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Of these latter one had acid, the other moderately sweet fruit; the third bore delicious orange-flavoured grapes. The bunches of the two first white varieties were loose, pendulous, and carried long small berries ; the orange-flavoured vine had bunches with densely placed grapes. Among the black varieties some bore very small bunches, others reached from two to five inches in length ; most common were the black grapes of oval shape. The shapes of the leaves differed greatly. In Upper and Lower Austria, particularly between Vienna and Pressburg, there grow many wild vines on the shores of the Danube, as well as on the islands of the river.

The borders of the Theiss are enlivened by their presence ; the Save, where it issues from Croatia, waters many plants of this kind. On the Adige, in the Tyrol, there are some jungles formed by wild vines creeping over low shrubs of Rhus cotinus and wild fig-trees ; the wild vines accompany the Adige into the low marshy country. From the foregoing it is evident that all those European countries which possess the climatic conditions have in their flora many species of the genus Vitis in a wild state, with such botanical characters as leave no doubt that the plants are indigenous, produced by natural selection from proto- 1 Cf.

In the appreciation of the nature of the different wines produced in the world, it must be borne in mind that each particular district producing a particular kind of well-charac- terized wine does so by means of particular well-characterized varieties of vines. These vines must be considered as having been either indigenous to these districts, or as having been produced in them by natural or artificial selec- tion from indigenous varieties; for when transplanted to other districts they change their character more or less so as to produce a different wine ; or they lose their peculiarities so completely as to be worthless for making wine ; or they cease to be fructiferous ; or lastly, they do not succeed at all, and pine and die out.

The Aramont is a vine commonly grown about Montpellier on account of its extraordinary fertility ; transplanted to the south of Germany it begins to bear in the fourth year and produces many and large bunches of grapes, but year by year its fertility decreases, its originally large berries become smaller, until the viticulturist is obliged to remove the barren plants. Bronner 1 who had become acquainted with the extraordinary fertility of some vines of Upper Austria the Rothgipfler, green Muscateller, the white one of Griming a village near Vienna and the red Zierifandler of Voslau planted numerous samples of all four varieties in his vine- yard at Wiesloch.

During ten years he did not obtain a single grape from any of them, and after ten further years all the vines had died out. The vines of Europe transplanted to North America do not succeed. Viticulture in that country has hitherto only succeeded with indigenous varieties or their crosses. Even the wine made from the celebrated Catawba is so flavourless 1 Bronner " Die wilden Trauben," etc. Louis was strongly flavoured with elder-flower.

Invariably American vines which yield yet drinkable wine in the United States, when grown in the Gironde degenerate and yield no drinkable wine. We dismiss as unproved the often repeated statement, that the Portuguese Bucellas wine was made from the "hock-grape;" but we reject as entirely fabulous the statement that the vine called Pedro Ximenes had been brought to Spain from the banks of the Moselle by the man whose name it bears.

As a French author 2 wittily said, " If he took any he took all ; for no such vine grows nowadays north of the Pyrenees. Transplanted to Spain, these vines do not produce claret any longer ; in a climate less moist and less warm, these vines so lose their fertility as to cease to be remunerative objects of agriculture. We might greatly increase the number of data, all pointing to the same conclusion, but those above given are sufficient to prove a general law, namely, that every uniform climatic region has its peculiarly adapted varieties of wild and cultivated vines, which cannot be so successfully cultivated in other regions, or cannot be cultivated at all anywhere else.

The vine existed certainly in Germany, and perhaps also in Bohemia and Tuscany, 3 during the tertiary and before 1 We learned this from the late M. Boucherot of Carbonnieux near Bordeaux, who planted American vines on a large scale. Gaudin, " Mem. II the basaltic outbreaks which succeeded the tertiary deposits. In the relative situations there existed jungles close to lakes or morasses, in which latter the decaying vegetation of the neighbourhood became imbedded, and by commixture of clay, preserved.

Thus deposits of lignite, or brown-coal were formed, which now supply the neighbourhood with fuel. In this lignite the preserved parts of vines are found in our time. But these deposits have been preserved from ulterior changes, from being washed away by rain, or the combined effects of the agencies which produce what in geology is termed denudation, by having been covered over by basaltic lava, which in the particular case of Salzhausen in Hesse, is no less than feet thick.

Interspersed with these, or in separate layers, are found the impressions of the leaves of the fossil vine, vitis teutonica? The vine meets with the climatic conditions of its growth,, and the perfection of its fruit, on the northern hemisphere, in a belt of territory which is enclosed between two lines, a northern one on the polar limit and a southern or equatorial 1 For details concerning this deposit cf. Thudichum and DupreV " Treatise," etc. Unger, " Sylloge Plantarum Fossilium," in the Sitz.

Commencing north of the Azores, the polar limit passes through the Channel south of England, excluding that country, enters France in the Bretagne at Vannes, and runs by Mazieres, Alengon and Beauvais. It then takes a more northern turn, includes a portion of Rhenish Prussia, passes to the north of Thuringia, the valley of the Saale, Saxony, and then crosses the Carpathians, to pass through South Russia, almost in a straight line to the northern end of the Caspian Sea.

Thence it proceeds to the river Amoor, and somewhat to the north of the southern bend of that river ends in the Pacific Ocean. The equatorial limit passes south of the Canary Islands, including them and all the islands near the African and Spanish coast. It enters Africa about the 3oth degree of northern latitude, and, running near that degree, leaves Africa at the middle of the Isthmus of Suez ; runs across Arabia and the Persian Sea, enters India near the 25th degree of northern latitude, runs down into Hindostan with a loop, nearly parallel to its sea-borders, so that the whole interior of Hindostan is com- prised in it while the whole seaboard is excluded.

It then passes again to the north, enters China and forms a loop southwards similar to that in Hindostan, to termi- nate at the eastern end of it, on the 27th degree of northern latitude. These limits are really those of the culture of the vine ; for :some varieties will grow to the north of the limit, though its fruit never ripens unless with the aid of exceptional protec- tion : to the south of the equatorial limit the vine becomes an evergreen on which all stages of growth are represented at the same time ; and under these circumstances it does not mature its fruit with the same perfection as when it is sub- ject to the rotation of the seasons.

The vine requires for the ripening of its fruit not a certain high average temperature of the year, but a maximum of summer heat, without which the fruit does not ripen. IJ air over Britain, and prevent the sun's rays from influencing the vegetation with the required energy. The cultivation of the vine in America is apparently in- cluded between limits similar to those prevailing in Europe.

Even the indigenous American vines cannot be cultivated north of 50 degrees north latitude. The scuppernong does not succeed north of the Potomac, and the indigenous vines apparently do not pass south of the centre of Mexico. The extent of the cultivation in these districts is at present not exactly known, but it seems somewhat to increase in Australia. In apparent contradiction to the foregoing and apparently unexplained, but supported by documentary evidence, stands the assertion that during some centuries, beginning somewhat before the Norman Conquest, wine was grown in many parts of the south of England.

We take the following data from Redding's work, 1 premising that in the souitiny of ancient documents a doubt must be allowed, whether the Latin word, which has been read as vinarium, whether it mean a vineyard or a wine-cellar, may not have signified, and therefore must not necessarily be read as vivarium Y meaning a pond in which fish were reared or kept for use in a living state.

Doomsday Book proves that wine was made in Essex, six acres producing gallons. Rabelais, who was born in , makes an allusion in his works to wine of Britain not Bretagne, but England. William of Malmesbury, in his book, " De Pontificibus," says that the Vale of Gloucester used to produce, in the twelfth century, as good wine as- many of the provinces of France.

Near Tewkesbury is a field still called the " Vineyard. In the counties of Worcester, Hereford, Somerset, Cambridge, and Essex, there are lands which bear the name of vineyards, many of them having been attached to par- ticular church establishments, whose ruins are yet in their vicinity. Raleigh, in Essex, was valued, in the time of King Edward, at ten pounds, propter vinum.

In regard to the Vale of Gloucester, William of Malmesbury says, " There is no province in England which has so many and good vine- yards, neither on account of their fertility nor the sweetness of the grape. The village of Winnal, or Wynall, near Winchester, was so named from a vineyard, and not from any saint, as some pretend. Besides the counties above mentioned, Hertford, Middlesex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent, Hants, Dorset, and Wilts, had vine cultivation, as appears from Doomsday Book ; but no county north of Cambridge is said to have borne vines.

Hence it may be concluded that the vine did not yield any profit if it grew northward of that place. The etymology of Winnal is said to be the Welsh " gwinllan," a vineyard. Vines are distinguished in old writings as " portantes " or " non portantes. Six " arpens " of land were then said, if the vines turned out well si bent brocedit to produce, by one author, gallons by another, In seeming opposition to this, it is recorded, in " Memoires pour la Vie de Petrarch," p.

The drink of Flanders is hydromel; and as wine cannot be sent to those countries but at great expense, few persons can afford to drink it. More recently, M. Arago, of the French Institute, has commented on the changes in the climate of France. The vineyards of Etampes and Beauvais were at one time celebrated. Their wines, if now made, are unworthy of notice. According to a report compiled in , no wine can be made in the whole de- partment of the Somme.

Arago instances a similar change of climate in England, proved by old chronicles as above quoted, and, inquiring into the causes of this change, thinks that a very marked alteration of climate has taken place both in France and England. AN exact knowledge of the mineral constituents of the vine enables the viticulturist to adapt his soil to the neces- sities of the plant in the most perfect and economical manner, and thus to furnish one of the most important elementary conditions of the greatest possible production of grapes and wine.

The mode of obtaining this knowledge is part of the science of analytical chemistry, and as such is without the limits of the present treatise. We therefore deal only with the great features of the results as far as they are necessary to the reader to enable him to appreciate facts and processes which have to be alluded to summarily in the later chapters. The proportions of alkalies to earths are about equal : and again, the united weight of the bases is about equal to the half of the weight of the entire ash.

Different vines yield different proportions of ash, but vines of the same kind and the same period of vegeta- tion yield very similar proportions of ash. The ashes of the various parts of the vine, of leaves, branches, wood, and roots, differ from each other in a very striking manner. These large quantities of moisture in pith and capillary roots explain partly why they are more easily killed by frost.

Leaves yield the greatest amount of ash, and ripe grapes the smallest. The less mineral matter a part contains the greater is in its ash the proportion of soluble salts ; inversely with the rise of the total ash falls the proportion of soluble salts, so that the percentage of soluble ash in leaves is the lowest among all specimens of ash examined. Half-ripe grapes contain a very low percentage of ash, and in this the maximum percentage of soluble salts.

As canes and grapes are mostly removed from vineyards, while the leaves are left on the ground, it is economically im- portant to consider what kind and amount of ash is removed annually from a vineyard. This inquiry was instituted by the celebrated French philosopher Boussingault at his estate in Alsatia, and led to the following remarkable results.

The wine yields a very small percentage of ash compared to the other parts, and in consequence its percentage of alkalies is smaller than that of any other part of the vine ; but as it has lost much mineral matter during fermentation, the quantity of its ash is not the measure of the quantity of mineral matter removed by it from the soil ; for ascertain- ing this latter amount the murk before fermentation, or must and yeast with accompanying matters, have to be examined.

Berthier 1 analysed a fruit-bearing one year's branch, cut from a Camay vine at Nemours, in October, , at the time of the vintage, and the grapes attached to it. The branch and leaves contained nine times as much inorganic matter, four times as much alkaline salts, fourteen times as much earthy salts, and six to seven times as much phos- phates as the grapes.

Of parts of grape bunches, about 4 parts are stalks, 22 parts are murk, i. The quantations of the proportions between the bases, or alkalies and alkaline earths in the vine, have taught us that the vine is in this particular respect influenced by the soil on which it is located. Of course it grows best where all the bases are ready at hand in excess, or the necessary quantities for a season's growth ; but when the vine cannot find a particular kind of base which it ordinarily wants for its development, it takes another instead ; it does not take a random and uncertain quantity, but substitutes for the one which it cannot have a chemical equivalent of that which happens to be available, and by this means accomplishes the cycle of its functions.

These data have manifested the existence of a law of nature, which has been chemically ex- pressed thus : The ashes of the vine may contain very variable quantities of potash, soda, lime, and magnesia ; but the sum of the quantities of oxygen contained in these bases is always the same, showing that the substitution of one base for another takes place in equivalent proportions.

The ash of the vine is obtained by the combustion of its parts ; during this process the organic matters with which the bases or salts were in combination are destroyed. Instead of malates, tartrates, and tannates, we obtain in the ash carbonates of potash, soda, and lime ; the carbonate of the latter again yields its acid in high temperature and appears as caustic lime.

Organic phosphorus compounds, e. Against this latter emergency no sufficient precaution has hitherto been taken in ash analysis by incineration, and all analyses affected by this error are faulty, and have to be repeated. To appreciate the part which the bases take in the organic life of the vine, we must therefore consider them in their combinations, just as they occur in the natural tissues and juices. In these their main function seems to be the fixing and neutralizing of acid nuclei, which, under the re- ducing influence of light, and in the presence of the elements of vegetable nutrition, water, carbonic acid, ammonia, and nitric acid from which these nuclei themselves have just been formed are gradually developed to more complex bodies.

If these bases are not present in the soil in an accessible form, the vine cannot grow at all ; if they are present in insufficient amount the growth of the vine is stunted, and its fertility is impaired or suppressed ; if they are present in the soil in false proportions the vine effects a substitution, and is able to accomplish the cycle of its changes. But at the same time this necessity affects, in various ways, its growth, durability, fertility, and the nature of its product ; it is very probable that a large amount of failure in viticulture is engendered by such a disproportion in the necessary mineral constituents of the soil.

Lastly, in soils where the vine finds all the mineral ingredients in proper proportion, quantity, and condition, it grows and bears with the greatest perfection. In this argument it is implied that the position, exposure, watering, and mechani- cal conditions of the soil are equal in every case, and that the sole variation refers to the mineral ingredients. Boussingault obtained from his vineyard, an inclosed property of acres surface, called Schmalzberg, near Lampertsloch, Alsatia.

A litre of wine left gramme of ash, or kilos, for the hectolitres. Calculated for an hectare all available data seem to show an annual exportation by a crop of mixed canes of more than 40 kilos, of mineral matter, of which 6 are potash, phosphoric acid. If during the progress of viticulture green branches with leaves are removed from the vineyards, as is not rarely done in viticultural districts for the purpose of feeding domestic herbivorous animals, greater quantities of mineral matters are exported.

Vergnette calculated that on the Cote d'Or an hectare of land supports about 25, vines ; these produce annually about 11, kilos, of wood, leaves, and grapes, which burnt together would leave kilos, of ash, containing kilos, of soluble and kilos, of insoluble salts.

The ingredients of the seed are lignine, which builds up its woody structure, then starch, tannic acid, fatty oil, several albuminous and phosphorised substances, and the mineral salts already referred to. As soon as with the aid of these sub- stances the young plant, consisting of a root with fibrils and spongioles, and a little stalk with leaves, has been con- structed, it becomes independent of the nourishment from the seed, and draws its supplies from earth and air.

These it transforms by the elimination of oxygen and the combina- tion of the more carbonized products with the elements of water. Thereby a series of acids are formed, which from the beginning are combined with the bases above described.

Carbonic acid is first transformed into oxalic acid ; by the combination of two of its particles, and the substitution of some oxygen by hydrogen, malic acid, the acid contained in apples, berries of the mountain ash, and unripe grapes, is formed. This malic acid, by a small addition of oxygen, is easily transformed into tartaric acid. The various chemical processes in the plant are effected by the vegetable cells, particularly of the leaves, under the influence of the rays of the sun ; and the green colouring matter, or chlorophyll, and the yellow ingredient, hiteine, have an important mediating share in these processes.

Three entire seasons are mostly required for the develop- ment of the roots and wood of the plant to such a size as to enable it to produce ripe fruit. During these various stages the following chemical compounds are met with in the various parts and juices of the plant. The Sap. The first fluid which rises in the canes at the beginning of spring is called sap. As it runs in drops from a cut surface of canes it is called " tears," and the act of its effusion is called "weeping" of the vine.

The rising of the sap in the vine takes place with an enormous force, which was first measured by Stephen Hales, more than a century ago ; he found it equal to the pressure of a column of mercury 22 inches in height, while the German professor, Mohr, of Bonn, found it to rise to a maximum of i9 T 3 T inches. The young shoots of the vine contain acid tartrate of potash in much larger quantities than the sap ; cellulose and chlorophyll in constantly increasing quantities are deposited within their structure and that of the leaves.

The expressed juice of entire branches deposits vegetable Jibrine and chlorophyll as a green sediment ; it contains in solution tannin, recog- nized by its astringent taste, its inky reaction with iron salts, and its precipitate with gelatine ; vegetable albumin is preci- pitated from it by boiling ; acid tartrates of potash and lime 22 A TREATISE ON WINES.

The part remaining insoluble consists of lignin or cellulose, the substances of which all wood, young and old, is composed. In the cell-cavities of the wood there is deposited in autumn a quantity of starch, which can be extracted from the rasped wood by boiling water.

The tendrils taste like, and have the composition of, unripe fruit. Unripe grapes contain malates and tartrates, mainly of potassium in varying proportions, changing with each period of development. Before the appearance of any sugar, malates prevail ; when the grapes become sugary tartrates prevail, of which a certain portion remains in the fully ripe grapes.

The grapes then also contains fibrine, albumin, gum, pectin, tannin, and in largest quantity the sugar peculiar to fruit ; the tannin is not at first in solution in the juice, but deposited in the husks and seeds, and requires maceration for its extraction. The husks of the blue and black grapes contain the blue colouring matter, also deposited in the insoluble state along with the tannin, and extractable only by alcohol and acid, or by wine, and then assuming a red colour in dilute solution.

The amount of acid in the grapes increases during their growth, and decreases again during ripening. Dupre, Rendu, 1 and Pasteur. THE vine requires a territory which must not be clogged with water, but pervious to it, and admit air at frequent intervals. But at the same time it requires a constant supply of water within easy reach of the roots. Thus in the fertile paludal districts of the Gironde the ground-water is within a few feet of the surface, while the vines of the Medoc are placed upon little hillocks of gravelly soil, and receive rain at frequent intervals from the clouds which come landwards from the Atlantic.

The vine grows on chalky, silicious, aluminous, and mag- nesian soil, on granitic mountains, on formations of transition, such as the Devonian slate of the Alto Douro, on tertiary formations such as the hills of Jerez, on volcanic and alluvial territory. In all it requires the presence of decaying matter called humus ; of considerable quantities of chalk and potash and of the other mineral ingredients. This is next mixed with old plaster with hair in it, charred wood and wood-ashes, horse-droppings, broken bone and horn-shavings.

Of such soil a full-grown vine under glass requires from to cubic feet, but of an ideal soil it would only require 27 cubic feet. Most natural soils admit of being improved in their compo- sition, and for such improvements no general rules can be given. But as all crops remove certain mineral constituents, they exhaust the land more or less rapidly; the material abstracted must therefore be restored to the land, and this is done by manure.

Such manure may be of two kinds, stable manure and mineral manure. Of the latter potash salts are the most important ingredient, and amply supplied by the German potash mines. As it takes from five to six years before a seedling vine begins to bear, propagation by seed is not frequently employed.

Frequently seedlings do not fulfil the expectation with which they were reared, and have to be torn out. If the viticulturist take care to properly impregnate the flowers from which he wishes to grow seed, beautiful and interesting varieties of vines are produced. But no vine of extended applicability for wine-making has ever been reared in that way.

Among 1 "Cultivation of the Grape Vine," , p. Norton's Seedling, and the largest and finest grape which grows in France in the open air, known at Thomery under the name of Chasselas Napoleon. A seedling can be made to bear fruit in the third year by grafting it upon an old stem.

Eyes with the node of wood attached may be cut from vines and planted in open beds and vineyards. Such will, in one season, form a small vine with particularly great de- velopment of roots. A specifically English method of propagating vines, when practised in forcing-houses, yields in one year a strong vine, capable of bearing twelve bunches of grapes the next year.

The eyes to be " struck " are cut right across the cane, about half-an-inch above and below the node, and then a slice is taken off the side longitudinally opposite the eye. English viticulturists place these buds or eyes in pots filled with light turfy loam and a small proportion of decayed leaf- mould.

These are placed in tan, in vineries or peach-houses, and forced at temperatures between 55 F. At the end of the season each plant is an enormous ripe cane with closely set buds ; each will bear in the next year from eight to twelve bunches of grapes.

Whereas by the ordinary method it takes at least six years to bring a vineyard to bearing, by this method a vineyard can be established in two years, and will bring four harvests, amongst them three full ones, before a vineyard planted with cut canes will bring one, and will thereby not only repay the first outlay on the forcing-houses, and the interest of the cost of the land, but also leave a large profit.

The most common and, as to outlay, cheapest method of multiplying vines is by the planting of cut canes French, boutures, German, Blindholz. During winter-time they are kept deep under ground ; in May they are placed with their lower ends in water, and when the buds have swelled the canes are planted in the ground in the order in which the future vines are to stand.

Mode of propagating vine by layer or buried slip. J, point where the slip is severed, a year after interment, J', growing branch of the new vine. A vineyard planted with such canes will require six years before bearing a crop. A long cane, left in connection with the vine on which it grew, is partly buried in the earth, but allowed to project into the air with its cut end.

Such a layer the French term marcotte, the German, Senkrebe, English slip fig. Another kind of layer is the reverse fig. K, point where the fruit arch on the left will be severed, K, point where the slip will be severed from stock, K', point where the new vine will develop, after the horizontal slip is suppressed.

In this case the growth of the cane becomes inversed after separation. Of late years grafting has been employed much more frequently than formerly for the following reason. But American vines grown in Europe gave no saleable wine. Viticulturists therefore planted American vines, and, when these had attained a certain size, grafted European vines upon them, and by this means obtained sale- able wines.

Grafting of vines may be done by the process of eye or bud-grafting, the same as that commonly used for the propagation of superior roses ; or by simple inarching, a process by which two vines previously distinct are united, and when this has been effected, the foot of the one and the top of the other vine is removed or suppressed ; a somewhat more complicated process is called compound inarching.

Grafting in grooi'es is very suitable for use with rootless canes, or one year's vines ; it should be resorted to in all cases in which the top and branches of a vine have perished by frost, or wind, or disease, and the stem and roots are strong and healthy. Grafting may be resorted to in conser- vatories when it is decided to change a vine which yields grapes of undesirable quality for another with preferable fruit. The soil having been prepared by deep digging and the admixture of any new ingredients deemed necessary, it is to be planted with canes or rooted plants.

The latter must be transferred in March, but canes swelled in water may be planted during the period from March to June. All vines should be placed in parallel lines, distant from each other a little more than a yard, and the single vines to be removed from each other by the same interval. The quincunx may be employed where manual labour is relied upon, and short, small vines are reared. The young vine is not cut or interfered with in any way during the first three years, but the ground is freed from all weeds.

The particular principles of the many methods of training the vine are generally the same. It is required that every plant should grow every year at least two long branches ; of these, one is to produce fruit in the next year, and no long branches or wood ; while the other is to reproduce the two long branches by means of which fruit and wood are to be reproduced in the following year.

Vine after the fall of the leaves. The branch which has borne fruit is cut off entirely in the spring following the harvest. Suppose the viticulturist has before him the young stock from which everything has been cut away except the two principal canes, he should select the strongest for fruit, and cut it down to a length not exceeding a yard, and not less than half a yard, in direct proportion to the strength of the vine.

This fruit-branch he should now attach horizontally, near to the earth, to a stretched wire. When the fruit-branch has formed its shoots, and the buds of flowers are seen, all shoots without flower-buds should be broken off absolutely, while all those with buds should be stopped by pinching off their tops above the sixth leaf.

The shoots of the wood spur must never be pinched or cut back under any circumstances j they produce but few grapes, must be kept in a vertical Fig. Vine in spiing, just growing. A B, the fruit-branch, C, grow- ing fruit-branch and spur-branch for the next year, P P P P, points where the new fruit-branches are stopped cut off or pinched off. This simple vine, consisting, after pruning in spring, of a stem or foot rooted in the ground, a longer cane for fruit-bearing, and a short spur for wood-bearing, may be said to carry one viticultural element.

In practice, a single foot may be made to carry several such elements. The Medoc vines have regu- larly two elements, but the spreading large vines on espaliers in the paludal districts of the Gironde, or those grown any- where on walls and in conservatories, may have any number of such elements up to several hundred. The greater the number of elements on a single trunk, the greater must be the region for the development of its roots. It is therefore necessary to give to vines which are to grow on the extension system a greater amount of wood under ground at the time Fig.

Vine in bearing, autumn. The system is, however, not well suited for the growth of the vine in open vineyards, where to ripen grapes they have to be kept near the ground. Every vine with a proper element, or number of elements, and which occupies the required square yard of land, and receives sufficient nourishment, ought to be able, without exhausting itself, and without interfering with the growth of neighbouring vines, to produce sixteen bunches of grapes on the fruit- branch, and four bunches on the wood-branch, altogether twenty bunches, weighing on an average fifty grammes per bunch of small-graped, small-bunched vines , or one kilo.

Middle and large-sized grapes and their bunches such as are produced by the vines of Alto Douro, or those of Jerez attain a greater weight, and a Jerez vine may produce from five to thirty kilos, of grapes. During the growth of the vine all the branches must be tied up and fixed to stakes and wires to maintain the lines. All un- necessary shoots and all weeds must be removed. The soil must be repeatedly loosened by means of the hoe or plough, but deep cultivation is to be reserved for spring and autumn.

In vineyards where the oidium has appeared, flowers or dry milk of sulphur must be dusted over the vines, either with bellows or fumigating machines. Manure should be carried to the vineyard in autumn, and never be placed in contact with the vines, but in the earth around them. In dry situations, vines have to be irrigated during the summer months. Where that is not feasible, the soil has to be saturated with water during the rainy season, by collecting it in excavated hollows near each vine, as at Jerez.

The foregoing general principles of viticulture have been specially elucidated in Chapter III. For the purposes of the present work the manner in which vines are cultivated has been stated under the chapter referring to each particular kind of wine. In this manner the information of interest to particular classes of readers will be kept closer together, and be easier available. EACH variety of vine generally preserves its main characters wherever the climatic conditions allow it to be cultivated so as to produce fruit.

Exposure, territory, and climate may make a vine poor or rich, or extinguish it altogether, but it will never transform it into anything else; the Muscat will not become Carbenet, the Pineau will never become Gamay, the Riessling will never become Chardenay or Tokay. But although it is thus unquestionable that the vine dictates the quality of the wine, this fact, that the specificity of the plant governs the nature of the product has always been applied only to the so-called great growths.

In these vineyards the races of vines are kept select and pure. Indeed, if the vineyards of Chateau Lafitte were planted with Gamay, or Gouais, they would produce only detestable wine. If the old Pineau vines of the Clos Vougeot were substituted by Gamays, the value of the wine of that vineyard would sink to one-tenth its present figure. Take the Carbenet Sauvignon from the Haut Medoc, or the Franc Pineau from the Bourgogne, and plant it at Madeira, at the Cape, in Spain, or in Algeria, and everywhere you will obtain wines, which will at least recall the wines of the countries from which the plants have been taken.

The exposure, the climate, the mode of cultivation of the vine, and the mode of making the wine will of course influence the lightness, richness, taste, and bouquet of the ultimate product ; but the Pineau, wherever grown, will reproduce the main qualities of the Burgundy wine, and the Carbenet, wherever grown will recall that of the Medoc. Croatia, or at the Cape, will always recall the qualities of the wine of the Rhine. But the quality of the transferred vines is not preserved for any very long time, and they either deteriorate, or degenerate and die out.

This has been the case absolutely with European vines transplanted to America. In Australia, vines have preserved more of their original character, but it remains to be seen whether this adaptation will be permanent. Not all bad results of new plantations must be placed to the account of the vines, much depends upon the culture of the vine, and upon the vinification.

Thus the Duke de la Vittoria, Espartero, caused Bordeaux grape-vines to be planted in his vineyards in Navarre, and they produced a wine resembling Bordeaux, so far as taste and body were concerned, but it had a sour and bad after-taste, found in many Spanish wines from other kinds of grapes, which is not due to the grapes, but is produced by the methods of preparation and keeping adopted throughout Spain. For this reason it ought to be a demand of trade that each wine, no matter from what country it comes, should bear the name or names of the grapes from which it is made.

Thus " wine of Burgundy " is an incomplete, deceptive name ; it should be stated whether the wine comes from Pineau or Gamais, or other grapes. Bordeaux wine should always be distinguished as "wine of Carbenet from Bordeaux," or " wine of Verdot. In the Bourgogne there are produced, side by side on one and the same slope, excellent wines from good varieties of grapes, and very bad wines from bad varieties of grapes.

These varieties are frequently mixed in the vineyard for purposes which may be very justifiable in the eyes of the producer, but are sure to deteriorate the wine by the time that it comes on the table of the consumer. The Germans, in practical recognition of our contention, call their wine made from Riessling grapes " Riessling," that from the Traminer by its name also ; and we may rely upon it that these are pure wines, because their characters are so striking, and an ad- mixture of other grapes would produce so infallible a de- VINES AND VINTAGE.

All great "growths" were originally produced by intelligent persons who planted favourably-situated vineyards with excellent vines. The excellence of the produce was gradually ascribed to the situation only, and the effect of the particular cultivation and of the species of vine was forgotten. But the great law is, that the variety of the vine governs the quality of the wine, and no inferior vine will ever in the best situation and the best seasons produce wine equal in quality and value to that of the higher class vines.

The finest varieties will not give less produce than the coarsest if they are cultivated in a manner adapted to their nature. The ampelographic school of the garden of the Palace of the Luxembourg, at Paris, founded in by the then Due Decaze, under the direction of M. Hardy failed in exercising any influence on viticulture anywhere : it was the same with the collection of vines made at Baden, and another at Heidelberg, in which Metzger, the botanist, took so distin- guished a part, and which has served as the basis of the monograph on vines by Von Babo, of Weinheim : and another at Gratz made under the direction of the late Arch- duke John, the quondam German Reichsverweser ; another at Kloster Neuburg, which serves as the botanical school of the Agricultural Institute of that convent.

All these have augmented the knowledge of vines in general, but vinifica- tion has not thereby been improved in any appreciable manner. The " Ampelographie " of Count Odart is a highly in- structive and entertaining work for all those who appreciate the subject of vines in connection with wine. The count had formed an extensive collection of vines from all parts of the world, studied their physiology, and formed vineyards by hundreds of vines of all those which promised a good yield.

In the introduction to his work he proves at length that, contrary to what had been maintained by some authors, e. This is ascribed to the humidity of the climate, and the absence of the cold nights which arrest the circulation of the sap at the end of the vegetative period. When vines or vineyards had degene- rated as it was termed, that is to say become old or barren or exhausted, the vines could always be recalled to their pristine character, either by amelioration of the land, or by transfer of the vine to new land.

In the chapter " On Vines reared from Seeds," Odart proves that most allegations of new good varieties of vines having been obtained from seeds, even seeds derived from the best varieties of vines, were fables ; most seedlings which bore fruit stood to their parent vines in the relation of " crabs ; " they generally were made to bear fruit only after ten to fourteen years, and wine, if at all, after twenty years ; and no wine was ever produced from seedlings which has become a staple article or a desirable object of commerce.

This experience does not exclude the occasional success of seedlings produced with selected pollen as well as recep- tacles ; but even of such no wine has ever been made. Of these about one-fifth are used for the production of raisins, liqueur-wines, or for the distillation of best brandy, the other four-fifths serve for the production of wine in the true sense of the word.

We will first enume- rate the vines best suited to the south and south-east of France. They are, for box-raisins, the Mayorquin, or Bourmen, and the Pauses ; for liqueur- wines, that is to say, grape-must, the fermentation of which has been prevented by the addition of spirit, the Furmint, Grenache, Maccabeo, Malvoisie, Muscat blanc, and Muscat noir.

All these are large-berried and large-bunched vines, requiring for the whole of their vegetative period a very hot climate. In the south-west of France only medium and small-berried small-bunched vines prevail ; these are used for the best wines, the Carbenet, Carbenet gris, and Carmenere, these prevailing in the Medoc : the Cruchinet, Muscadelle, Sauvig- non, Semillon, these latter two yielding the white Sauterne, and the Verdot, yielding the best ordinary Bordeaux wine ; the best brandies in the district of the Charente extending in a circle round the town of Cognac are obtained from a vine called La Folle blanche.

We shall have to refer to the vines again, when we shall treat of each particular district of cultivation. Bronner was right when he said that the vine made the wine, and that, e. The principles of the most common methods of vinifica- tion are easily stated, but the details to be noted are so numerous, depending as they do upon different vines, customs and countries, that they are better reserved for the chapters treating of the viticulture of each cenopoetic district.

White grapes are generally crushed and pressed, and the juice, freed from stalks and husks, is put into barrels and allowed to ferment in a cellar or other tempe- rate place. In some districts, however, the juice is allowed to ferment while the husks and stalks are immersed in it, e. Black grapes which are to yield red wine are crushed and put into vats, not rarely, as in the south, consisting of masonry, and allowed to ferment until the wine has ex- tracted the colouring matter.

The wine is then drawn off, the must pressed, and the united products are put into barrels or great vats to complete their fermentation or have it arrested by the addition of brandy. The first condition of the vintage is that the grapes should be ripe.

In many parts of the south of Europe it is considered that the grapes should be vintaged when they have attained their greatest volume. But must from such grapes is quite unfit for the production of good natural wine; this can be seen in the product of the vineyard of San Lucar de Barrameda, which owing to its bitterness is called Manzanilla ; but here the early vintage is probably a necessity produced by the climate, which by its early rains in September is liable to deteriorate or destroy the vintage.

In the most celebrated districts for the production of white wine the grapes are allowed to hang on the vines until they have attained the maximum of sweetness and maturity, and are commencing to decay on their outside. Thus in the Sauterne district the best berries of every bunch are cut out at intervals and carried to the press. At Tokay the best grapes are allowed to passulate, i. Black grapes are never allowed to attain the same degree of maturity as white ones, except at a few places such as Rota, in Spain ; for the colour of red wines required by the traders can only be obtained from grapes at a certain stage of maturity, and that stage does not coincide with, but precedes the stage of maximum maturity which the grapes can attain on the vine.

Consequently, much of the quality of the wine is abandoned in favour of a conventional dye ; and the unripe wine has to remain years in barrels and bottles before it acquires the qualities which fit it for use. The Champagne grapes, on the other hand, are not permitted to attain the stage of highest maturity, because it is conventional that the effervescent wines of that country shall be as pale as possible, and not have the slightest tint of redness.

But whereas the fully ripe Pineau always yields a rosy or partridge-eye coloured juice, the stage of fullest ripeness is not awaited, but the grapes are gathered at the time of their greatest volume, when they yield a perfectly colourless juice and wine. In Burgundy again, where red wines are produced, the same time is chosen, but for another reason : fully ripe Pineau, when fermented with the husks, yields wine which has a tawny red colour, and not the lively bluish red of elder-berry juice; but as traders prefer the latter, the grapes, with few ex- ceptions, are collected at a time when the husks produce the deepest colour.

Viticulturists intent upon producing the best wine possible allow their grapes to hang on the vine as long as is com- patible with the safety of the harvest. Some of these gravimeters or glucometers are so arranged as to indicate by one degree of their scale a quantity of fruit- sugar, which after fermentation would yield a volume per cent, of the must of absolute alcohol, or, in other words, each degree would indicate the presence in one hectolitre of must of 1, grammes of sugar.

Now as must which would only yield from 6 to 8 per cent, of alcohol would give inferior wine, grapes showing only as much sugar as would yield that amount of alcohol should not be harvested ; the harvest should be contemplated only when the samples of must show above 8 per cent, of future alcohol, but it should even then 'be delayed if possible as long as by repeated trials any increase in the quantity of sugar is observable. Even when the sugar has attained its maximum the grapes will still, if the season be favourable, particularly if the soil be dry, undergo beneficial changes by hanging upon the vine.

When the must is much richer in sugar this result has been attained by passulation of the grapes on the vines, by twisting the stalks, or by drying of the cut bunches on mats, on straw, in the sun or sheltered places. In many of these rich musts, e. Musts of a saccharine strength of less than 16 per cent, of fruit-sugar, should be raised to this strength by the addition of fruit-sugar produced from cane-sugar ; each kilogram and a half of such sugar added to a hectolitre of must will raise its alcoholicity by i per cent, of alcohol after fermentation.

All labourers are required to remain in line, the work being of course equally distributed to equal agents. These cut the bunches off with scissors or knives, and place them in little baskets. Every full basket is re- placed by an empty one and carried away by a collector, who thus attends to the wants of from four to six labourers.

The vintagers may be taught to cut out of every bunch all unripe, corroded, or spoiled berries, long stalks and tendrils, fJS Fig- 9- Mode of separating stalks from grapes, by stirring with a trident. The trident. Pail with grapes in course of being stirred. But it is preferable to intrust this work to particularly instructed labourers located at the place where the contents of the primary baskets are deposited. The cleaned grapes should then be placed in vessels of known capacity, such as a hectolitre, so that the vintage is im- mediately measured and the amount of work done ascer- tained.

A butt of the capacity of a hectolitre will hold fifty kilos, of grapes, and with its own weight of ten to fifteen kilos, can be lifted and carried by a single man. When the grapes are very ripe, the stalks are woody and do not easily yield juice to any pressure, however strong. But when the grapes are less ripe, the stalks are green and sue- culent, and yield some harsh astringent juice on pressure. In the case of white wines the stalks are not often separated from the grapes; in Sauternes, e.

Machine for separating grapes from stalks. The funnel- shaped top D is taken from the stand on which it rests by means of the hooks E to show the cylindrical box of parallel wires and stirrer B B within. Handle of stirrer. One thirtieth of actual size.

The black Champagne grapes are also pressed with the stalks, and the juice of the latter causes the last third of the must which flows from the press to be harsh and of less value than the first two-thirds.

All black grapes which are to yield red wine, on the other hand, have to remain in contact with their juice during fermentation until the red colouring matter is extracted. The stalks are therefore separated before the grapes are mashed. This separation, called in France egrappage, in Germany Abrappen, can be effected either by stirring the bunches in a tub with a trident of wood as shown in fig. The bunches enter above by a funnel, the berries Fig. Grape mill for crushing grapes, with grooved rollers.

Handle for turning. Grooved Rollers. Frame supporting runnel and rollers. One-thirtieth of actual size. Ripe Verdot of the Gironde will drop its grapes like hail when it is merely shaken, while ripe Pineau of Burgundy is less easily separated. From ancient times to the present this has been most commonly effected by means of the feet of men. This treading of grapes is a very excellent method; it is done on a wide wooden platform, or in a large vat, and the juice which is pressed out simultaneously is allowed to flow off into a separate receptacle.

Another mode of crushing the grapes is by crushing machines, or grape-mills, consisting of grooved wooden rollers working against each other, as in fig. Such rollers should be covered with felt or vul- canized caoutchouc. IN the preparation of Champagne wine the grapes are not crushed at all in detail previously to their being put into the press, and the only crushing which they receive is in the press itself.

We have already explained that this is done to keep the must of the black grapes perfectly colourless. It is for this reason that the presses in the Champagne are the most powerful of any known. In the preparation of other white wines, however, the must is separated from the murk as much as possible before the latter is pressed, so that the volume of the matter to be pressed may be as small as possible. In the preparation of red wine on the other hand, the juice which flows off the treading platform, together with all the husks and the stalks, if they have not been removed, are put into the fermentation vat; when the stalks have been isolated they are placed in a heap on the top of the murk about to be fermented.

Wine-press for pressing the murk of red wine after fermentation. Wine-press for pressing white grapes before fermentation. The box consists of six horizontal sections. When the fermentation is finished the wine is stirred energetically with the husks which are mostly collected as a hard cake on the top of the wine so as to extract the utmost amount of colouring matter; all the wine which will run off by itself is drawn from the taps ; the murk, removed by a manhole at the bottom or side of the vat, is placed into Fig.

Wine-press as used in Spain Jerez. Grapes in bandaged cylinder. The science of the wine-presses is so extensive that it would admit of being represented in a separate treatise. The most suitable presses appear to be those common in the Gironde, which have an iron screw in the centre of a round receptacle made of perpendicular or horizontal boards, such as are represented in the engravings.

In fig. The press in action. Juice flowing. It is probable that presses will soon have to compete with centrifugal machines, which perform in two hours, with the aid of three men, what presses working upon the same amount of material can only perform in seventeen hours, with the aid of seven men.

Must for white wine is generally fermented in barrels with only the ordinary bunghole at the top open for the escape of the carbonic acid gas. The white wines of the Gironde are all fermented in barriques, which in this country are called hogsheads. New casks are always taken; they are not completely filled with must, so that no yeast or scum can escape from the bung, but all is retained in the wine. This therefore differs from the mode in which fermentation Fig.

Ancient beam or lever wine-press as used in Alto Douro and other wine-producing countries. The white wines of the Rhine are mostly fermented in large casks, containing 1, litres each, and called "piece," German Stuck. Sherries are fermented now mostly in butts, rarely in vats of wood or masonry. The Champagne musts, after having been cleared of scum and deposit, are also fermented in small casks of litres each. The Portuguese also ferment some of their red wines in large closed barrels, with manholes for the removal of the murk.

Port wine is fermented in flat receptacles built of masonry. In the south-west of France the vats are filled to a certain point ; if the stalks have been separated they are placed on the top of the murk, the house is shut, and fermentation is allowed to complete itself.

The heap of stalks on the top, called "hat" or chapeau, is now taken off, together with the outer layer of murk which is mostly somewhat decomposed. The bulk of the murk is now submerged and vigorously stirred with the new wine, so that its colour may be fully extracted. At last the wine is drawn off, and the murk put in the press. In other parts of France the husks of black grapes are kept submerged in the fluid by a wooden cover fixed some distance below the level of the fluid, and pierced with holes to allow the gas to escape.

In other parts, again, the vats are covered, but opened daily, and the murk is submerged with wooden instruments. In parts of Burgundy the vats are not covered, nor is the murk stirred before fer- mentation is complete ; it used then to be agitated by men in a state of nudity, but this practice, we hope, has been abandoned.

In all cases when the fermentation of red wine is complete the liquid is put into barrels and allowed to settle. It clears much quicker than the white wine, which remains thick for weeks when fermenting in the temperate atmosphere of northern climates. In the south the white wine ferments with great violence, and becomes clear very rapidly. It is probable that the red wine is ready more quickly because, fermenting in larger bulk, it attains a higher temperature, and therefore is finished in a shorter period.

By the time that the wine has completed its fermentation and become clear, all the yeast and impurity are deposited at the bottom of the cask. This can be done by drawing the wine through a syphon placed in the bunghole and causing it to flow over either by gravity or by air pressure produced in the cask by bellows, or by simply running it off through a tap-hole or tap fixed in the most suitable place. The clear wine is put into a clean, not new, but wine-green cask, i.

By this operation the wine generally becomes disturbed a little, or it was not yet quite clear, but in any case requires fining. This is mostly done, in the case of white natural wine, with isinglass ; in the case of brandied wines and of red wines with white of egg. All casks thus treated are made bung-full, closed, and allowed to rest for six weeks.

After this period the wine is mostly quite clear and bright, and, being racked another time, mostly remains so, and is ready for the spring sales or other purposes. There are produced, particularly in bad seasons, quanti- ties of must which are either too deficient in sugar, or too abundantly provided with acid to give good wine.

These faults require to be corrected. In some parts, e. But in France such must is now corrected by the addition of sugar or of sugar solution. The sugar to be employed should always be the so-called grape sugar, technically called "invert sugar," or saccharine made from cane sugar. When the must is only thin, and not exces- sively acid, it has to be improved by the addition of sugar, until its concentration is equal to that of normal must, i.

If however the must be too acid, it has to be reduced to the normal standard of acidity by the addition of sugar solution of from 18 to 23 per cent, strength. Gall, of Treves. Petiot and the Thenards also produced second wines by ferment- ing the murk repeatedly with sugar solution. It was the French cabinet minister, Chaptal, who first improved wine- must by the mere addition of sugar at that time cane sugar but he did not diminish the acid ; this removal of excess of acid was generally effected by the addition of chalk or of plaster of Paris containing chalk.

The addition of sugar and of sugar solution to faulty must was therefore an im- provement, and it kept the wine pure and homogeneous, and did not introduce any foreign element into its composition. Maumene ' relates how the celebrated chemist Macquer, already in , made from unripe and hard grapes an agreeably tasting, fiery wine like that from ripe grapes.

All these wines prepared by the processes of Petiot, Gall and others retain the bouquet of the natural wines. The amount of acidity or of tartrate of potash is less than in normal wine, so that they do not deposit any ; they are, therefore, more like old, long-kept wines, which gradually deposit their redundant tartar. There is little doubt that although these processes have been and may be applied with perfect success by scientific chemists, they will not be useful to the ordinary agricultural wine producer, just because they require too much practical scientific attention and knowledge.

Those, therefore, who object to them may rest assured that they are not likely to meet in trade with such products. In fact, their production would be more expensive than that of natural wines is, and they could not, therefore, unless they were very much better, enter into commercial competition with the ordinary products.

It should, however, be remembered in this connection that the process of Gall was only an extension to wine-must of a practice which for a very great length of time had been 1 "Sur le Travail des Vins. In all old cookery books will be found numbers of prescriptions for making gooseberry, currant, and other sorts of fruit wine, and in all of them water is added to the fruit juice to re- duce the acidity, and then sugar is added in its turn to bring the sweetness up to the standard of at least 18 per cent, in order to furnish the material for the production of that amount of alcohol which will make the product an alcoholic beverage of the nature and strength of wine.

It should be remembered that wine with more than five per mille of acid, considered as tartaric, is not drinkable, or at least not agreeable, or not useful even after dilution with water; and that the best unbrandied wines contain even less acid, namely, from 3 to 4 per mille, and from 8 to 1 1 per cent, of alcohol.

In Spain and the south of France plaster of Paris, in the shape of powder, is added to the grape juice in the process of wine-making. The plaster is either thrown upon the grapes before they are crushed, or it is added after fermen- tation has commenced, and is applied as well to white as to red grape-must.

The reason generally given in favour of such addition of plaster is this, that gypsum sulphate of lime by uniting with some of the water of the grape juice, rendered the remaining juice richer in sugar and therefore more valuable. If such were really the intention, the de- sired effect would not be obtained to any degree worth noticing, because even perfectly pure and anhydrous plaster of Paris unites with only about one-fourth of its weight of water, while the gypsum thus formed takes up mechanically some of the must and reduces the yield.

We have, therefore, to set aside this attempted explanation as un- satisfactory. The sulphate of lime decomposes the tartrate of potassium pre- sent in the juice, insoluble tartrate of calcium being formed, and sulphate of potassium going into solution. At the same time the carbonate of calcium, which is always present in larger or smaller quantities in plaster of Paris, precipi- tates the free tartaric acid.

It neutralizes some of the other free acids of the juice, and, if present in sufficient quantity, it neutralizes them completely, in which case the phosphates of the juice will also be precipitated. Thus malic acid, which grapes have in common with all other sour fruit, is also partially neutralized, but remains in solution.

The place of cream of tartar, however, is taken by sulphate of potassium, a salt having a perceptibly bitter taste, and acting as a purgative in even moderate doses. As the amount of tartaric acid increases with the increas- ing ripeness of the grape, while the malic acid diminishes, the plastering virtually reduces the juice of even the ripest grapes to a state of unripeness, at least as regards the nature of the acids. From all these considerations we have come to the conclusion that the object of the practice as ordi- narily stated, namely that it withdraws water, and thereby effects a condensation of the must, is not the real object.

In view of the fact that southern wines are much more liable to diseases, that is to say, decomposition by minute fungi microzymes than the wines of more northern countries where plastering is never practised , and considering that such diseases are counteracted by sulphurous acid, and by sulphates ; and considering further that such fungi absorb and decompose tartrate of potassium, and leave acetic or other acids instead, and do not thrive so well without tartar as with it, we have thought it not impossible that this process of plastering might have been directed against these diseases and have acted as a double precaution ; the fungi 54 A TREATISE ON WINES.

From our observations it seems certain that the presence of tartar favours the development of the viscosity fungus, and we have even ob- served the reappearance of the fungus in old originally plastered wine of natural strength after the sulphate had been removed and substituted by tartrate. But it must not be supposed that the viscosity fungus is killed or removed entirely from wine by plastering; it still exists in even plastered and somewiiat brandied wine, and does not die in wine of less than 34 per cent, alcohol.

Therefore, even if the object of plastering were the protection of the wine from the worst effects of this viscosity fungus or scud, it would be but partially attained, and there would still be room for the better prevention and curing of this bane of the southern wine-growers. THE principal constituent of wine is alcohol, a colourless very mobile liquid, of a peculiar spirituous smell and ex- tremely burning taste and poisonous qualities, of a specific gravity of at 15 -5 centigrade, water at 4 centigrade being ro.

It does not solidify at the temperature of centigrade, though it becomes somewhat viscid. It is readily inflammable and burns with a blue non-luminous flame. It is miscible with water in every proportion. In these mixtures the specific gravity, the boiling point and the capillary attraction fall, the rate of expansion and vapour tension rise with the increasing percentage of alcohol ; and hence these properties may be made use of for estimating the amount of alcohol present in a mixture of alcohol and water.

The bearing of alcohol towards animal membrane is of importance for the explanation of its physiological action. If an animal membrane, such as pig's bladder, be made by a suitable arrangement to separate alcohol from water, or a stronger from a weaker spirit, an interchange of liquids will take place through such membrane until the composition of the mixture on both sides is equal, the alcohol, or stronger mixture, losing alcohol, but gaining in bulk by the accession of water ; the water, or weaker spirit, on the other hand, gaining in alcohol, but losing in bulk by loss of water; the exchange takes place, generally, the more rapidly the greater the difference in alcoholic strength on the two sides of the diaphragm.

If the liquid on one side of the membrane be always pure water, kept pure by renewal, all the alcohol will find its way out into it, and the interchange will only cease when nothing but pure water remains on both sides of the membranous diaphragm. The German anatomist, Soemmering, discovered a method for producing strong alcohol which was based upon these relations of alcohol and water to animal membrane, and had some practical value a century ago.

It consists in putting a weak spirit into a bladder from a calf or ox and hanging it up in a warm place for a certain time. When sugar ferments, alcohol and carbonic acid are the principal products as regards quantity : but besides these, of which carbonic acid, or as it is called in modern chemistry, carbonic anhydride, passes into the air, some other alcohols and some acids are formed.

It is possible that these other alcohols are formed by peculiar ferments ; they are glycerine, or glycerol and propylic, butylic, amylic and caproic alcohols. They are mostly present in very small quantities only, glycerol in the largest, next to ethylic alcohol. Whitehead Mornar 4. Voncina Primorska 4. Marcinkovic Split 2. Perry Cedevita O 2. Brown Cedevita O 2.

Ivanovic Buducnost 1. Zagorac Partizan 1. Clemmons Igokea 1. Hall Crvena Z 1. Nemanic Primorska 1. Covic FMP 1. Voncina Primorska 1. Miletic Borac 1. Reed Buducnost 1. Petrusev Mega S 1. Macura Primorska 1. Smith Mornar Bar 1. Lukovic Mornar B 1. Simanic Crvena Z 1. Onuaku Zadar 1. Vukovic Zadar 0. Dobric Crvena Z 0. Flor, Olimpico Chiarini, Instituto Solanas, San M Arn, Comunicaciones Rasio, Olimpico Fierro, Comu.

Acevedo, San M Corzo, Libertad Cuello, Instituto Lema, Atenas Colmenares, Inst. Lema, Atenas 8. Acevedo, San M 8. Efianayi, Obera 7. Giorgi, La Union 6. Saglietti, Libertad 6. Ramirez, Quimsa 6. Garcia, San M 6. Saglietti, Libertad 3. Guerra, Comu. Garcia, San M 3. Machuca, Atenas 3. Vildoza, Regatas 3. Rodriguez Su. Flor, Olimpico 2. Gerlero, Comu. Quinteros, Regatas 2. Konsztadt, La U 2. Vildoza, Regatas 2. Cosolito, Quimsa 2.

Garcia, San M 2. Lema, Atenas 1. Simpson, Quimsa 1. Copello, Quimsa 1. Konsztadt, La U 1. Ramirez, Quimsa 1. Basabe, San M 1. Carabali, Quimsa 3. Alloatti, Libertad 2. Gallizzi, Regatas 1. Carreras, Regatas 1. Martinez, Libertad 0. Giorgi, La Union 0. Acevedo, San M 0.

Peralta, La Union 0. Pack, Vienna Murati, Gmunden Friedrich, Gmunden Spaleta, Arkadia Thoseby, Arkadia Miletic, Klos. Szkutta, Timb. Bavcic, Klos. Haughton, Vienna 9. Koljanin, Arkadia 9. Lamesic, Wels 8. D''Angelo, Timb. Hopfgartner, Klos. Dolenc, Gmunden 7. Nikolic, Timb. Shelton, Vienna 7. Bauer, Klos. Razdevsek, Wels 7. Friedrich, Gmunden 7. Diggs, Oberwart 5. Isbetcherian, UBSC 5. Pack, Vienna 4. Hassan-Zadeh, Vien.

Guettl, Gmunden 4. Jagsch, St. Poelten 2. Isbetcherian, UBSC 2. Ray, Wels 2. Friedrich, Gmunden 2. Koljanin, Arkadia 1. Kaeferle, Oberwart 1. Diggs, Oberwart 1. Haughton, Vienna 1. Spaleta, Arkadia 1. Patekar, Oberwart 1. Lakoju, Klos. Shoutvin, Vienna 0. Shelton, Vienna 0. Diggs, Oberwart 0. Stoyanov Sportist Raykov Mix Peychinov Fab F Boyanov Akademik Savov UE Varna Hunt Sportist S Hristov UE Varna Penchev Chavdar Hristov Pravets Kurshumov Champion Gospodinov Mix Popov Lokomotiv S Natskin Lokomotiv Hatzenbuller MU V Cholakov MU Varna Dimitrov Showtime Mihaylov Lokomotiv Petkov Balkan 2 Petkov Slavia 7.

Petkov Polytechnica 6. Paisiev Champion 6. Cholakov MU Varna 5. Savov UE Varna 5. Barzakov Hebar 4. Indjov Akademik P 4. Telcharov Lokomotiv 4. Todorov Chardafon 4. Stoyanov Sportist 4. Baychev Lokomotiv 3. Savov UE Varna 3. Margaritov CSKA 2. Telcharov Lokomotiv 2. Tsenov Sportist S 2. Petkov Polytechnica 2. Petrov Showtime 2. Kirov Lokomotiv G 2. Brendax Lokomotiv 2. Dimitrov Slavia 1. Todorov Champion 1. Avramov NSA 1.

Natskin Lokomotiv 1. Gospodinov Mix 1. Nikolov Fab F 1. Popov Lokomotiv S 1. Petkov Balkan 2 1. Franklin Shanxi L Adams Qingdao E. Harris Shandong H Sun Guangsha L. Todorovic Tianjin Guo Liaoning FL Zhou Xinjiang FT Raduljica Guangsha Wu Zhejiang GB. Hu Guangsha L. Haddadi Sichuan B Wang Fujian S.

Han Liaoning FL Zhai Beijing D. Don Shanghai S. Tao Shandong H. Shen Shenzhen A. Franklin Shanxi L 9. Guo Liaoning FL 8. Haddadi Sichuan B 8. Yuan Sichuan BW 7. Gao Shandong H. Fang Beijing D. Shi Jiangsu D. Yuan Sichuan BW 3. Jiang Jilin NE T. Lin Tianjin 2. Zhao Guangsha L. Yu Xinjiang FT 2. Hu Fujian S.

Zhou Xinjiang FT 3. Moultrie Nanjing 1. Todorovic Tianjin 1. Zhu Liaoning FL 1. Liu Qingdao E. Zan Shanghai S. Wu Jiangsu D. King Trigrillos Givens Piratas Merchant Sabios Young Bucaros Rodriguez Titanes Glotta Condores Tate Bucaros Jackson Team Cali De Leon Bucaros Suero Storm Cutley Team Cali 9. Merchant Sabios 8.

Wineglass Condores 8. Owens Condores 8. Familia Storm 8. Hernandez Team C 7. Rojas Piratas 7. Almanza Storm 7. Shuler Sabios 6. Smith Trigrillos 6. Rojas Piratas 6. De Leon Bucaros 5. Merchant Sabios 4. Cantero Team Cali 3. Suero Storm 3. Bacci Titanes 3. Jackson Team Cali 3.

Salazar Condores 3. Bacci Titanes 2. Jackson Team Cali 2. De Leon Bucaros 1. Rojas Piratas 1. King Trigrillos 1. Suero Storm 1. Rodriguez Titanes 1. Merchant Sabios 1. Smith Trigrillos 1. Shuler Sabios 1. Putney Team Cali 2. Hinestroza Sabios 1. Greene Storm 1. Familia Storm 1. Cardenas Trigrillos 1. Arboleda Sabios 0. Mendoza Piratas 0. Hernandez Team C 0. Wineglass Condores 0. Analitica F Avg: Krapic H. Analitica Jordano Osijek Cvitkovic Sonik P Freeman Sibenik Gunjina Skrljevo Prkacin Cibona Frye Osijek Varence Alkar Sirko Sibenik Robertson Skrljevo Primorac Zabok 9.

Varence Alkar 8. Prkacin Cibona 8. Vucic Alkar 8. Marcinkovic Split 7. Freeman Sibenik 7. Smolic Dubrava 7. Mazalin Gorica 6. Brankovic Dubrava 6. Gilbert Zadar 6. Kapusta Gorica 6. Brzoja Dubrava 5. Frye Osijek 5. Jelenkovic Skrljevo 5. Lakic Osijek 5. Brocic Alkar 5. Primorac Zabok 4. Panduric Dubrava 4. Maric Zabok 4. Barnjak Skrljevo 4. Runjic Sonik P 2. Frye Osijek 2. Vukovic Zadar 2.

Bjelanovic Skrljevo 2. Brzoja Dubrava 1. Barnjak Skrljevo 1. Perkovic Split 1. Majcunic Gorica 1. Lakic Osijek 1. Brankovic Dubrava 1. Sarlija Sonik P 1. Paic Osijek 1. Smolic Dubrava 0. Lakic Osijek 0. Mikovic Sibenik 0. Jerkovic Dubrava 0. Vrgoc Skrljevo 0. Mazalin Gorica 0. Do not encumber, license, modify, publish, sell, transfer or transmit, or in any way exploit, any of the content of the report, nor will you attempt to do so.

More info: www. The American Basketball Association ABA today announced that the Altoona Railroaders have been added to its record-setting expansion for the season. GM at the York Revolution minor league baseball stadium after completing his degree in Business Management. After selling the Oyster Bar, he returned to NY and started York Dragon Capital Funding which brings capital funds to real estate investors and businesses nationwide.

Petrusev Mega S. Cobbs Buducnost. Ivanovic Buducnost. Simonovic Mega S. Loyd Crvena Z. Jaramaz Partizan. Nenadic FMP. Mavra Zadar. Lukovic Split. Brown Cedevita O. Macura Primorska. Vukovic Zadar. Reed Buducnost. Hopkins Cedevita. Lazarevic FMP. Lesic FMP. Prkacin Cibona. Ejim Buducnost. Covic FMP. Needham Mornar B. Smith Mega S. Perry Cedevita O.

Hall Crvena Z. Tepic Mega S. Rochestie Crvena. Whitehead Mornar. Voncina Primorska. Marcinkovic Split. Zagorac Partizan. Clemmons Igokea. Nemanic Primorska. Miletic Borac. Smith Mornar Bar. Lukovic Mornar B. Simanic Crvena Z. Onuaku Zadar. Dobric Crvena Z. Here is the last round review presented by ESL. The most interesting game of round 6 was a derby match between two teams from Serbia.

Mega SoccerBet had a advantage in offensive rebounds. They shot the lights out from three sinking 12 long-distance shots on high Mega SoccerBet looked well-organized offensively handing out 26 assists comparing to just 13 passes made by Borac's players. The best player for the winners was Montenegrin center Marko Simonovic who had a double-double by scoring 19 points and 16 rebounds. Filip Petrusev , college: Gonzaga , agency: BeoBasket chipped in 25 points and 6 rebounds on 8-of-9 shooting from the field.

At the other side the best for losing team was guard Nikola Kocovic who recorded 12 points, 5 rebounds and 7 assists. Borac's coach rotated ten players which allowed the starters a little rest for the next games. Mega SoccerBet moved-up to fifth place. Borac lost fourth consecutive game. Newly promoted team keeps the eleventh position with four games lost.

Mega SoccerBet are looking forward to face Krka 12 in Novo Mesto in the next round and are hoping to win another game. Borac will play on the road against Cedevita Olimpija in Ljubljana and is hoping to prove to their fans that they can break losing series. One of the most interesting games of round 6 was a derby match between two teams from Croatia. Eighth ranked Split edged visiting Cibona It ended at the same time the two-game winning streak of Cibona.

It was a good game for Slovenian swingman Blaz Mesicek who led his team to a victory with 16 points and 6 assists. Marko Lukovic contributed with 16 points for the winners. Center Roko Prkacin replied with a double-double by scoring 14 points and 12 rebounds for Cibona.

Cibona's coach tested ten players in this game, but that didn't help. Split moved-up to seventh place, which they share with Partizan NiS. Cibona at the other side dropped to the tenth position with four games lost. Split will play against league's leader Crvena Zvezda in Beograd in the next round and they do not belong to the favorites in that game. Cibona will play at home against Partizan NiS 7 and hopes to get back on the winning track.

Serbian undefeated leader Crvena Zvezda delivered the sixth consecutive victory on Sunday night. This time they beat bottom-ranked Slovenian Primorska in Koper. Taylor Rochestie scored 16 points and 5 assists to lead the charge for the winners.

Crvena Zvezda's coach used entire bench and allowed the starting five to rest. The best for the losing side was Jurij Macura with a double-double by scoring 17 points and 17 rebounds. Undefeated Crvena Zvezda have an impressive six-game winning streak. They maintain first position with a perfect record of 6 victories in a row. Loser Primorska still closes the standings with six games lost.

Crvena Zvezda will meet at home Split 8 in the next round and are hoping to win another game. Primorska will play against Mornar Bar 4 and hopes to get finally their first victory. The game with biggest result difference took place in Beograd. Nikola Jankovic notched 15 points and 7 rebounds to lead the effort.

Partizan NiS's coach allowed to play the deep bench players saving starting five for next games. Partizan NiS moved-up to seventh place, which they share with Split. Defending Croatian champion Zadar dropped to the twelfth position with five games lost. Partizan NiS's next round opponent will be Cibona 10 in Zagreb.

Zadar will play at home against the league's second-placed Buducnost where they are definitely not considered as a favorite in this game either. In the last game of round 6 Mornar Bar defeated Krka in a road game The best stats of 6th round was 13 points and 7 assists by Dominik Mavra of Zadar. The Player of the Week awards are presented by Interperformances.

Interperformances is a full-service agency specializing in the representation of professional athletes the world-over. General Managers trust and rely on our opinions and recommendations. Rwanda begin preps for Afrobasket qualifiers - by Eurobasket News. The national basketball team start training at Amahoro Stadium on Thursday evening ahead of the upcoming qualifiers for the African basketball Championships Afrobasket Rwanda, also the hosting nation of both the qualifiers and Afrobasket finals tournament, is part of Group D in the qualifiers along with giants Nigeria, Algeria and Mali.

Vladimir Bosnyak's side will start their qualifiers campaign against Mali on November 26 at Kigali Arena. On Tuesday, November 3, Serbian coach Bosnyak named a man provisional squad, from which 12 players of the final squad will be announced on November Courtesy of: newtimes.

Afrobasket Rwanda to face Mali in qualifiers opener - by Eurobasket News. Rwanda will face Mali in the two sides' first Group D game at the upcoming qualifiers for the African Basketball Championships Afrobasket finals. Both the qualifiers tournament, due later this month, and the Afrobasket finals will take place in Rwanda - at the magnificent 10,seater Kigali Arena.

According to Rwanda basketball federation Ferwaba officials, the qualifiers showpiece is scheduled for November , while the Afrobasket will run from August 24 through September 5. Times Sport has learned that the national team, under the tutelage of Serbian head coach Vladimir Bosnjak, will begin training next week. Meanwhile, Fiba Africa has added two more groups A and B to the Kigali qualifiers, making it a country tournament, rather than four countries.

In an interview with this publication on Monday, Ferwaba President Desire Mugwiza, said that the local basketball body was waiting for Vladimir's squad selection before making arrangements for the team's residential camp. Reacting to a recent feedback over the absence of some players who featured at the World Cup in China, the NBBF President Engr Musa Kida explained that the exceptional quality of players ready to play for D'Tigers has made selection very difficult for the coaching crew.

While we were prosecuting the World Cup qualifiers, we saw different players who came and got the job done. This is a pointer to the fact that Nigeria is blessed with abundant talents. Some are trying to seal new contracts, others are moving in-between teams while some are waiting to be drafted which is very close when camp will open'.

He however expressed satisfaction with the quality of players on the 20 man list which he described as a mixture of youth and experience. The coaching crew has the final decision about the last 12 players. I do not really envy them. I believe that we are on the same page about what is expected of everybody'.

Nigeria is grouped alongside host- Rwanda, Algeria and Mali. Yanick Moreira's double-double lands him Player of the Week award among Angolans playing currently abroad: - by Eurobasket. Yanick Moreira. Julio De Assis. Antonio Monteiro. Jaques Conceicao. Jorge Tati. Yanick Moreira's double-double lands him Player of the Week award among Angolans playing currently abroad: - by Eurobasket Center2. Flor, Olimpico. Chiarini, Instituto. Solanas, San M. Arn, Comunicaciones. Rasio, Olimpico. Acevedo, San M.

Corzo, Libertad. Cuello, Instituto. Lema, Atenas. Efianayi, Obera. Giorgi, La Union. Saglietti, Libertad. Ramirez, Quimsa. Garcia, San M. Machuca, Atenas. Vildoza, Regatas. Quinteros, Regatas. Konsztadt, La U. Cosolito, Quimsa. Simpson, Quimsa. Copello, Quimsa. Basabe, San M. Carabali, Quimsa. Alloatti, Libertad. Gallizzi, Regatas. Carreras, Regatas.

Martinez, Libertad. Peralta, La Union. Zurbriggen's double-double lands him Interperformances Player of the Week award - by Eurobasket News. He had a double-double of 17 points and 10 rebounds, while his team beat Penarol 4, Obras is placed at 2nd position in Argentinian league. They maintain a perfect record without any lost game in the league. But it's just the very beginning of the season and Obras won both games without losing any. It's too early to say anything as the standings can be changed completely after next round.

Zurbriggen has many years of experience at Obras, through which he has constantly improved. Zurbriggen has impressive league stats. He is league's best passer with 6. Zurbriggen is in league's top in and averages solid Second best performed player last round was Mogga Lado F of H.

He is American forward in his first season at H. In the last game Lado recorded impressive double-double of 15 points and 14 rebounds. Bad luck as H. Americano lost that game to South's leader Gimnasia 1, It was definitely game of the week between two contenders to the top position in South.

Americano still maintains its place in the top 3 of the standings, even despite this loss. His team's record is not bad at all. Lado is a newcomer at H. Americano and quickly became one of team's most reliable players. Schattmann scored 24 points and grabbed seven rebounds. Despite Schattmann's great performance Boca lost to Platense But his team cannot count on just a single player as he also needs help of the other teammates.

The last thing Boca needs is to lose another game like this one. They lose more and more distance to the top teams in South. Their record is 1 victory and 1 lost game. Schattmann has a great season in Argentina. After only 2 games, he made it on the list of the league's leaders in points with Other top performing players last week: 4. Sebastian Orresta PG of Gimnasia - 18 points, 5 rebounds and 6 assists 5.

Franco Benitez F of Ferro - 17 points and 7 rebounds 6. Andres Lugli PG of Platense - 17 points, 4 rebounds and 3 assists 7. Federico Aguerre F of Boca - 16 points, 8 rebounds and 2 assists 8. Justin Satchell F of San Lorenzo - 10 points, 10 rebounds and 3 assists 9. We got involved many basketball scouts and journalists to assure it's accuracy. The formula: 1.

After 5 rounds played we can already see who rules in the La Liga and who belongs to weaker ones. There was no lack of interesting games this round. The round ended with favorites losing the games and even winless team recording their first victory. The most exciting game of round 5 in the La Liga took place in Cordoba. This derby game ended with only three-point defeat on the road of 6th ranked Regatas Corrientes to leader Instituto on Sunday evening. Host team only slightly avoided a big embarassment.

It was a great shooting night for Instituto especially from behind the arc, where they had solid Venezuelan Nestor Colmenares , college: Campbellsville , agency: Pro Sports stepped up with a double-double by scoring 14 points, 12 rebounds and 5 assists for the winners and Mateo Chiarini chipped in 15 points and 5 rebounds. The former international Paolo Quinteros responded with 15 points and 5 assists. Both coaches used bench players in such tough game.

Instituto have a solid series of three victories in a row. They maintain first place with record, which they share with Quimsa and San Martin. Regatas Corrientes at the other side dropped to the fourth position with two games lost. They share it with 5 other teams. Instituto is looking forward to face San Martin Corrientes 3 on the road in the next round, which may be the game of the day. Regatas Corrientes will play against the league's second-placed Quimsa and it may be a tough game between close rivals.

Important game to mention about took place in Santiado del Estero. Leader Quimsa saved a 2-point victory at home edging 5th ranked Olimpico de La Banda on Sunday evening. American Brandon Robinson , college: Clayton St. Lisandro Rasio came up with 11 points and 6 rebounds for Olimpico de La Banda in the defeat. Both coaches tested many bench players in such tough game. Quimsa have a solid series of three victories in a row. Defending champion keeps a position of league leader, which they share with Instituto and San Martin.

Olimpico de La Banda at the other side dropped to the fourth place with two games lost. They share the position with 5 other teams. Quimsa will play against Regatas Corrientes 7 on the road in the next round which should be theoretically an easy game. Olimpico de La Banda will play against Libertad Sunchales to get more than just one victory in their record. Obera has registered their first victory this season after two consecutive losses.

The win is especially important as they defeated much higher ranked La Union on the road game in Formosa on Sunday. The best player for the winners was Rodrigo Sanchez who had a double-double by scoring 16 points and 13 rebounds. Facundo Giorgi produced 10 points and 5 rebounds for the hosts. Both coaches allowed to play bench players saving starting five for next games.

Obera left bottom position moving up to fourth place, which they share with 5 other teams including defeated La Union.

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Soundiron - Apocalypse Percussion Elements v1. In Session Audio - Riff Generation v1. Soundiron - Olympus Elements v1. Native Instruments - Kontakt 5. Channel Robot - Orchestral Dust v1. Sonuscore - Origins: Vol. Homegrown Sounds - Reanimator for Kontakt 5 v1.

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Native Instruments Kontakt 5 v 5. Native Instruments - Kontakt 5 v 5. Native Instruments Kontakt 5. Kontakt 5 v 5. Native Instruments Kontakt 6. These sounds are specifically designed to fit both modern music composition and sound design. All WAV files contains metadata, so you can easily import them into your favorite sound library manager. This library is divided in two parts, providing 30 Core Instruments and Variation Instruments for a total of Kontakt Instruments ready to be used.

Specifications: Kontakt Instruments. The principle is the same of classic tonewheel organs, where you can control 9 drawbars for each of two manuals. WAV — It could be hit on its body or rubbed on top notches to produce a ratchet sound. The idea behind this library is represented by the challenge to get cinematic sounds out of a tiny and very limited musical instrument.

We had fun trying to make this tiny pig being a hero: using different mallets, unusual objects and twisted sound design, we produced 25 cinematic instruments between organic sounds, rhythmic loops, pads and SFX. Specifications: 25 Kontakt Instruments. This is a very special piano as it was synthesized from scratch, note by note, and then imported into Kontakt to get more polyphony and use all the great features of this sampler. This is NOT a sampled acoustic piano, so you will not find something similar into other piano libraries.

The idea behind this library is the challenge of emulating a complex acoustic instrument using subtractive synthesis which is mostly used for EDM sounds. The result of this experiment is a good emulation of an acoustic piano with a very unique sound. Specifications: 27 Kontakt Instruments. NCW —

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