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Diverse applications of nanoparticles (NPs) have revolutionized various sectors in society. In the recent decade, particularly magnetic. Yudong Wang: current contact information and listing of economic research of this author João F. Caldeira & Rangan Gupta & Hudson S. Torrent,


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Hardik A. Dimitrios I. Lv, Wendai, Degiannakis, Stavros, Julia S. Auer, Piotr Dybka, Karanasos, M. Batten, Jonathan A. Evidence from Asia ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. Mobeen Ur Rehman, Vesarach Aumeboonsuke, Bradley T. Nick Taylor, Taylor, Nick, Cited by: Mala Raghavan, Raghavan, Mala, Jamie L. Nguyen, Discussion Papers. Hamilton, Globalization, shock persistence and common trends ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol.

Theodosios Perifanis, Cross, Jamie L. Chen, B. Salisu, Afees A. Alimi, Cited by: Lahmiri, Salim, Lahmiri, Salim, Fonseca, Carla L. Bosco, Valls, Evidence from the expectile perspective ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. Ibhagui, Oyakhilome, Onour , Ibrahim A. Ostapenko, vol.

Smales, L. Sabet, Amir H. Ayben Koy, And why? Wohar, Oloko, Jana, A dynamic perspective ," Economic Modelling , Elsevier, vol. Wei, Yanfeng, Aurelio F. Rosso, Vellucci, Ding, Yishan, Pierluigi Vellucci, Evidence from stock, crude oil and natural gas markets ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. Oliyide, Johnson A.

McIver, Ron P. Tsai, I-Chun, Reboredo, Juan C. Al Janabi, Chkili, Walid, Jim Hanly, Tsuji, Chikashi, Tule, Moses K. Mala Raghavan, Burakov, D. Mahmudul, Fasanya, Ismail O. The African perspective ," Resources Policy , Elsevier, vol. Adediran, Stock Returns ," Working Papers The case of wood pellets ," Journal of Forest Economics , Elsevier, vol.

Salisu, A comparative analysis of stocks and commodities ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. Lucotte, Yannick, Anthony N. Xiangcai Meng, Olanipekun, Ifedolapo O. Rehman, Mobeen Ur, Wu, Bi-Bo, An extreme quantile approach ," Resources Policy , Elsevier, vol. Vo, D. Mat Rahim, Siti Rohaya, Dmitry Burakov, Not always! Izabela Pruchnicka-Grabias, Costa, Alexandre Bonnet R. Alexandre Bonnet R. Holmes, Mark J.

Onder Buberkoku, Chikashi Tsuji, Abadie, Kristjanpoller, Werner D. Worthington, Killins, Robert N. Brice V. Shank, Khairulla Massadikov, Scott M. Mahadeo, Scott M. Dohyoung Kwon, A nonparametric causality-in-quantiles approach ," Resources Policy , Elsevier, vol. Fresh insights from wavelet-based quantile-on-quantile approach ," Resources Policy , Elsevier, vol. Syed Abul, Basher, Tehran,Iran, vol. Gomez-Gonzalez, Jose E. Evidence from oil-exporting and oil-importing countries ," Resources Policy , Elsevier, vol.

Qin, Xiao, Mokni, Khaled, Goodell, John W. Wee Chian Koh, Adam, P. Empirical evidences from 55 countries between and ," Energy Policy , Elsevier, vol. Hadhri, Sinda, Cem Berk, Sharma, Shahil, Ruqayya Aljifri, The roles of structural oil price shocks ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. David C. McMillan, David G. Aziza Syzdykova, Bouri, Elie, Salah A. Al-Khasawneh, Zankawah, Mutawakil M.

Chibueze E. Akanni, Ratti, Sunil K. Alshehri, S ," Journal of Economics and Business , Elsevier, vol. Zhang, Dayong, Maghyereh, Aktham I. Sheevun Di O. Guliman, Thompson, Jungho Baek, Witold Orzeszko, Turhan, M. Kisswani, Hassan Anjum, Kumar, Satish, Chang, Kuang-Liang, Evidence from oil and commodity currencies ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol. Evidence from an entropy analysis ," Energy Economics , Elsevier, vol.

Roshani W. Kumari, Erdogdu, Erkan, Franco Ruzzenenti, Papaioannou, George P. Tsouknidis, Halkos, George E. Kambouroudis, Dimos S. Feriel Gharbi, Michel A. Getachew Nigatu, Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR and MRI are based on the same concepts, however, in MRI a strong magnetic field is applied to a body or specimen to gain a lower or higher energy state. In magnetic cancer theranostics, ultrafine iron oxide NPs allows to monitor the position of theranostics agents, manage the therapeutic process in real-time, and assess treatment efficacy Wang L.

Moreover, the NPs self-assembled or formed a cluster in an acidic tumor environment and prevented re-entry into circulation, retained inside the tumor for a long-time, thus enhancing imaging resolution in MRI signaling Figure 2C. In recent decades, a lot of progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy.

In immunotherapies, cancer vaccines, particularly immunoadjuvant agents are considered emerging approaches for tumor elimination and have sparked intense research interest. Recently, the employment of electromagnetic-based nanomedicines to enhance cancer immunotherapy has attained great research attention. These electromagnetic energy-triggered nanomaterials have been widely used for photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, or radiotherapy, and magnetic hyperthermia to cause immunogenic cell death.

In photothermal thermal-based immunotherapy immunoadjuvants such as cytosine-phosphate-guanine CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ODNs and resiquimod R have been studied to potentiate immune response. Upon exposure to Near infrared NIR , the MINPs provided an efficient photothermal conversion effect to generate heat-effective photothermal ablation of primary tumors, releasing immunological agents, and activated immune response.

Reactive oxygen species ROS are chemically reactive molecules that play important functions in cell survival at lower concentrations, but toxic to a cell at a certain threshold leading to cell apoptosis or necrosis Ramsey and Sharpless, In recent years, ROS-mediated cancer treatment based on in situ ROS generation has gained widespread research interest Trachootham et al. Owing to ease in functionalization, biosafety, and particularly magnetic properties MNPs have many advantages in biomedicine, including diagnostic imaging, cancer therapy, and drug delivery, etc.

In this section, we highlighted the key applications of MNPs in cancer theranostics diagnosis and therapies with representative examples. Antimicrobial resistance has posed serious health concerns in both developing and developed countries. Due to the emergence of various kinds of multidrug-resistant strains and the unavailability of new antibiotics, it is estimated bacterial infections will cause million deaths by the end of Shi et al.

Such scenario has increased the demand to explore new innovative strategies in antimicrobial therapies Kruijshaar et al. Up to date, several innovative approaches that are currently under investigation are antimicrobial peptides, therapeutic antibodies, phage therapy, and antimicrobial NPs Simoes et al. Recently, MNPs based strategies have been developed to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria as well as bacteria-related biofilm Reddy et al.

The MNPs kill microbes mainly through three basic mechanisms including disrupting plasma membrane, releasing toxic metals, and ROS generation that interfere major bacteria components Reddy et al. Iron oxide NPs as the prominent type of MNPs have some key importance due their magnetic, hyperthermal, and catalytic properties Prucek et al. Biofilms are bacterial communities that adhere to surfaces and are embedded in a self-released matrix of extracellular polymeric substances EPS Arciola et al.

Because of the high mechanical stability and antimicrobial blockade created by extracellular polymeric substances EPS , biofilm is hard to treat with traditional antibiotics Koo et al. The EPS, which serve as local barriers, shield bacteria cells from the host immune system and prevent drug diffusion, thereby resulting in high bacterial resistance to antibiotics and thus making biofilm removal a challenging task Boudarel et al.

In this pursuit, Fe 3 O 4 mesoparticles Fe 3 O 4 MPs due to stable para-magnetism are widely employed for designing of magnetic microrobots Dong et al. The underlying mechanism mainly involves two phenomena. First, the toxic bactericidal free radicals degraded biofilm matrix and killed bacteria. Copyright , American Chemical Society B mechanistic Representation of artificial channel created by magnetic nanoparticles in infectious biofilms to improve antimicrobial penetration and enhance bacterial killing over the depth of a biofilm Quan et al.

Copyright , American Chemical Society D Representation of the principle of the bioanalytical method. Copyright , Elsevier publishing group. In a bacterial biofilm, water-filled channels and openings exist to facilitate the efficient diffusion of nutrients, autoinducers, and waste products Wilking et al. For example, flagella-driven movement enables motile bacillus swimmers to dig water-filled channels. Artificial channels in pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been created by irrigating them with bacillus swimmers, making these infectious biofilms hundred times more vulnerable to benzalkonium chloride Houry et al.

Addressing the phenomenon of natural bacillus swimmers to dig channels in biofilms, magnetic iron oxide NPs were applied to artificially create channels in a biofilm to increase the diffusion and promote bacteria-killing by antimicrobials.

The main role of magnetic iron oxide NPs was to establish artificial channels to promote the penetration of the drug into biofilm, which significantly enhanced the killing of pathogenic bacteria Figure 3B Quan et al. The majority of pathogenic bacteria are mesophilic and can thrive best at a temperature ranging 33—41 C Mackowiak, The elevated temperature hinders bacterial proliferation and movement, which promote increased autolysis and cell wall disruption Tsuchido et al.

Currently, Near Infrared NIR -triggered photothermal therapy PTT is considered a promising and effective antibacterial strategy due to its minimal invasiveness, deep tissue penetration, easy handling, and lack of resistance Gao et al. Owing to efficient light absorption capability, photo-responsive nanomaterials can transform light energy into heat, which can kill bacteria by disrupting cell membranes and causing protein denaturation, which leads to cell death Huang et al.

Recently, multimodal photothermal therapy is recognized as an intriguing approach due to short irradiation time, reduced antibacterial dose, and improved antibacterial performance. Hemoglobin-functionalized copper ferrite nano-particles Hb-CFNPs was designed with integration of combined catalytic and photothermal property to synergistically eradicate pathogenic bacteria Liu et al.

In addition, the intrinsic magnetic property of Hb-CFNPs increased about 20 times photothermal efficiency through magnetic hyperthermia via magnetic enrichment, which enhanced the bactericidal efficacy even at a lower dose. When combined with PTT, the damaged membrane was quickly destroyed, shorten treatment time and minimized adverse side effects of PTT to healthy tissues. In clinics, the traditional diagnostic method used for distinguishing pathogenic bacteria often involves the cultivation of bacteria, which is recognized as the standard diagnostic technique Pazos-Perez et al.

However, the conventional diagnostic techniques often involve time-consuming procedures, which need professional trainers and, in some cases, demand expensive equipment Gal-Mor et al. Therefore, prolong testing process and delaying response to patients, often affect the prescription of treatment. The shortcomings of these modern techniques are they not only require specific and costly instruments but also very laborious which restrain their practical use in clinics.

Owing to ease in application of magnetic fields to remotely control the location of MNPs upon modification with bacteria targeting molecules has been widely employed for bacterial enrichment, discrimination, and separation. The MNPs aided in the improvement of different sensing techniques such as PCR, fluorescent detection, colorimetric detection, and surface-enhanced Raman detection to make them promising platforms for bacterial detection Yuan et al. Colorimetric detection is a technique, which involves the qualitative analysis of variations in color induced by bacteria through the naked eye.

Detection of bacteria by the colorimetric method has been widely improved by the integration of MNPs. For example, MNPs conjugated with bacteria-specific antibody was used to concentrate and separate bacteria by applying an external magnetic field Kim et al. The MNPs attached or unattached to bacteria can be easily separated by vacuum pressure followed by filtration through a membrane.

Hence the variation in color signals produced by residual MNPs determined the quantity of bacteria Figure 3C. The detection of foodborne pathogens often requires simple and rapid techniques beyond the standard methods which are not comply with routine analysis in food technology. Currently, biosensors comprised of impedance spectroscopy equipped with antimicrobial peptides functionalized interdigitated electrodes IDEs have been applied to detect pathogens Etayash et al.

However, the use of AMPs in such biosensors often suffer due to low selectivity of these molecules and less activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses Zasloff, To this end, an electrical impedance spectroscopy-based biosensor was developed with the integration of AMP melittin functionalized MNPs coated screen-printed digitated electrode to detect bacteria in food samples Figure 3D Wilson et al.

The analysis reveals that such sensitive biosensor can detect bacteria at a very low colony forming units CFUs. The combination of MNPs and AMPs can allow to design a highly sensitive, fast, and cheaper bioassay for detection of bacteria in potable food samples.

In this section, we summarized the significance of MNPs-based materials for the treatment and diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria with representative examples. The MNPs-based sensors have shown remarkable application in different fields including food technology, lab-testing, clinical diagnosis, and environmental monitoring Haun et al.

Particularly, owing to biocompatibility, durability, and safety, the MNPs-based biosensing industry has attained good interest in the field of nanomedicines Lin et al. Due to small size, high sensitivity, and interesting noninvasive detection property, MNPs-based biosensors have envisioned a wide application in the biomedical field Chen et al.

In comparison to other conventional biosensors, MNPs-based biosensors have achieved tremendous turned out due to distinct properties as magnetic signaling and magnetic separation. Moreover, because of the high signal-to-background ratio MNPs can be used as magnetic probes to detect the analytes in biological samples Xie et al. The MNPs are made up of magnetic-origin elements including iron, cobalt, and nickel, as well as their oxides Mornet et al.

Since superparamagnetic particles can only be magnetized by an external magnetic field, hence there is no potential magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field Majetich and Jin, Early and accurate detection of respiratory viruses is critical for preventing infection and directing possible treatment Vandenberg et al.

In biosensing, lateral flow immunoassay LFIA strips due to easy handling, low cost, and short assay time has gained tremendous interest in point-of-care testing POCT technology for various applications Huang et al. The Fe 3 O 4 Ag magnetic tags were conjugated with double-layer Raman dye and virus-sticking antibodies with abundant magnetism to specifically target viruses in a solution and SERS detecting signals of viruses on the strip Figure 4A.

The magnetic SERS strip can be employed directly for real biological samples without any sample pretreatment measures. The system has shown very low detection limits for both viruses, while times more sensitive than the standard colloidal gold strip. Similarly, in other study, Pt-decorated magnetic nanozymes based bioassay was developed with unique properties and high sensitivity Kim et al.

Ferromagnetic Fe 3 O 4 NP is a well-known nanozyme with superior catalytic activity over natural enzymes. The magnetic properties allowed for the magnetic enhancement of liquid samples, while their catalytic properties enabled for signal amplification through enzyme-mimic reactions.

Copyright , American Chemical Society D Assay for the detection of tumor-associated plasma and serum p53 autoantibody. A neutravidin-modified screen-printed carbon electrode was functionalized with biotinylated p Copyright , American Chemical Society.

The efficient separation of biomolecules is mainly dependent on the diverse functional groups and a high saturation magnetization value Fatima and Kim, Magnetic-based microspheres or composites include a large number of magnetic bodies, porous polymeric structures, and specific metalcore, which offer higher affinities for targeted biomolecules Fu et al.

These NPs possess a high refractive index and molecular weight make them effective candidates for enhancing the plasmonic response to biological binding events, thereby enabling the detection of small molecules even in trace amounts Figure 4C Tang et al. Recently, nanozymes with peroxidase-like activity have been employed to detect analytes in biological samples Luo et al.

In this pursuit, peroxidase mimics gold-loaded nano-porous ferric oxide nano-cubes were used for naked-eye detection of p53 autoantibodies with electrocatalytic and colorimetric mechanism Masud et al. A biosensor was designed by immobilizing biotinylated p53 antigen on a neutravidin-modified screen-printed carbon electrode SPCE , and then serum or plasma samples containing the target antibody were added. Colorimetry and chronoamperometry were used to observe and quantify the color transition.

MNPs can also be effectively functionalized with a variety of biochemical substances for detecting protein, enzymes, nucleic acid, and cells Haun et al. The interesting physicochemical properties and stability of MNPs make them effective candidates for detection in both in vitro and in vivo without disturbing biological interactions. Many extensive efforts have been made to design MNPs biosensors with easy operation and high sensitivity for accurate detection.

The deterioration and contamination of water, soil, and atmosphere are becoming a foremost environmental problem due to the increased release of toxic and lethal chemicals and compounds as a result of anthropogenic activities. Various kinds of organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , pharmaceutical, pesticides, and industrial wastes are persistently present in the atmosphere Jones and De Voogt, ; Rodriguez-Narvaez et al.

Several kinds of organic pollutants are present in drinking water, sewage effluents, seawater, and groundwater. Such kind of persistent organic pollutants may pose serious health problems to the human when it becomes part of the food chain Jin et al.

Recently, nanotechnology is one of the beneficial and more reliable options over conventional treatments. The nanomaterials, carbon, and metal oxide have been reported for the treatment of water and air greenhouse gases, adsorption of bioaerosols, thermal decomposition, and the catalytic degradation of pollutants. The direct injection of iron NPs in the subsurface under pressurized conditions has proved to degrade the chlorinated compound i. Similarly, immobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides has been treated via this method Adeleye et al.

Interestingly, the purification of water has been reported by applying MNPs especially targeting bacteria, dye degradation, removal of organic species. One of the best examples is Fe 3 O 4 amino acid for the magnetic separation of contaminants from wastewater. The functionalized Fe 3 O 4 AA shown greater capturing ability for both gram-positive and negative bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively.

Due to its magnetic property, iron oxide serves as cost-effective and has easy separation from aqueous solutions because they aggregate rapidly by applying an external magnetic field Bhalerao, The underlying mechanism is magnetoelectric induce catalytic degradation of organic pollutants via generating free radicals to react with parent compounds by converting them to low-risk compounds.

The capability of the MNPs has been investigated by applying the alternating magnetic field to degrade the organic pollutants, rhodamine B RhB. They designed a magnetoelectric system with combination of magnetostrictive CFO and multiferroic BFO to purify water through oxidation processes under wireless magnetic fields without assistance of catalytic molecules.

The microbial contamination of the environment is a serious problem. Numerous kinds of microbes as well as toxic ions from the agriculture and industrial waste discharge to water bodies. Copyright , John Wiley and Sons Mushtaq et al. Previously, different studies reported chemical pollutants like pesticides and antibiotics are degraded by using MNPs with catalytic and photocatalytic properties through oxidation and reduction processes Hodges et al.

MNPs surface can be functionalized with stabilizers showing great potential for wastewater treatment due to their stability, less aggregation, and large surface area with recycling capability Xu et al. Various kinds of micropollutants like toxic dyes have been removed via nanocomposites. Such novel kinds of MNPs have well-established structures and core-shell having good magnetic properties. The amine group in the MNPs has a great deal of attraction for various kinds of pathogens such as bacteriophages, poliovirus-1 , and bacterial like P.

There is limited information about the transfer and availability of iron NPs in the atmosphere. The transport and movement of pure iron NPs have been restricted because of their colloidal nature. The migration of iron NPs has reported only a few feet at the injection point Lei et al. Furthermore, the movement of NPs depends on their size, pH, the strength of ions, and the composition of soil or groundwater, velocity, etc.

However, it must be noted that the utmost serious criteria such as toxicity and bioaccumulation must be evaluated. It is extremely important to investigate the toxicity mechanism to ensure the biosafety and stability of nanomaterials Ali et al. These research gaps need to be well addressed to overcome challenges of water and soil quality. The nano-based treatment processes of wastewater have a great potential to improve environmental quality as compared to conventional methods.

These approaches used for cleaning water can reduce the power and energy consumption, use of chemicals, and residual wastes. In this regard, the use of MNPs can play a great role to minimize the risks associated with water cleaning processes. The nanotechnology possesses great potential with unprecedented opportunities in improving water and environmental quality Alvarez et al.

Several researches have been conducted showing the successful application of metallic NPs in plant protection, seed germination, and improving soil quality El-Temsah et al. For example, iron oxide MNPs can be used as soil nutrition to increase production with minimum negative impacts Mishra et al.

Iron is a very essential element that plays a significant part in numerous physiological activities such as respiration, biosynthesis, chlorophyll, and redox reactions Rout and Sahoo, Several crops e. Mostly, NPs are in hydroponic conditions as nanofertilizers instead in field conditions.

Iron is considered the most abundant plant nutrient in the soil. However, its availability remains challenging for plants. Therefore, functionalized iron oxide NPs can overcome this problem as well as overpass barriers and uptake by plants through a analytical processes.

In this regard, Ju et al. They designed a system to monitor the uptake and distribution of different sizes chelating iron NPs 10 and 20 nm through magnetic particle spectroscopy. The accumulation of iron oxide NPs takes place in the vicinity of the root and hence shows the uptake strategy via roots in the plant.

The uptake of Fe has been demonstrated through root via different oxidation states and also showing the two routes for the uptake and translocations of the iron oxide NPs into the upper components of the plants apoplastic and symplastic pathways as demonstrated in Figure 6. Even though different MNPs have been used as antimicrobial agents in biomedical research for treating various kinds of diseases while in plants the use of MNPs in disease management is still in infancy Duguet et al.

MNPs can be helpful for targeted delivery to distinct areas of the plant. Previously, the transfer of biomolecules into plant cells via magnetic NPs and the use of their magnetic characterization to guide carriage and localization has been reported. The conjugation of MNPs with various biomolecules such as nucleic acids, chemicals, and enzymes is very useful in smart delivery systems.

The delivery of a gene and its expression into the host cell is very efficiently used. Currently, the transport of genes is delivered by three kinds of carrier systems such as virus, electroporation via nucleic acid, and transfection. The transfection technique holds a very prominent solution for many medical problems. The transfection efficiencies of cultured cells can be improved by coating with MNPs Kudr et al. The use of NPs can elevate toxicity inside the cells which restrains their applications in different researches both in vivo and in vitro.

Copyright , Royal Society of Chemistry Ju et al. Until now various catalytic processes and systems have been established for the conversions of reactants to products Liu and Zhang, One of the limitations of homogeneous catalysts is the separation difficulty from the reactions. Recently the limitation of heterogeneous catalysis has been reduced and minimized using catalysts that are supported by MNPs. The MNPs have the ability that they provide a high surface area to support active sites for reactants to be converted into products easily while the separation of such catalysts combined the advantage of high dispersion and reactivity Lee et al.

Recently, the photocatalytic system emerged as an efficient and reliable method for pollutant degradation under natural light. In this system, sunlight is used as an external stimulus source to activate the system and generate free radicals that react with pollutants leading to degradation. Due to excellent affinity a greater amount of tetracycline arrived through the mesoporous channels at Cds surface and transformed into carbon dioxide CO 2 , water H 2 O , and smaller molecules Figure 7.

In addition, there is much need to develop and established suitable strategies to control and tuning the particle size and form by different synthetic approaches. It is still prevalent to design and establish the highly stable and robust MNPs for industrial applications. Such kinds of NPs must be scalable and economical that can resist the reaction conditions in heterogeneous reactions Deng et al.

Proposed photocatalytic and selective mechanism of the MHP-Cd. Copyright , American Chemical Society Lu et al. MNPs are being applied in different fields such as biomedical, environmental, agriculture, and catalysis and biosensing. In this review, we summarized recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and the potential applications of MNPs. Different kinds of MNPs showing some promising properties are being produced by using different synthetic methods. These methods include ball milling, thermal decomposition, hydrothermal synthesis, microemulsion synthesis, gas-phase condensation, sol-gel, biological synthesis method, etc.

For the synthesis of the MNPs in large amount physical method such as the ball milling are being used, however, this method poses contamination from the milling jars and balls. While on the other hand, thermal decomposition or pyrolysis method is used to produce monodisperse MNPs. The pyrolysis method has advantages because of its simple and good control over the size of MNPs. The sol-gel synthesis method are used produce MNPs with uniform size distribution and superior stoichiometric control at low processing temperature.

The aforementioned methods propose various kinds of MNPs for important biological and biomedical applications. Human development has been hindered by various kinds of problems such as cancer, pollution, agriculture practices, and so on. To address these problems different kinds of functionalized NPs have been developed in past decades.

Nano-based cancer therapy mainly depends upon the efficient and smart design of NPs, by treating cancer more safely and effectively. In Recent decades, MNPs have made a greater contribution to nanomedicines due to their unique characteristics.

Currently, various kinds of MNPs modalities have been under clinical investigations for cancer cell imaging and therapies. MNPs synthesis and formulations face critical biological barriers, such as localization at the target site, the effective delivery of the drug to the target site, cross physiological talk, and the other technical obstacles specific to cancer.

Some other kinds of barriers are clearance, endosomal escape, off-target sites, and drug efflux. The resistance of bacteria against widespread antibiotics has become a serious health concern in both developing and developed countries. Due to various kinds of multidrug-resistant strains, emergence and the unavailability of new antibiotics will cause a serious threat.

In the current decade, MNPs based strategies have been developed to treat infections caused by pathogenic microbes and eradicate the biofilms with minimum resistance. The MNPs have great importance and are widely used in targeted drug delivery. As compared to conventional drug delivery, MNPs based drug administration can minimize the doses of drugs and subsequently reduce the side effects.

Additionally, the MNPs have inherent antimicrobial activity, by combining these antimicrobial molecules with them has synergistic effects in therapies which lead to improving the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs. The MNPs can be used as soil fertilizers to increase production as well as plant disease management. The conjugation of MNPs with various biomolecules such as nucleic acids, chemicals, and enzymes is of great use in research. In this regard, the delivery of a gene and its expression into the host cell is efficiently used.

The MNPs show tremendous potential in heterogeneous catalysis as well as in other applied fields. The coating of the catalysts with magnetic NPs have been used in different kind of catalysis and clean energy. The MNPs can provide numerous active sites for the reactants to be converted into products.

To overcome challenges, critical and constructive research are demanded to design and fabricate MNPs for diverse application in different fields. With the advancement and to make multidisciplinary approaches it must be considered to build regulatory institutions for the safe and effective use of nanotechnology.

A regular mechanism and connection must be conducted between the institutions and researchers to develop specific standards and platforms to escalate clinical trials and pre-clinical studies in vivo. MNPs face an enormous number of challenges to be practically implemented for the treatment of cancer and to combat multidrug resistance.

The ratio of magnetic NPs and catalysts must come under discussion. One of the big challenges is the biocompatibility and the toxicity of the MNPs in long term. A very detailed and comprehensive study must be conducted to study the composition, morphology, size, shape, structure, and side effects of MNPs.

The scientific community needs to address such kind of enormous challenges and has to conduct hassle-free clinical trials for the development and construction of MNPs for a better future. AA prepared the main text. TS and RU revised the draft. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Magnetic Nanoparticle Design for Medical Applications. Solid State.

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