a strong motivation which aims, undoubtedly, to produce an effect among the readers, the literary hierarchies, etc.

From this point of view, Sven Rank14 considered that any rewriting of a canonical work is a strategic one, representing a deliberate investment of social energy in the creation of a new discursive space for negotiating the future from the textual residues of the past.

In a similar vein, Linda Hutcheon stated15 that as long as artistic works are created and received by people, this human context should be- come the object of an investigation from the perspective of the politics that governs these hypertextual relationships. Therefore, literature in the second degree, in spite of its subordinate fea- ture, becomes the initial point from which any attempt to reconstruct the Zeitgeist that produced those mutations should start.

Compagnon, Literature, Theory, and Common Sense, trans. Hermans ed. Mai, Bypassing Intertextuality, in H. Plett ed. Clayton, E. Mai, Bypassing Intertextuality, cit. Juvan, History and Poetics of Intertextuality, trans. Miller, apud. Rothstein eds , Influence and Intertextuality in Literary History, cit. Rank, Twentieth-Century Adaptations of Macbeth. Hermans Theo ed. Juvan Marko, History and Poetics of Intertextuality, trans. Mai H. Plett Heinrich ed.

The criterion of this divide is first and foremost a temporal one. The first level of his demonstration is a lexicographic one and has as its starting point the successive editions of the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy. Thus, in its edition, the aforementioned diction- ary described the motherland as «the place, township or land where one is born, or any region, province or district of any lordship or state»1.

In however, a nation is «a state or political body which recognizes a supreme centre of common government» and also «the territory constituted by that state and its individual inhabitants, considered as a whole»2. Once the historical novelty of the nation is unequivocally established, Hobsbawm sets out to investigate the paradox according to which «mod- ern nations and all their impedimenta generally claim to be the opposite of novel, namely rooted in the remotest antiquity»3.

His introductory text to the collected essays The Invention of Tradition is a perfect exam- ple for the way in which the nation, once it became a political and admin- istrative given, needs arguments in its favour and these arguments will unavoidably include constructs of the cultural imagery meant to add co- hesion.

Hobsbawm identifies three great instances of inventing tradition, i. In the words of A. In his opinion, ethnic communities can be defined by the following attributes: 1. I shall start the enumeration of significant moments in this process by briefly mentioning the Middle Ages, when language was already a strong factor in forging the sense of ethnic belonging, so that Isidore of Seville could write in the 10th century that «Races arose from different languages, not languages from different races»9, thus placing himself in the trail of a biblical belief based on the common descent of mankind and finding it natural to see the post-Babel differentiation of languages as the first step in the formation of races or peoples.

Here, Dante talks about the Adamic language, de- plores the artificiality of grammar, but, most importantly, frequently ut- ters judgements on the various Italian dialects of his time, with the clear purpose of finding the one which «enjoys and confers the greatest honour» «honorabilius atque honorificentius breviter seligamus» Thus, Dante criticizes most of the dialects from a phonetic, poetic or plainly aesthetic point of view, sometimes resorting to almost-narrations to support the ar- gument «One of them» — says Dante — «is so womanish, because of the soft- ness of its vocabulary and pronunciation, that a man who speaks it, even if in a suitably virile manner, still ends up being mistaken for a woman» «Quorum unum in tantum muliebre videtur propter vocabulorum et pro- lationis mollitiem, quod virum, etiam si viriliter sonet, feminam tamen fac- it esse credendum» As Marina Yaguello, a French researcher, puts it, the sole end of such a process is to demonstrate that «the language is to a certain extent constitutive of a race, a cultural race, with a stronger cohe- sion than the race in the proper sense, proven by modern genetics to be highly difficult to define» The next moment in the European history of language ideology is to be found in , when Johann Gottlieb Fichte publishes his Addresses to the German Nation , comprising the collected conferences given by Fichte in French-occupied Berlin.

The age seems to me a shade that stands grieving over its corpse, from which it has just been driven out by a host of diseases. Fichte gives a clear nationalistic turn to this hypothesis and sets out to build a hierarchy of various people, according to their languages.

Another stop in this journey through the building blocks of language ideology is post-revolutionary France. Two centuries later, French revolutionar- ies are faced with another threat to linguistic unity — and implicitly, to the ethnic cohesion built on it —, namely the regional dialects.

With a methodical approach, Henri Gregoire drafts a questionnaire comprising 43 questions, aimed at mapping as clearly as possible the situation of the dialects, and, implicitly, to find the most ef- ficient ways of eradicating them. The 43 items in this questionnaire reflect an intimate knowledge of all the effects, implications and consequences the usage of a national language has.

Do the peasants know how to express themselves in French as well? What is the influence of the patois on the morals and of the latter on your dialect? Does your dialect have many indecent words? It is already striking how far the attributes of the language have co- alesced with those of the nation in European modernity. The union ended at the end of the 16th century, when Denmark declared Norway a Danish province, but allowed it to have its own institutions of the state and law system Thus, before the Reformation, Norway was practically incorporated by Denmark from a lin- guistic point of view, with Danish becoming the language of the church and the chancery.

The revival of Norwegian starts with the spread of Lutheranism and continues in the Romantic period. The problem faced by this linguistic revival is the fact that [ In , Jorgen Moe and Peter Christian Asbjornsen edit — inspired by the Grimm brothers — a book of folk legends and fairy-tales, written in a language which purposefully privileges the re- gional and dialectal language forms, in order to differentiate itself from Danish This movement begins to be truly nationalist when Ivar Aasen starts to compile a language aimed at being «purely Norwegian».

Presented as a true and pure Norwegian language, without any foreign influence, it was accepted and used as a literary language with considerable enthusiasm by many Norwegians, particularly by many of the most respected writers Even after this long journey through the various stages in the evolution of the national language, the present day situation regarding language as a means of legitimising oneself can only point to the fact that from all the arguments in favour of nationalism that European thought has produced, language remains the most persistent one.

In fact, atomizing the nation-state only led in this respect to atomizing the national language. In these cases, the linguistic pol- icy is radically changed, generating an upside-down shift of the modern nation-state, through an educational and cultural decentralization, a situa- tion which only brings into question even more challenges for the study of the language from the viewpoint of an ideological construct.

Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since Hobsbawm, T. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism, cit. Smith, Myths and Memories, cit. Formigari, G. Botterill, Cambridge UP, Cam- bridge , p. Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation , ed. Moore, Cam- bridge UP, Cambridge , p. Julia, J. Myhill, Language, Religion and National Identity, cit. Dante, De vulgari eloquentia , ed. Botterill, Cambridge UP, Cambridge Derry T. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest.

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Tra le centinaia di personaggi della Commedia, ne considera quattro in particolare: Ulisse, il Conte Ugolino, Francesca da Rimini e Beatrice. Dopo aver assistito a diverse processioni mistiche e a metamorfosi fantasmagoriche, vede apparire Beatrice al suo arrivo in Paradiso, mentre Virgilio discretamente si eclissa.

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