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Codina, Esteban ; Gamez-Montero, Pedro Javier ; Torrent, Miquel. Mrowczyska-Kamiska, Aldona ; Gradziuk, Piotr ; Borawski, Piotr. Miquel Torrent, Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero and Esteban Codina; Potential Energy Savings from Circular Economy Scenarios Based on Construction and Agri-Food.


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Garcia, Fausto Pedro ; Acarolu, Hakan. Ukasik, Zbigniew ; Olczykowski, Zbigniew. A review of international limits for rapid voltage changes in public distribution networks. The clean energy transition of heating and cooling in touristic infrastructures using shallow geothermal energy in the Canary Islands. A Review of Optimization of Microgrid Operation. Experimental study of positive displacement hydraulic turbine at various temperatures and development of empirical co-relation for flowrate prediction.

Three-dimensional optimization of penstock layouts for micro-hydropower plants using genetic algorithms. Artificial intelligence and internet of things to improve efficacy of diagnosis and remote sensing of solar photovoltaic systems: Challenges, recommendations and future directions.

Kalogirou, Soteris ; Mellit, Adel. Environmental performance of a geothermal power plant using a hydrothermal resource in the Southern German Molasse Basin. Optimal operating policies for organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery under transient conditions. Hamels, Sam. Lohwanitchai, Kittisak ; Jareemit, Daranee. Space cooling energy usage prediction based on utility data for residential buildings using machine learning methods.

An improved self-organizing incremental neural network model for short-term time-series load prediction. Review of energy storage systems for vehicles based on technology, environmental impacts, and costs. Stegen, Sascha ; Balali, Yasaman. A novel strategy based on recent equilibrium optimizer to enhance the performance of PEM fuel cell system through optimized fuzzy logic MPPT.

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Techno-Economic Analysis of decentralized preprocessing systems for fast pyrolysis biorefineries with blended feedstocks in the southeastern United States. Geong, Hae-Gyung ; Roh, Seungkook. Liu, Quanlong ; Yang, Mingzhi. Feryad, Vahit ; Avdar, Smail Hakki. Ciepliski, Ukasz ; Gwod, Micha. How to make better use of intermittent and variable energy? A review of wind and photovoltaic power consumption in China.

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A new type of two-supply, one-return, triple pipe-structured heat loss model based on a low temperature district heating system. A machine learning-based surrogate model to approximate optimal building retrofit solutions. Santoso, Surya ; Bastos, Alvaro Furlani. A survey on deep learning methods for power load and renewable energy forecasting in smart microgrids. Developmental trajectories of blockchain research and its major subfields. Ina, Eunice ; Tseng, Fang-Mei.

Surrogate models for rural energy planning: Application to Bolivian lowlands isolated communities. Matsumoto, Takuji ; Yamada, Yuji. Application of data-based solar field models to optimal generation scheduling in concentrating solar power plants. The impact of Clean Spark Spread expectations on storage hydropower generation.

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Improved ECMWF forecasts of direct normal irradiance: A tool for better operational strategies in concentrating solar power plants. Deep learning-based forecasting of aggregated CSP production. Hung, Ngo Thai. Control and management of a multilevel electric vehicles infrastructure integrated with distributed resources: A comprehensive review. Jafarpisheh, Babak ; Pal, Anamitra. Manuel, Castilla ; Francisco, Martin. A critical review of literature on the nexus between central grid and off-grid solutions for expanding access to electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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Hoque, Simi ; Yassaghi, Hamed. Modelling global solar irradiance for any location on earth through regression analysis using high-resolution data. Rajendran, Parvathy ; Arumugham, Dinesh Rajan. Dynamic stall of the wind turbine airfoil and blade undergoing pitch oscillations: A comparative study. Song, Tianhao ; Zhang, Baifu. A state-of-charge estimation method of the power lithium-ion battery in complex conditions based on adaptive square root extended Kalman filter.

Improvement of vibration frequency and energy efficiency in the uniaxial electro-hydraulic shaking tables for sinusoidal vibration waveform. System-level analyses for the production of 1,6-hexanediol from cellulose. Bartecki, Krzysztof. Parameters Influencing on Electric Vehicle Range. Stochasticity and environmental cost inclusion for electric vehicles fast-charging facility deployment. Influence of distribution tariff structures and peer effects on the adoption of distributed energy resources.

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Combining sorption storage and electric heat pumps to foster integration of solar in buildings. Baldini, Luca ; Tzinnis, Efstratios. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion battery using denoising autoencoder and gated recurrent unit recurrent neural network. Synthetic state of charge estimation for lithium-ion batteries based on long short-term memory network modeling and adaptive H-Infinity filter. A Review on Battery Modelling Techniques. Coordinated charging and discharging control of electric vehicles to manage supply voltages in distribution networks: Assessing the customer benefit.

Experts versus Algorithms? Bocklisch, Thilo ; Gerlach, Lisa. An improved deep belief network based hybrid forecasting method for wind power. Environmental protection in selected one belt one road economies through institutional quality: Prospering transportation and industrialization. Madni, Ghulam Rasool ; Wu, Qiong. Ipeki, Ahmet ; Yucenur, Nilay G. Relative energy efficiency indicators calculated for high-moisture waste-based fuel blends using multiple-criteria decision-making.

Ringel, Marc. A stochastic value estimation tool for electric vehicle charging points. Coban, Elvin ; Poyrazoglu, Gokturk. Piekut, Marlena. Potential of implementation of residential photovoltaics at city level: The case of London. Modeling technique in the P-Graph framework for operating units with flexible input ratios. Energy, exergy and computing efficiency based data center workload and cooling management. Sustainable Energy Consumption. Applying the mixed-mode with an adaptive approach to reduce the energy poverty in social dwellings: The case of Spain.

A risk evaluation framework for the best maintenance strategy: The case of a marine salt manufacture firm. Dao, Phong B. Combustion of olive tree pruning pellets versus sunflower husk pellets at industrial boiler. Monitoring of emissions and combustion efficiency. Recent trends in biochar integration with anaerobic fermentation: Win-win strategies in a closed-loop.

Analysis of the air-water-sediment flow behavior in Pelton buckets using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Performance of building integrated photovoltaic facades: Impact of exterior convective heat transfer. Ilo, Albana ; Schultis, Daniel-Leon. Lim, Sun ; Kim, Yonghun.

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Dhanamjayulu, C ; Khasim, Shaik Reddi. Comparative analysis of hybrid vehicle energy management strategies with optimization of fuel economy and battery life. Demand response through decentralized optimization in residential areas with wind and photovoltaics. Ground source heat pump control methods for solar photovoltaic-assisted domestic hot water heating.

Lim, Sungsu ; Kim, Hwan. Implications of renewable resource dynamics for energy system planning: The case of geothermal and hydropower in Kenya. Update on current approaches, challenges, and prospects of modeling and simulation in renewable and sustainable energy systems. A review of existing deep decarbonization models and their potential in policymaking.

Kumar, P ; Felder, F A. Hydrothermal carbonization of wet biomass from nitrogen and phosphorus approach: A review. Multiphase analysis of hydrochars obtained by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste organic fraction. Modelling and analysis of a hybrid solar dryer for woody biomass. Khouya, Ahmed. The nexus between Egyptian renewable energy resources and economic growth for achieving sustainable development goals. Hosny, Nadine Amr ; Salman, Doaa.

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Kim, Jaehong ; Usama, Muhammad. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of renewable gas technologies: A comparative review. Flexibility assessment of a modified double-reheat Rankine cycle integrating a regenerative turbine during recuperative heater shutdown processes. Remaining useful life prediction for degradation with recovery phenomenon based on uncertain process. Early prediction of battery lifetime via a machine learning based framework.

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Thermal comfort maintenance in demand response programs: A critical review. Business models combining heat pumps and district heating in buildings generate cost and emission savings. Towards optimal mixtures of working fluids: Integrated design of processes and mixtures for Organic Rankine Cycles. Jalilinasrabady, Saeid ; Bett, Alvin Kiprono. Wu, Wei-Tao. Calculating the Efficiency of Complex-Shaped Fins.

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Increases of bioethanol productivity by S. Knez, Dariusz ; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ahmad. Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ahmad ; Knez, Dariusz. Knez, Dariusz ; Khalilidermani, Mitra. Unveiling the potential of using a spar-buoy oscillating-water-column wave energy converter for low-power stand-alone applications.

Data-driven framework for large-scale prediction of charging energy in electric vehicles. Applications for solar irradiance nowcasting in the control of microgrids: A review. Adjusted combination of moving averages: A forecasting system for medium-term solar irradiance. Comparison of physical and machine learning models for estimating solar irradiance and photovoltaic power.

Day-ahead to week-ahead solar irradiance prediction using convolutional long short-term memory networks. Ptak, Przemysaw ; Gorecki, Krzysztof. Comparative economic analysis of technological priorities for low-carbon transformation of electric power industry in Russia and the EU. Thermal energy storage sizing for industrial waste-heat utilization in district heating: A model predictive control approach. Equilibrium optimizer for parameter extraction of a fuel cell dynamic model.

Jellyfish search algorithm for extracting unknown parameters of PEM fuel cell models: Steady-state performance and analysis. Numerical studies of effect of integrated through-plane array flow field on novel PEFC performance using BWO algorithm under uncertainties. Eghbalian, Nasrin.

Optimal dynamic operation and modeling of parallel connected multi-stacks fuel cells with improved slime mould algorithm. Adaptive and efficient optimization model for optimal parameters of proton exchange membrane fuel cells: A comprehensive analysis. An MILP model for evaluating the optimal operation and flexibility potential of end-users.

Text structuring methods based on complex network: a systematic review. Zhang, Qingtao ; Chen, Yixuan. Dymak, Jan ; Ulc, Radek. Mizik, Tamas. A review on thermal management performance enhancement of phase change materials for vehicle lithium-ion batteries. A review on hybrid thermal management of battery packs and its cooling performance by enhanced PCM. Flexible membrane structures for wave energy harvesting: A review of the developments, materials and computational modelling approaches.

A comprehensive review of the selection of natural and synthetic antioxidants to enhance the oxidative stability of biodiesel. Ting, ; Miller, Lindsay ; Carriveau, Rupp. Ozcelik, Selahattin ; Bashetty, Srikanth. An analysis of bio-digester substrate heating methods: A review. Energy performance of an unmixed anaerobic digester with submerged solid waste: Effects of temperature distribution.

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Modeling and Measurements of Properties of Coupled Inductors. Maintenance gravity window based opportunistic maintenance scheduling for multi-unit serial systems with stochastic production waits. Ning, Xiaohan ; Zhou, Xiaojun. Full description at Econpapers Download Investigations on a new C-GPFs with electric heating for enhancing the integrated regeneration performance under critical parameters. Comparative assessment of alternative marine fuels in life cycle perspective.

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Ramos, Thales ; Medeiros, Manoel F. Drozdowski, Piotr ; Cholewa, Dariusz. Aerodynamic design and performance parameters of a lift-type vertical axis wind turbine: A comprehensive review. Increasing the efficiency of vertical-axis turbines through improved blade support structures. Impact of some design considerations on the wake recovery of vertical-axis turbines.

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Roman Mr. John Romaszkiewicz Dr. Ross Mr. Rybicki Mr. Andrew Sambor Dr. Kickham Scanlan Hon. Edward S. Scheffler Hon. Peter H. Schwaba Mr. Slupikowski Dr. Smialek Mr. Julius F. Albert F. Soska Mr. Srutwa Hon. Sullivan Dr. Szczytkowski Mr. Szmergalski Dr. Szubczynski Mr. Szuflitowski Mr. Szymczak Dr. Francis J. Tenczar Dr. Tilley Captain and Mrs. Peter Tomchek Dr.

Torczynski Mr. Trzebiatowski Mrs. Harriet Turalski Mr. Tyrakowski Unique Social Club Rev. Peter P. Walkowiak Mr. Joseph Waynne Mr. Emil Wiedeman Mr. Leo J. Winiecki Miss Wanda Wojcieszak, N. Wojtalewicz Mr. Geo A. Zabriskie Mr. Zaleski, Hon. Zbyszewski, Con. Zdrojewski Mr. Zielezinski Hon. Frank V. Zintak Mr. Zygmunt [7! Donors Dr. Julia L. Bauman, Holyoke, Mass. Biedka Mr. Tadeusz Cichocki Toudor Mr. Doncer Mr. Leon Dyniewicz Mr. Walter A. Dziuk Dr. Frankiewicz A Friend Dr. Gillmeister Mr.

Roman Gillmeister Grupa Z. John Jackowski Mr. Janiga Mr. Jarmoc Prof, and Mrs. Karczynski Mr. Lasota Dr. Lisowski Dr. Majchrowicz Mr. Ladislaus J. Marchinski K Dr. Olszewski St. Peter and Paul Society, Gr. Placek Mr. Romaszkiewicz Dr. Ruskowski Dr. Thaddeus P. Sakowski Mr. John Schweda Dr. Siedlinski Messrs. Thaddeus Stokfisz Dr. Stroszewski Hon. Robert M. Sweitzer Mr. Louis Tops Tow. Jadwigi, Gr. Los Angeles, Gr. Matki Boskiej, Gr. Modrzejewskiej, Gr. Miss Sophia Warszewski Mr.

Frank D. Winski, Conn. Zakrzewski Mr. Andrew Zurat Mr. Censor P. MISS A. Polish Women's Alliance, A. Alma Mater A. Chairman F. Co-Chairman I,. Chairman DR. Classification MRS. Parishes MRS. Patrons and Patronesses DR. Concessions ED. Headquarters L. Chairman J. Co-Chairman W. JOHN A. Drum Corps M. Electrical Effects F. Editor Z. Secretary DR. Co-Chairman A. Chairman MRS. Co-Chairman EDW. Choirs THEO. Medical Service C. Polish Papers A. Buttons DR.

JOHN J. It should not attempt to relieve destitution, for that is the work of the state ; nor should it provide the necessaries of life, for that is the work of the in- dividual. It should confine itself to pro- viding the material and moral conditions for the growth and revival of self-respect and independence. It should aim at pre- vention and at the removing of causes rather than at the remedying of affects. The Polish Day Association has set for itself the following objects: 1 to ar- range, organize, and conduct an annual festival to be known as the "Polish Day", and thereby to obtain funds for charitable and educational purposes; 2 to initiate, organize, and promote any other legiti- mate means to obtain funds for charitable and educational purposes; 3 to receive by gift or donation any money or property for charitable or educational purposes.

The Association votes money only to organizations or institutions which have for their object charity or education, and which extend aid to persons of Polish ex- traction; are located and operate in the City of Chicago, and County of Cook; are not self-supporting or have not the means to raise sufficient funds for their own op- eration ; will at least once a year render to the Association a report of the expendi- ture of money, requested by this Associa- tion ; and support the Association in its ef- forts by rendering some active service.

This is a very modest sum, but it must not be forgotten that the influence of the Association has been a great moral force for good in the community. The Polish Day Association has been the first to reduce the problem of social better- ment to a practical one of dollars and cents, and to exhort other organizations not to waste time in numerous meetings and conferences, but to do actual work in helping the needy in an efficient, practical manner. Our motto is that deeds speak louder than words.

Accordingly, our Asso- ciation has inspired a host of experienced social workers to devote themselves to the social, political, and economical ameliora- tion of the Polish immigrant and his chil- dren, exclusively. Their idea has grown to such proportions and has captured the minds of the Polish com- munity to such an extent that it became a separate corporation, including among its members the leading officers of the Largest Polish organizations, such as the Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish Women's Alliance, as well as the members of the "Chicago So- ciety" of the Polish National Alliance, the Polish Professional Clubs, etc.

Since the Polish Day has been ce- lebrated in Riverview Park. Paul Drymalski was chairman of the Polish Day in ; Mr. Prebis, in , and ; Mr. Zacharias in ; Mr. August Kowalski, in ; there was no Polish Day in ; Mr. Nyka in In Jan- uary, , Leon C. Titus Zbyszewski, Consul General of Poland, was chosen honorary president, while the executive committee consists of Leon C.

Nyka, president; Paul Drymalski, M. Szymczak, Frank X. Emily Napieral- ski, John J. Roman, secretary; and August J. Kowal- ski, treasurer. The chairmen of the various committees are : Stanley Adamkiewicz, sections ; Steve Adamowski, program and entertainment; Paul Drymalski, permanent exhibits; F.

Phil Garbark, tickets, headquarters and organization; Z. Kudlick, invitation; B. Majewski, finance; Maxwell M. Nowak, ways, means and planning; Edmund J. Odalski, pageant and spectacle; John S. Rybicki, local organization; Hon. Schwaba, publicity; Theodore Szmergal- ski, athletic and sports; Hon.

Zintak, transportation; Lawrence F. Zyg- munt, housing, parking and decoration. To these ideals the Polish Day is dedicated. To my mind there can be no finer ideals ; and what is more important, the Polish Day Association has ever tried to live up to them. At every opportunity, we have emphasized the necessity of charity and education in order to adjust our people to their social environment. Due to the prevailing depression, the needs for charity and education are greater than ever.

Many of our people are impoverished; they are unemployed; they have lost their modest fortunes; they are now dependent on public charity. As I have said, the question of unem- ployment, of relieving this wide spread destitution, is the work of the state. We, in our modest way, can only call on our people to keep the faith, to carry on, as ill fortune cannot clog our steps forever. But our people have the faith ; the hope that springs eternal in the Polish breast resulted in a free and independent Poland.

That same undying hope in the breast of the Polish immigrant and his children will result in better days to come, and we re- gard this great undertaking, this Century of Progress Exposition, as a bold move to usher in a new era for all the citizens of this great Republic.

During this week the Poles will manifest their strength as a national group and at the same time will recall the inestimable contribution the Poles have made to A Century of Progress, as expressed in culture, science, industry, music, the arts, and American insti- tutions in general. Although activity on the Fair grounds proper will be limited to Satur- day, July 22, there will be events constituting the official program of the Polish Week of Hospitality each day beginning Sunday, July Adalbert's B.

Church, where its first society was organized. Banquet in the evening at the Hotel Morrison for its officers, directors, members and friends. Monday, July 17, morning: Registration of guests at headquarters in the Congress Hotel, downtown district, Chicago, and in the north- west side Polish Day Headquarters, N.

Ashland Avenue. The Polish Medical, Dental and Legal Societies of America will commence their conventions, which will continue through Tuesday, and partly Wednesday, culminating with a dinner-dance at the Congress Hotel on Wednesday evening.

The Congress of Polish Women from all over the world will also meet on Monday and Tuesday as will various other associations coming into Chicago. Profes- sor George Bojanowski will be guest conductor, in a special all-Polish program; Mr. Monday evening: Junior League of the Po- lish Welfare Association will conduct an eve- ning of hospitality with a reception, entertain- ment, and dancing, at the Knickerbocker Hotel, for all members, friends, and visitors.

Friday has also been designated by the citi- zens of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as "Polish Day", the mayor of that city having appointed an official committee. Visitors to Chicago are invited to spend the day in Milwaukee, where a reception will be given. Various organizations and church groups will meet north of the Chicago River, and east of Michigan Avenue, at 11 A.

At o'clock the parade will start, and it is expected that by P. At P. As the opening scene of this huge spectacle unfolds, you will behold a village in Poland. There will be revealed the folk-life of Poland. A chorus of one thousand will sing folk-songs, accompanied by a band of one hundred. More than three hundred persons will participate in the whirlwind dances of the "Krakowiak" and the "Mazur".

As the field is being cleared of the village scenery, a parade of organizations will take place, in which will participate fifty floats de- picting the contribution of the Poles to the progress of the world. Then comes the collosal feature, "A Nation Glorified". This part of the program has taken months to prepare and rehearse. It will be the greatest event of its nature ever attempt- ed by Poles in America, and comparable to the grandest spectacles ever attempted by any group.

Since a special program has been pre- pared to supplement this feature of the spec- tacle, no attempt will be made here to depict in words the grandeur and beauty thereof. Sunday, July Special participation in church services in the morning at all Polish Parishes. The Poles are ready to show to the world, and to America in particular, that they are a live and industrious group, com- manding attention and respect.

More than that, it proved to be the first real demonstration of Polish strength in the city of progress. Through the kindness of Mr. Czapek's Orchestra. Address Hon. Harrison Overture "Halka" Moniuszko Prof. Oration Dr. Midowicz Polish Hearts St. Stanislaus Choir with Orchestra under the Leadership of Prof.

The Awakening of the Lion Kontski Prof. The prizes for golf will be so distributed as to give players of all ranks an opportunity to win. There will be door and table prizes for cards. After golf and cards, there will be a dinner and dancing on the club's beautiful outdoor dance pavillion overlooking Deer Lake.

For convenience the material is not footnoted, and general reference for authority is hereby made to the other works by Mr. Haiman, viz. Credit is due for work on this article, to Mr. Although, as will be pointed out here, the history of the Poles in America goes back much further than the begin- ning of the last century, it was in the , years and that the Poles really began to immigrate to this country in "what might be considered large numbers.

It is true, the largest groups came in the latter part of the century. But from on, after the Insurrection of in Po- land, the century of progress actually began. Soon associations were formed, individuals became leaders in America, and in general it gradually became a fact, the subject of recognition and apprecia- tion, that the Poles in America were de- stined to play a most important part, as a national group, in the development and progress of their adopted country. The history of the Poles in the United States is a long and glorious one, dat- ing back, as it does, to the times before Columbus, and numbering among its leaders countless great Americans.

As far back as a Polish mariner, Jan of Kol- no, sailed the Atlantic for the King of Den- mark and is said to have reached Labrador and to have explored the Atlantic sea- board as far south as the present coast of Delaware. The Poles with John Smith at James- town in distinguished themselves as skilled and industrious craftsmen and, when occasion arose, as intrepid warriors against the Indians. Moreover, it was these same Poles who waged the first war for democracy in the New World, although it was a war involving no violence or blood- shed.

The occasion arose in , when the House of Burgesses met in Jamestown for the first time, and all those who were not Englishmen were refused the right to vote. The Poles thereupon declared a strike until such time as they were accorded the same freedom to which they had grown ac- customed in Poland. Concerning this strike The Court Book of the Virginia Company of London writes as follows July 31, : "Upon some dispute of the Polonians res- ident in Virginia it was now agreed that they shall be enfranchised and made as free as any inhabitant there whatsoever.

And because their skill in making pitch and tar and soap-ashes shall not die with them, it is agreed that some young men shall be put unto them to learn their skill and knowledge therein — for the benefit of the country hereafter. Furthermore, in , the Dutch brought from Poland the learned professor, Dr. Alexander Charles Kurcyusz Curtius , who founded an academy for their chil- dren in New Amsterdam, the first insti- tution of higher learning in what is now the city of New York.

In a Polish nobleman, Olbracht Zaborowski by name, settled in New Am- sterdam and later acquired large areas of land on the Passaic river, in the northern part of New Jersey. Having learned the Indian tongue, he often acted as an inter- preter, and by his kindness won over the sympathy of the Indians.

According to the family traditions of the Zabriskies angli- cized from the Polish Zaboroivski , James, the eldest of the five sons of Olbracht, is said at the age of seven to have been seized by an Indian chief. Because of their friendship for the father, the Indians en- treated him to let the boy stay in their camp until he had learned the Indian tongue, in order to continue the friendly relations between the whites and the red- skins. Olbracht later became one of the first judges in New Jersey.

He died in , at Hackensack, New Jersey, leaving a line of descendants now found in various parts of the country. The Zabriskies are to this day one of the most eminent fam- ilies in the United States. We find several Polish names among those who had left the Colonies in order to trade with the Indians farther west. One of these, John Anthony Sadowski, in had reached the western frontier of Ohio and established the present site of Sandusky, Ohio, as a trading post, having thus preceded the white settlement of Ohio by a hundred years.

Sadowski was killed by the Indians in Virginia, where he had settled with his family after his numer- ous trips to the west. They were among the first to enter that unknown region. James Sa- dowski helped in surveying land in Ken- tucky in In , both brothers with about forty men sailed the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers and camped at the spot where Cincinnati, Ohio, now stands. From there they crossed to Kentucky and found- ed Harrodstown, now known as Harrods- burg, the oldest town in Kentucky.

The settlers had constructed their homes and planted grain when, warned by Daniel Boone of a threatened raid, they were com- pelled to return to Virginia. James Sadowski refused to accompany the others. He built a boat and boldly left for the south. Thus, he was the first white man from the English colonies and the first pio- neer after the French and Spanish to trav- erse these rivers.

James and Joseph then settled permanently in Kentucky. James wrote a history of his unusual adventures, but this work was lost. In short, Polish settlers were found in each of the thirteen Colonies. In Delaware, then New Sweden, there were Poles as early as There were Poles in Penn- sylvania during the times of William Penn.

Paul Mostowski of Warsaw even strove to found a New 7 Poland in the south- ern states about , but his plans came to naught. Among these early Polish settlers were men of science. Charles Blaszkowicz, for instance, a surveyor in the English serv- ice, drew a map of the coast line of New England which is admired even to this day.

The history of Poland itself is bound up economically and politically with that of the United States. In this connection, it is interesting to note that when the war between Poland, and Sweden and Russia, put an end to this commerce about , Virginia and Mary- land experienced a period of depression.

During her independent history Poland was known as the "granary of Europe;" but when she fell as a result of the perfidy and greed of her powerful neighbors, America became the successor of Poland in respect to the grain trade supremacy. Politically Poland continued to be of aid to the Colonies, directly or indirectly; for example, her bloody war with the Swedish king, Charles X, enabled the English to seize New Sweden with ease. In turn, Washington sympathized with Poland, and when the latter adopted the famous Constitution of the Third of May, he praised it very highly.

He said: "I wished always to Poland well, and that with all my heart. We to Heaven our unavailing vows For Poland raised — besought Heaven's righteous Lord, To rend the wreath from Austria's, Prussia's brows, And break of baneful leagues the threefold cord Of his forti- fication of West Point? Of his humanity and kindness even to the prisoners of war?

Of his work with General Greene in the army of the south where his mastery of engineering and his knowledge of strategy stood him in good stead? Of the recogni- tion of his accomplishments by Congress and of his immense popularity with the people of this country as well as with the citizens of his "first fatherland," Poland? And finally, of his unceasing efforts to bring freedom to all people of all classes, in connection with which Thomas Jeffer- son once said: "He is as pure a son of liberty as I have ever known, and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few and rich alone.

Harrison spoke of him in Congress as follows: "His fame will last as long as liberty remains upon the earth. With this le- gion he prevented the siege of Charleston, and later led it, together with the Amer- ican and French cavalry, against the Brit- ish at Savannah, Georgia, where he was fatally wounded on October 9, On the occasion of the sesqui-centennial of his death, President Hoover said of him : "The memory of that young Polish noble- man who joined the forces of the American colonists and who fought valiantly from the time he joined the staff of General Wash- ington until he was wounded in the siege of Savannah, will always remain dear to the hearts of American citizens, and their sin- cere recognition of his service in the war for American independence will never die".

The most fa- mous of these was Maurice Beniowski, who as an associate of Pulaski fought the Rus- sians in Poland. The king gave his consent and Beniowski became governor of the col- ony ; he so won over the populace that they made him their king. In he left for America to aid the Colonists but was seized by the English at sea and committed to long imprisonment in England. In he succeeded in being freed, and coming to America, he joined the Pulaski Legion a few days before the siege of Savannah.

Beniowski attempted to create a sepa- rate legion on the Pulaski plan, but the war soon ended, and he returned to Mada- gascar where he was murdered in The Poles fought not for money or any material considerations, for the Colonies were poor, but because of their love of freedom. Of them John A. Joyce, an Amer- ican poet, wrote: "Polish heroes in their might Fought in freedom's holy fight, BrilLant as the stars of night, To maintain the pure and right!

Among the financiers to help America was Peter Stadnicki, a descendant of Polish immi- grants to Holland, a rich and influential banker of Amsterdam. He was the first to show faith in the stability of America by buying up the bonds issued by the Colo- nies during the war.

He sold the issues in Europe in influential circles and thus won confidence for the United States in the powerful countries of Europe. Stadnicki for some time was the leading banker of the United States in Europe. He was re- spected for his sterling honesty and bus- iness acumen. He also helped colonize the western parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Together with several Dutch bankers under the name "The Holland Land Company," he purchased 5,, acres of land, which they subdivided and sold to colonists.

Thus Stadnicki had the honor of populating por- tions that now belong to the richest in the Union. With the partition of Poland, many political exiles flocked to America. Kaje- tan Wengierski, a Polish poet, was eager to visit the new country and meet Wash- ington. He toured the whole of the then known United States and left an interest- ing description of his travels. Niemcewicz is one of Po- land's famous poets.

Like Wengierski, Niemcewicz visited the various parts of the new country and was the first Pole to reach and describe Niagara Falls. He undertook this trip on horseback, clearing his path through the forests with an axe.

He also visited George Washington at Mount Vernon, where he was hospitably entertained for two weeks. This visit he beautifully described in verse in his letter to his friend, Karol Kniaziewicz, in which he mentioned Washington as shedding a tear over the unfortunate lot of Poland. Niemcewicz settled in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he devoted himself to farm- ing. Through his wife, Susan Kean, he was related to the most prominent Amer- ican families of the day.

He wrote the first Polish biography of George Washington. Poles also participated in the second American war with England in He wrote a text-book on artillery for the benefit of the Americans, who, grate- ful for his valuable advice, called him "the father of the American artillery. Part of Napoleon's Polish Legion had been dis- patched to San Domingo, whence such as did not perish miserably or return to Europe came to the United States. A con- siderable number of Poles were in the American armies, fighting the Seminole Indians in the South.

Among Americans of that time enthusiasm in Poland's cause ran high, and the tourist who visits the Polish National Museum at Rappersvil, Switzerland, can see many tokens of sym- pathy sent to the struggling Poles by their American admirers.

The number of Poles in the United States must have run up to thou- sands, if we may judge from the frequent allusions to the various groups in the American Press of the time. American sympathy took concrete form when Con- gress made the Poles a grant of thirty-six sections of land, and surveyed two town- ships for them near Rock River, Illinois.

An appeal dated New York, March 20, , calls upon all Poles in America to affiliate with an organization recently effected at the home of the Rev. Poles from Boston, Baltimore, Utica, Philadelphia, and Niagara, were present at the celebra- tion, and many distinguished Americans and foreigners, as well as various Scan- dinavian, French, and German societies participated. In" it numbered over two hundred mem- bers, but there are no records of its act- ivities later than The Poles coming throughout this period of political immi- gration were persons of culture, and were freely admitted into American Society, which looked upon them as martyrs for liberty.

These exiles in many instances played an important role in the cultural develop- ment of their communities. Julian Fontana, friend of Frederick Chopin, also disting- uished himself as a musician. Alexander Sengteller and Alexander Raszewski were prominent en- gravers. Joseph Podbielski translated many Polish masterpieces into English. Paul Soboleski, a poet and journalist, be- came the brilliant translator of "The Poets and Poetry of Poland. Among the prominent physicians were Louis Szpaczek and R.

Colonel Casimir Gzowski was the famous engineer of Canada who built the first bridge across the Niagara. Joseph Truskolaski was a land surveyor in Louisiana and Utah. Leopold Boeck founded the first polytechnic school of America. Joseph Karge, Arthur Gra- bowski, Joseph d'Alfons and many others distinguished themselves as professors.

Felix Wierzbicki acquired fame with his work on California, the first published book in San Francisco, now very rare and eagerly sought by enthusiastic bibliophiles. Ja- kubowski, having mastered the English language in six months, wrote beautiful poetry, but due to his despair over the tragic plight of Poland, did not live long enough to acquire lasting fame. Many of these Poles became federal workers and officials in Washington; others disting- uished themselves in various other fields, and all aided in the development of the cul- tural background of young America.

The Poles were also active politically. They helped in the annexation of Texas to the United States. Several Poles were killed in the famous massacre of Col- onel Fannin's company at Goliad, Texas, and one of them, the gallant Piotrowicz, was in command of the artillery.

In the war with Mexico, , among the Poles who distinguished themselves were Capt. Napo- leon Koscialkowski, Sergt. The political exiles from Poland did their best to spread the truth about Poland among the Americans. Casper Tochman espe- cially rendered great service in acquaint- ing America with Polish history and liter- ature; in , he delivered through- out the United States over a hundred lec- tures on Poland.

Through his efforts sev- eral state legislatures adopted resolutions laudatory of Poland. For instance, the legislature of the State of Connecticut adopted the following on May 12, "Resolved, that in all conflicts between the tyrant and the oppressed, our best wishes are due to the latter, and are espe- cially extended to the Polish nation, whose history is bright with examples of heroism, and whose noblest warriors have fought by the side of our Fathers, in the great cause of American freedom.

The exiles began to organize into asso- ciations of self-help and mutual aid, espe- cially in the city of New York. The most eminent Polish leader of those days was Dr. Henry Kalussowski, who devoted all his energy to organize the Poles scat- 22 4s tered throughout the United States, in or- der that they might aid their unfortunate native land. Among the clergymen of that early per- iod we find Father Norbert Kossak, Jesuit, who came here about ; the saintly Father Boniface Krukowski, ; Father Francis Dzierozynski, superior over the Jesuit missions of America, Father Gaspar Matoga, who came to the United States in , and completed his studies at Fordham, was the first Polish priest to be ordained in the United States.

The Polish exiles were too widely scattered to form a Polish settlement and parish in these early days. Following the nationalistic movement of , many more Poles came to America to escape political persecution. The most famous of these was John Tys- sowski, dictator of the Cracow rebellion of , and later a prominent official of Washington. In , the attempts to at- tain liberty by force again engaged the sympathy of the American people who ar- ranged huge demonstrations for Poland.

Among the new Polish settlements made in that year was the one in New Orleans, Louisiana. Following the unsuccessful uprising of , more Poles came to the land of the free, bringing with them their love of free- dom, and their profound cultural back- ground. During the Civil War more than 4, Poles served in the Union Army, and more than 1, in the Confederate Army; that is one-sixth of the total estimated Polish population.

A week after Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75, volunteers, Gen. Major A. Raszewski assembled two Polish companies of the 31st regiment of the state militia of New York. When in the beginning of the war the State of Missouri was inclined to favor the Confederacy, Polish volunteers from St. Louis helped to keep it under the Stars and Stripes. The Poles of Cincinnati, Ohio, under Maj.

By singular coincidence, among the first victims of the war on either side were Poles. He was one of those deserving patriots who had saved Missouri for the Union. There were about Polish officers in the Union army and several score in the Confederate troops. Over Poles died fighting to preserve the Union and about perished for the Confederate cause. The Confederacy had many friends in Europe; France and England were espe- cially sympathetic to the Southern states and clandestinely aided their cause.

At that time the Poles abroad were groaning under the oppressive heel of Russia and their insurrection of was an attempt to throw off the foreign yoke. France and England, the very powers hostile to the United States, were most sympathetic to the Polish cause. This aloofness, however, caused great rejoicing in Russia, where a belief was professed that the Polish cause could not be just inasmuch as the most democratic country in the world re- fused to render aid.

In order to deter Eng- land and France from active support of the Poles, the Russian czar sent a large fleet to the United States where it was welcomed with great enthusiasm. The threat was effective, and the European powers agreed to preserve neutrality in the Polish insurrection as well as where the Confederacy was concerned.

From a private he rose to the rank of a general and distinguished himself by his valor and able leadership. Born in Po- land, in , he worked while a student for the Polish cause. Compelled to leave his home because of his political activities, he came to America and by dint of hard labor and study became an engineer.

At first employed by the railroads, he later settled in Washington, D. C, and became a merchant. In he organized a company of mili- tia in Washington, soon became captain, major, and finally, colonel of the 58th in- fantry of the New York militia.

This regi- ment included many Poles and for that reason was called the Polish Legion. After the battle at Cross Keys, June 8, , he was given the rank of brigadier; and for his gallant part in the battle of Bull Run, August, , President Lincoln appointed him general. The Senate, however, failed to ratify the appointment. At Gettysburg July, he again distinguished him- self, and thereafter despatched to Tennes- see, he took part in many engagements and executed several difficult marches.

Upon the termination of the war the officers and soldiers of his brigade presented him with a beautiful saber inscribed: "Officers and soldiers of the 2nd brigade, 3rd division, 2nd corps, to their beloved commander, this token of respect. Moreover, he was also known for his humanity in the treatment of the enemy. In , he was in supreme command of Bridgeport, Tennessee, on Confederate ter- ritory, master of the life and property of the inhabitants, yet when he was leaving for another assignment, the Southerners sincerely regretted his departure.

There he laid the foundation for the American administration. Later he was a federal official in Panama and New York. He died in New York on January 31, General Carl Schurz, United States senator and secretary of the treas- ury, pronounced a beautiful eulogy at his funeral : "A son of a distant land, dearer to me than everything else, mindful of her misfortunes. The "National Cyclopaedia of American Biography" says of him that "by reason of his fine scholar- ship, his amiable qualities, and his rare gifts as a teacher, he became one of the best known educators of his time.

Among these was Captain Alexander Bielaski, ad- jutant to General McClellan, who at Bel- mont, Missouri, November 7, , dis- mounting from his injured horse, seized the Union flag and with a cry led his sol- diers to the attack.

He was killed instant- ly. He died making the Stars and Stripes his winding sheet. Hon- ored be his memory". Poles were also pioneers in the signal corps, the eyes and tongue of the army. Here we find Lieut. Julius S. Krzywo- szynski and Capt. Joseph Gloskowski, who rendered many a service to the Union army.

In , Gloskowski participated in the bold expedition to Richmond, Vir- ginia, the capital of the Confederacy, to rescue Union prisoners. Many war re- ports name him for "meritorious service and gallant conduct. Ladis- law A. Kossak distinguished himself on Gen- eral Grant's staff. He fought in the insurrection of , and, eager to escape the Prussian persecution, he left with his brother for America in Once he had mastered the language, he established a school that became famous in New York.

He volunteered for service in the Union army and became lieutenant-colonel in the first cavalry regiment of the State of New Jersey. He trained this regiment and took part in many engagements. At Barnett's Ford, August 7, , he helped save the Army of Virginia from annihilation by Jackson and aided in the defense of Wash- ington from Confederate attack.

He was wounded at Brandy Station, August 20, Again he distinguished himself at Aldie, October 21, Hampered by his wound, he was compelled to retire, but in the beginning of he again became active and organized the second regiment of New Jersey, of which he became colonel. When General Lee threatened to invade New Jersey and the Northern states, the governor appointed Karge supreme com- mander of the cavalry within the state. Lee, however, defeated at Gettysburg, was compelled to return south.

Karge was sent to the south-west to fight the many small Confederate contin- gents that carried on a guerilla warfare. There he took part in many engagements, traversing on horseback the States of Miss- issippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and parts of Arkansas and Louisiana ; he sailed the Mississippi from St.

Louis to New Or- leans ; he marched thousands of miles, cap- turing soldiers and horses and ammunition on the way. He was universally praised for his work, and a grateful Congress, for his valorous and distinguished service, commissioned him brigadier-general. With peace declared, Karge returned to his profession and for 20 years was pro- fessor of foreign languages and literatures [25 »! Lieutenant Colonel Hipolit Oladowski was an inseparable as- sistant and adviser to the famous Con- federate general Braxton Bragg.

Peter K. Stankiewicz was a brilliant of- ficer of the artillery, in command of a bat- tery from Tennessee. Leon Jastremski, later mayor of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, rose to a captaincy from the ranks. Even the Polish women played an im- portant part in the Civil war.

At the battle of Gettysburg she recognized her own brother in a seriously wounded confederate soldier to whom she was giv- ing water. Klimkiewicz regained his health. Sister Veronica celebrated the diamond jubilee of the taking of her mo- nastic vows in , in Baltimore, Md.

She died the same year. Her sister, also a Sister of Mercy, worked as a nurse dur- ing the Civil war. Similar work was done in the South by Mrs. Sosnowski, of Co- lumbia, South Carolina, widow of a Polish officer who took part in the insurrection of in Poland. Following the Civil war there followed a huge emigration from Poland, for econ- omic reasons.

Before the war the immi- grants were political exiles, who had left Poland because of the persecutions of Rus- sia and Prussia. Now the immigrant came to the land of opportunity to better himself economically, to work hard and save for a home of his own. True, there were some Poles who were attracted by the gold rush in California and came here in But the main stream of immigration started when the siege of Corinth, Mississippi, "very excel- lent. Edmund Zalinski, as a youngster of 16, joined the Union army and became adjutant to General N.

For his bravery he rose from a private to the rank of an officer. After the war he was pro- fessor in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and acquired fame as an in- ventor of war machinery. Peter Kiolbassa, first Polish teacher in Texas, and later city treasurer in Chicago, like Zalinski, rose from the ranks and be- came captain in the Union army.

Maurice Kraszynski of Connecticut; Capt. Edmund T. Hulanicki, and his brother, Capt. Thaddeus C. Hula- nicki, of Illinois; Capt. Gusta ve Radecki of Massachusetts; Col. Emil Schoening, of New York, and many others. Among those who sided with the Con- federacy were Gen. A number of Poles from the South joined this contingent, but Tochman soon after resigned. One of the officers of the Brigade was Col.

Vincent Sulakowski, a famous engineer, who plan- ned the fortification of the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. The peasantry, unable to make any headway in the old country, and un- able to own their own land, resolved to leave for America in order to acquire economic independence, and better op- portunities for themselves and their child- ren. The immigrants brought with them their clergymen, and thus the church be- came the nucleus of the many settlements in this country.

Since the immigrants were ever religious, never forgetting church or God, the parish linked them in one group which enabled them to survive more easily. Leopold Moczygemba in In he invited some hundred families from Upper Silesia German Poland , who made their way through the difficul- ties of the Texas prairie and wilderness, exposed to wild animals and venomous snakes, to fever and elemental storms, and to the ill-will of the natives.

Nothing daunted, they constructed a little church for their priest and their little huts on the prairie and became successful pioneers in a new country. By we find in the north the first Polish farming community at Polonia, Wisconsin, and soon after one at Paris- ville, Michigan, and then many others.

The many thriving farming communities attracted other farmers from Poland, so much that today 10 percent of the Polish population in America, or about ,, live on the farms, especially in New Eng- land, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Il- linois, Indiana, Missouri, Pennsylvania, the Dakotas, Iowa, Arkansas and Nebras- ka. But the laboring class as well was at- tracted to the land of Washington, and the bulk of the Polish immigration, num- bering some 3,,, settled in towns and cities, in the many industrial centers of the United States.

In Chicago, there are some 60 Polish parishes, with about , citizens of Polish extraction. The Poles of the German partition were the first to start this mass immigration to America. They had been compelled to fight the French in the Franco-German war of , and as a reward were being subjected to a ruthless form of Prussian- ization.

To escape this repression of the Polish tongue and to better themselves economically, they began to flock in great numbers to America. They were followed by the Poles of the Russian partition and finally by Austrian Poles. The huge im- migration was stopped only by the war in The following statistics prove the rapid growth of the Polish invasion of America : In , there were in the United States some 30, Poles and about 10 Polish set- tlements; in the number was 50,, with 20 settlements in Texas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and Pennsylvania in Chicago alone there were some 10, Poles with 25 clergymen ; in they numbered about ,, with 50 parishes, and settlements; in there were 1,, immigrants, parishes, Polish parochial schools, priests; in we find 2,, Poles, with settlements and over parishes; in they numbered 3,,- , parishes, schools, and over Polish clergymen ; at present you find about 4,, Poles, over Polish parishes, schools and clergymen.

Now there are over Polish periodicals, among them 15 dailies, all per- forming effective educational work among the Poles in the United States. The loyalty and patriotic spirit of the Pole has never been questioned; in fact, Polish patriotism has been pointed out as a model by American writers for other immigrants to follow.

The Pole partici- pated in the Spanish-American war in great numbers. And when the World war broke out, the United States government, with President Woodrow Wilson at its head, knew that it could depend on the Pole to do more than his share. Governor W. Kohler of Wisconsin once spoke as fol- lows: "I was astonished to read recently that out of the first , volunteers who res- ponded to the call of the President for ser- vice in the world war, 40, were of Polish descent, and that the Polish people consis- tently supplied volunteer enlistments far out of proportion to the number of Poles living in th.

Stevens Point, Wis. Among these I would mention a strong and sincere religious faith; an intense love of home; a tending on coming to this country to acquire citi- zenship as soon as possible ; a noticeably keen interest in performing the duties of citizenship, and despite their peace-loving character, a remarkable readiness to res- pond to the national call in time of war.

Poles of Chicago, Milwaukee, and other points were among the first victims of the war. Two Polish boys, one of Milwaukee, the other of Chicago, were the first to capture a German prisoner. As the immortal Paderewski said in one of his speeches : "The Poles in America are hard-working people, contributing by their efficient and conscientious labor to the development of natural resources and to the progress of in- dustry and growth of American prosperity.

They are not rich, they are just making their honest living. Out of four millions of them not one is a millionaire, and yet they are fulfilling their duty imposed upon them by circumstances with loyalty, determina- tion and enthusiasm. Among their associations are such country-wide fraternal organizations, as the Polish Na- tional Alliance, the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the Polish Women's Alliance, the Polish Falcons' Alliance, jointly number- ing some , members.

Besides these there is a host of dramatic, literary, sing- ing, social and athletic societies all over the country. The Pole is taking care of his own, with his numerous orphanages, old people's homes, hospitals, and charitable organiza- tions. The Polish Welfare Association of Chicago is doing notable work for delin- quents, cooperating effectively with the courts and other social agencies of the state.

The Polish press has done great work in adapting the immigrant to the political institutions of the United States, in crys- tallizing public opinion in favor of good, efficient government. He inspired the formation of the Polish relief for the war- stricken in Poland and of the Polish Natio- nal Department to further effective as- sistance to America and to the Polish Cause through the spoken and written word, through contributions, and through the organization of a Polish army which fought by the side of the Allies on the western front in France.

Baker expressed it, "was a stimulating and in- spiring sight. It can readily be seen there, that the Poles are an asset in every community in which they settle. They are loyal, hard- working ; they find all forms of racketeer- ing and exploitation distasteful.

Even amid the prevailing depression when so many of these have lost all they possessed, they refuse to lend a favorable ear to the so-called radicals, communists, with their vapid attacks on established government. America found the Pole the first to heed her call in times of war; in this depres- sion, which is another kind of war, she finds the Pole the main stabilizing in- fluence of the country.

The Poles say that "America is not the land we live on, or the land we live from, but the land we live in. In propor- tion to their number they have been the lar- gest contributors to this worthy cause. In every large city in America with Polish population the number of Pol- ish subscribers has been very large, not- withstanding the fact that the number of Polish subscribers working with large American concerns could not be taken into account. Their willingness to enlist and fight under the American flag has won repeated praise of the highest military authorities in the country.

There is not one of those mourn- ful casualty lists that does not contain some names of American soldiers of Polish birth fallen on the glorious battle-fields of France. The average number killed exceeds 12 per cent. And as there are not quite 4 percent Polish people among the population of the United States, this fact indicates that the Poles in this war are doing more than three times their duty, that they are not , but per cent American.

They will perform them in time of war, in time of peace, and always without fear or with- out reproach. The environment of the boy was one of probity and domestic virtue. Freely and intim- ately he went among his father's serfs, learning thus that strong love for the peas- antry which later inspired the laws he urged upon his country. His early steps in learning were guided by his mother, a woman of great force of character and practical capacity.

This home schooling ended with his father's death during the child's thirteenth year. He was then sent to the Jesuit College at Brzesc, where he proved diligent and revealed a marked talent for drawing. In , a youth of nineteen years, he was entered in the Corps of Cadets, other- wise called the Royal School, at Warsaw. In reality this was not a military academy, but military training played an important role in the curriculum.

It was, above all, a school for patriotism. And in Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski, commander of the school and a cousin of the king, he found a friend and a protector. At this time Kosciuszko's mother died, and with her death began the financial dif- ficulties which pursued him without res- pite throughout his life. In , having left the school with the rank of captain, and having received the King's Stipend, he left Poland to pursue his studies abroad.

Once in France he at- tended the school of engineering and ar- tillery at Mezieres — and possibly the Ecole Militaire in Paris. The French theory of fortification engaged his closest attention and when, in , he returned home, he had acquired great skill in military en- gineering.

Here the newly arrived intel- ligence of the outbreak of hostilities in America kindled his imagination, and he determined to go to the aid of America — a Polish knight in the cause of liberty. Pending the decision of the Board of War upon his application, he found employment at Philadelphia, in the construction of fortifications against the expected attack by the Delaware.

This gained him his commission from Congress, October 18, , as an engineer in the Continental service with pay of sixty dol- lars a month, and the rank of colonel. In the spring of , he joined the North- ern Army, where his ability as an engineer was of invaluable use in the campaign a- gainst Burgoyne.

He was or- dered by General Gates to erect the forti- fication in the defense of Saratoga, and his task was accomplished with great bril- liancy and speed. With justified pride Poles regard the role played by their national hero in the victory at Saratoga, a victory which won for America not only a campaign but France's recognition of her independence.

For long the question of the defense of the Hudson had been of paramount import- ance ; the brief respite gained by the defeat of Burgoyne rendered this a favorable mo- ment to render it impregnable. West Point was chosen for its commanding position, and its fortification was finally confer- red, over the head of the French engineer, Radiere, upon the Pole. But before the Pole was able to reach him, his old friend had been defeated at Camden — deprived of his command, and General Nathanael Greene — after Washington the finest gen- eral in the Continental service — had been appointed his successor.

He saw there the negroes at close quarters and — M was brought face to face with the Negroes in slavery. It was then that, with his keen suspectibility to every form of human suf- fering, he acquired that profound sym- pathy for the American negro, which seventeen years later, was to dictate his parting testament to the New World. True to his ideals, at the battle of Eutaw Springs, he restrained a carnage which outraged his feelings, and he is said personally to have saved the lives of fifty Englishmen.

When the campaign changed to one of guerilla warfare, he fought as a soldier, not as an engineer. At length Charleston fell. Peace soon followed. Nathanael Greene best sums up what the Pole had done for America and what he had been to his brother-soldiers. I can liken to nothing his zeal in the public service, and in the solution of important problems, nothing could have been more helpful than his judgment, vig- ilance and diligence.

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