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In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. Accordingly, the intention of the author was not to duplicate or to emulate the many excellent literature works produced since the many years of study on process safety techniques and models, but rather to build-up a logical and fluid thread to overcome doubts, uncertainties, and difficulties often met in calculation exercises.

The available literature sources offer either a broad range of different models and approaches or, even when they are calculations oriented, sometimes unavoidably and faultlessly leave some gaps in the calculation criteria; this is a fee to be paid to the richness and variety of data and information.

This book has a different target: to provide a clear indication on where to go in practical applications when a crossroads is met, and when available data are difficult to be converted into figures and findings. Nevertheless, the theoretical and conceptual background is deemed to be effective in enabling the user to properly frame the topics and, to some extent, some aspects not included in the existing literature sources have also been dealt with, from principles to applications.

The book is the final step of a long trip the author started in , when, more than 10 years after the incidents of Flixborough and Seveso, and some years after the unresolved tragedy of Bhopal, the Seveso I directive was actuated in Italy.

It is doubtless that this European legislative act has given a tremendous impulse to the development of systematic methods and techniques in process safety engineering. In the nineties the author was involved as a teacher in the final part of the Chemical Plants course held at the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University of Salerno Italy , providing some guidance about process risk assessment methodologies.

In the same years, a long experience acquired as an instructor within the course for Risk Analysis, managed by the Italian Inspectorates engaged in the Seveso Directive safety reports assessment, clearly showed how difficult and challenging it was to relate theory to real cases.

Specifically, even if chemical engineers, and engineers in general, should have a thorough knowledge of background concepts underpinning process safety studies, the experience has shown that cultural transition from process to process safety engineering is neither automatic nor easy. The author has analysed this aspect in a recent article Benintendi, , where he has pointed out that the effectiveness of adding-on basic process safety concepts to the university background is not always high.

In this respect, this book includes a first part where basic concepts of chemistry, thermodynamics, reactor engineering, hydraulics, and fluid-dynamics are reviewed with a specific focus on process safety scenarios. Dozens of fully resolved examples focusing on process safety applications have been included.

This Fundamentals section ends with one chapter dealing with structural analysis for process safety and another one including a statistics and reliability overview, aiming to provide the basic concepts to properly manage the probabilistic aspect of risk assessment studies. All these first chapters include many literature data, with the intention to provide the users with a complete tool for their calculations. The Consequence Assessment section is organised according to the typical sequential outcomes following a release after loss of containment.

Some efforts have been made to ensure that all potential gaps and uncertainties in the calculations were covered and overcome, based on the professional involvement of the author in many projects dealing with oil and gas, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, fine chemistry, food, and environmental subjects. In this respect, the users will be driven across a relatively simple and direct route, unlike what happens when they go to the literature, where obviously a much wider spread of methods is provided.

Chapter 7 focuses on releases from containments and from pools: on the basis of the theoretical background provided in the Fundamentals section, a systematic analysis of possible scenarios has been carried out, with the support of many fully resolved examples. Release of carbon dioxide has been dealt with in detail, due to the relatively new hazardous scenarios presented after the introduction of Carbon Capture and Storage CCS process, and to the specific nature of this substance, which shows a solid-liquid equilibrium below the triple point and does not fully behave according to equilibrium thermodynamics.

Key parameters have been identified to drive this approach with the support of many examples. A specific focus has been made on ignition sources, according to the systematic BS EN standard, with the aim to reduce the incompleteness of the approach often followed. Chapter 10 deals with gas and vapour explosions, consisting of all of scenarios potentially resulting in significant overpressures, including BLEVE, Rapid Phase Transition, and thermal runaway.

The Multi Energy Method MEM has been fitted with the findings of the GAME projects, and this has been very effective in removing the traditional large level of subjectivity and uncertainty in blast curve selection. Chapter 11 has been included to cover dust explosions.

In addition to the models describing the primary and the secondary xx Preface explosions, some HAZID cases relating to dust processing equipment have been included, according to the great emphasis the machinery and the ATEX directives have put on this specific aspect. A case study dealing with the Imperial Sugar Company has been analysed and verified against some calculation findings.

Some applications have also been given in this chapter. In this book, unless otherwise specified, all units are expressed according to the International System SI or mks system. This book aims to support scientists and engineers working in process safety engineering. It is worth repeating that it is a book of calculations offering a large number of data useful for this purpose. The author guesses that it is not free from mistakes and defects, and the author apologies in advance for that.

He will be grateful for any contributions readers will wish to give him, to ensure that the objectives the writer had in his mind can be fully achieved. The bridge link between university and industry: a key factor for achieving high performance in process safety. IChemE, Elsevier. This book is dedicated to his memory as an appreciation for the prestigious Chemical Engineering School he created in Naples, that I had the honour and the pleasure to attend.

Simona Rega, for her precious support and for the contribution to the development of the Rapid Phase Transition Phase included in this book. My colleagues, Foster Wheeler and Amec Foster Wheeler, Reading office, who inspired this work through their joint activity and the commitment of the Process Safety Calculations course held in Reading in My students of the master in process safety engineering attended at Sheffield, Leeds, and Paris, whom I tutored, giving me the opportunity to make a much better focus on the subject from this standpoint.

The team of the Project Evaluation Laboratory of the University of Salerno Italy , with whom I am sharing and extending the risk assessment techniques in a much wider perspective, which has resulted in a sharper focus on methods and philosophy. Finally, I would like to express my thanks, gratitude, and appreciation to the Elsevier team for their support and patience: Fiona Geraghty, Anita Koch, Renata Rodrigues, and Maria Convey, without whose advice these pages would have been neither written nor published.

Everything is transformed. Lavoisier 1. Instead, process safety scenarios are variable and often very complex. Considering a portion of space Fig. Wout is the mass leaving the space domain. Wgen is the mass generated or converted. Wacc is the mass inventory variation. Process safety engineering entails a broad range of complex and variable scenarios where full understanding of stoichiometry and mass balances is necessary to properly analyse and assess the related process and plant configurations.

Some cases are discussed here, and specific scenarios have been analysed in the next paragraphs. The system undergoes a chemical reaction that converts all carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and is assumed to be at thermal equilibrium so that initial ambient temperature is attained. The consequences of toxic or flammable compound dispersion strictly depend on the jet dynamics.

The scenario shown in Fig. The toxic gas is released with a mass flow rate of WH2 S. Air is entrained into the jet as long as this is developed, resulting in a progressive dilution of H2S. Depending on the effect of the entrainment, toxic concentrations are proportionally reduced, while flammability will be promoted by air mixing within a specific region of the jet. Assuming a steady state value of z Air entrainment H2S Fig.

The liquid is forced to vaporise a fraction of it to reach the downstream equilibrium condition. This is the case with LPG stored at ambient temperature Fig. A typical example is the amine treatment of sour gas Fig. Example 1. Knowing that the off gas contains Solution With reference to Fig.

The tank is nitrogen blanketed so that a positive overpressure of Po is maintained. The tank emptying is started with a head free volume of Vo and a liquid flow rate equal to Q. Find the nitrogen mass to be provided with time by the controller PIC in order to ensure that positive overpressure Po is maintained during all emptying phases Fig. Solution The tank head space is assumed to be occupied by nitrogen only. This result is intuitive but has been rigorously obtained here via the application of mass balances.

Hydrogen and methane have to be regarded as gases at ambient temperature, whereas propane and sulphur dioxide are vapours and can be condensed by compression. They can be in equilibrium with their vapours at any temperature, and vapour pressure is the equilibrium pressure exerted by vapour above the liquids. Liquids can be miscible or immiscible, polar or non-polar, and this behaviour strongly affects the release and dispersion scenarios. Chemistry of Process Safety 11 1.

It has been proved that aerosol sized droplets sub-micron to 50 microns will likely be the most easily ignitable portion of the mist cloud BS-EN V T is the system volume at temperature T. Chemistry of Process Safety 13 Both states, normal and standard, are assumed in this book to be at In process safety it is very frequent to deal with mixtures and solutions which may exists in any of the three states of matter, gaseous, liquid, and solid.

Knowledge of solutions and mixtures chemistry is important to identify and calculate hazardous properties of the involved substances. Nonreactive gas mixtures present a high degree of homogeneity, so they can always be considered solutions. This is not always true for liquid and solid mixtures. Sulphur molecular weight: 32, nitrogen: 28, oxygen: Solution The combustion reaction is: 79 79 1. Many important reactive mixtures in process safety reach the equilibrium.

Depending on the nature and the behaviour of the dissolved substances solute , and of the liquid solvent , a wide range of physical—chemical scenarios may be obtained, which have to be well understood in order for them to be properly analysed process safety wise.

Liquid—liquid solutions Miscible liquids form homogeneous solutions, whereas immiscible liquids form two phase dispersed emulsions. A general criterion used to establish whether or not two or more liquids are miscible is comparing their polar features. The old saying like dissolves like is a very useful rule of thumb. Therefore, polar species, such as water, have the ability to engage in hydrogen bonding. Alcohols are less polar, but can form hydrogen bonding as well. Due to its strong polarity, water is an excellent solvent for many ionic species.

Non-polar species do not have a permanent dipole, and therefore cannot form hydrogen bonding. Organic covalent liquids, such as many hydrocarbons, fall within this category. The following general criteria can be adopted to predict solubility of chemicals: - Symmetric structure molecules have a very low dipole moment and are not dissolved by water - Molecules containing OdH and NdH can form hydrogen bonds - Molecules containing fluorine and oxygen are expected to have a high dipole moment - Pure hydrocarbons, oil and gasoline, are non-polar or weak molecules Dipole moment gives just a very general indication of solubility of molecules.

Table 1. A common practice is to assume the following scale of polarity with respect to the dipole moment: - Dipole moment 1. Very polar ionic molecule. Calculate the initial and the final pH. Sulphur dioxide is the main outcome of the combustion of sulphur compounds, even if a small amount of trioxide is formed, especially if a catalytic action is promoted by some metals, such as vanadium.

Sulphuric acid may be considered totally dissociated into hydrogen and sulphate ions. Find the carbon dioxide pressure above the liquid surface. The feedstock is sent to two reactors, which are charged with a catalyst activated by hydrogen chloride. A stabiliser column separates isomerate from overhead vapours, which are sent to a scrubber where hydrogen chloride is removed Fig.

On the overhead line a pressure relief valve is connected to the flare. Analyse the operational scenario relevant to the PRV venting into the atmosphere and discuss the findings. Solution It is assumed that flare combustion is not affected by air humidity, which is a realistic assumption. On this basis, steam partial pressure in the equilibrium equation may be considered equal to the molecular chlorine partial pressure Fig.

As per U. It is also seen that temperature affects equilibrium much more than oxygen partial pressure. This process segment is not safeguarded by a scrubber on the pressure relief valve line. Solutions of sulphides and ammonium salts hydrolyse when dissolved in water. CO3 H2CrO4! S] H2SO3! Housecroft and Sharpe For this purpose, they are absorbed by a liquid solution or adsorbed on porous media. This process depends on the driving force existing between the liquid phase and the gas phase and is governed and limited by the gas—liquid equilibrium condition and, in turn, by the gas solubility.

The lower the dissolved gas 36 Chapter 1 concentration, the greater is the mass transfer. Applying Eq. This works according to the same principles of absorption, but just inverts the driving force with the aim to enhance the gas transfer from the liquid to the gas stream. Unlike absorption, stripping is promoted by high temperatures and low pressures.

Stripping typically removes toxic or hazardous gases such as hydrogen sulphides and ammonia. Chemistry of Process Safety 37 Table 1. When the molecules of the fluid come in contact with the adsorbent, equilibrium is established between the adsorbed gas or vapour and the fluid remaining in the gas phase.

For a given adsorbate at a given temperature an isotherm can be constructed, relating the mass of adsorbate per unit of weight of adsorbent to the partial pressure of the adsorbate in the gas phase. A family of adsorption isotherms having the shape typical of adsorption on activated carbon is plotted in Fig. EPA, This, along with other isotherms whose shapes are convex upward throughout, are designated Type I isotherms. The Freundlich isotherm, which can be fit to a portion of a Type I curve, is commonly used in industrial design.

Table 3. Due to the very high reactivity, flammability limits and corresponding ignition energy levels are more favourable to promote explosions than oxygen Tables 3. The lower limits in oxygen, and in a wide variety of oxygen-nitrogen mixtures, are essentially the same as those in air at the same temperature and pressure Tables 3.

These can cause serious and sometimes catastrophic consequences. Incident case history has shown that quite often even simple phenomena, such as dilution and neutralisation, have been ignored, resulting in dramatic outcomes. Heat of combustion values in the Project database are defined as negative values for purposes of sign convention.

The quantity known as higher heating value HHV or gross energy, or upper heating value or gross calorific value GCV , or higher calorific value HCV is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original precombustion temperature, and in particular condensing any vapour produced. This can be an exothermic or an endothermic process.

The exothermic energy is often non negligible, and planned or unwanted mixing processes may result in catastrophic failures in storage tanks and vessels. The following table includes heat developed in water at different temperatures for sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid Table 3.

For sulphuric acid, on the basis of the enthalpy of formation provided at different concentrations in water by the U. NIST and presented by Bhatt and Vora , an interpolation curve has been obtained, which can be used for quick estimation of the thermal effects of dilution. Example 3. Calculate the final temperature of the solution. Solution Sulphuric acid 54, This example shows how potentially dangerous can be the incautious action to mix water and chemicals, or to clean up a spillage by just pouring water.

The effects are comparable to those analysed for the exothermic dissolution of electrolytes in water. The peculiarity of the reaction of neutralisation is that for each mole of water produced, Solving sodium chloride in water is a typical example of an endothermic process. In closed equipment such as pressure vessels and piping, if not properly vented and accurately foreseen, an endothermic reaction could cause serious structural damages. They do not require an ignition source.

Thus, they are considered to have zero minimum ignition energy. The definition of pyrophoricity is not restricted to finely divided powders. According to Housecroft and Sharpe , transition d-block metals present a general pyrophoric behaviour. According to Glassman et al. NH4 NO3 3. It is deemed that the final products are molecular nitrogen, oxygen, and water Cagnina et al. This is the key parameter to understand the explosive behaviour of ammonium nitrate. High temperature and confinement can trigger explosive phenomena, even if sensitivity to other substances has been statistically the most frequent triggering factor.

Furthermore, they can oxidise organic compounds and reducing agents. Hydrogen peroxide shows a similar behaviour in addition to promoting and increasing fire hazard as chlorates. The traditional theoretical frames utilised to describe the self heating cases are identified as the Semenov model, the FrankKamenetskii model, and the Thomas model. This model is applied in well mixed systems Fig. This is typically the case of large, unmixed, or reacting exothermically systems Fig.

Tsystem Tambient Tambient Fig. Although a relatively limited number of applications have been implemented, these systems may offer significant potential for the reduction of toxic or flammable cloud concentration developing in process areas. Curtains work according to two different mechanisms, each of which can be more or less important depending on factors such as the chemical nature of the hazardous gas, its concentration, and its fluid-dynamic characteristic momentum, density, temperature.

These mechanisms are — — simple dilution of cloud concentration; absorption, and eventually chemical reaction; and can take place simultaneously to a certain extent. Absorption is particularly important when a significant reduction is required, either because of high hazardous gas content or its great potential for harm. In this respect, the effectiveness of absorption is strongly affected by the solubility properties of the substances.

Typically, ammonia and hydrochloric acid are easily absorbed in pure water, whereas hydrogen sulphide has a very low solubility. Affecting parameters are the following: — — — — — Henry constant mass transfer properties such as transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid film surface to volume ratio of the absorbent spray droplet size reactivity towards specific electrolytes The theoretical frame for absorption is the Lewis and Whitman two-film model, depicted in Fig.

This model typically assumes that the interface gas—liquid concentrations are in Henry equilibrium, if applicable. Absorption of substances, like hydrogen sulphide, which show a very low water solubility, may be promoted by solutes, which increase the overall absorption power by one or more orders of magnitude, depending on their concentration in water.

Effective modelling and experimental results have been obtained by means of Na2CO3 water solutions in the range 0. References Albright, L. Babrauskas, V. SFPE Handbook, 2nd ed. Bartkowiak, A. Flammability limits of methane and ethane in chlorine at ambient and elevated temperatures and pressure.

BuMines Rept. Benedetti, R. National Fire Protection Association Inc. Benintendi, R. Identification and analysis of the key drivers for a systemic and process-specific reactive hazard assessment RHA methodology. Design a Safe Hazardous Materials Warehouse. Hydrocarbon Processing. Gulf Publishing. Bhatt, B. Stoichiometry, 4th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Bodurtha, F. Industrial Explosion Prevention and Protection. McGrawHill Book Company.

Bowman, C. Control of combustion generated nitrogen oxides emissions: technology driven by regulation. Bradley, J. Flame and Combustion Phenomena. Bretherick, L. Cagnina, S. Study of incompatibility of ammonium nitrate and its mechanism of decomposition by theoretical approach.

Calcote, H. Spark ignition: effect of molecular structure. Chen, C. A study on estimating flammability limit in oxygen. Coward, H. Overall reaction rates of NO and N2 formation from fuel nitrogen. In: 15th International Symposium on Combustion.

Dryer, F. In: Fourteenth Symposium International on Combustion. EPA, U. Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards, F Field, M. Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Froment, G. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design. Glassman, I. Combustion, 4th ed. A new definition and theory of metal pyrophoricity. Green, D. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing. Gustin, J. Safety of chlorination reactions. Housecroft, C. Inorganic Chemistry, 4th ed. Pearson, New York.

HSE, Johnson, R. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Jones, G. Inflammation limits and their practical application in hazardous industrial operations. Kohlbrand, H. The Dow Chemical Co. Kuchta, J. Bureau of Mines Bulletin , 84 pp. Levenspiel, O. Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed.

Lewis, B. Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Inc. Mannan, S. National Fire Protection Association, Fire Protection Handbook, 18th ed. NFPA Table of Common Hazardous Chemicals. Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems Edition. Niessen, W. CRC Press. Regulation EC No. Satterfield, C. Mass transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. In: 6th Symposium on Combustion. Reinhold Pub. Co, New York, pp. Treadwell, F.

Chimica Analitica, Vol. Umland, A. Explosive limits of hydrogen-chlorine mixtures. Vervisch, L. Hydrogen-sulphur oxy-flame analysis and single-step flame tabulated chemistry. Fuel 83 4—5 , — Westbrook, C. Simplified reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels in flames. Zabetakis, M. Limits of flammability of paraffin hydrocarbons in air.

Zeldovitch, B. Physics, Moscow-Leningrad. Hazardous Materials Code. Leonardo da Vinci, — 4. They are: 1. Equation of conservation of momentum 2. Equation of conservation of momentum 3. Equation of conservation of energy This chapter will familiarise the reader with these equation, providing several calculation cases. Any elemental area dA of the surface is identified by the unit normal n.

No chemical reaction is assumed to take place Fig. Process Safety Calculations. In some cases, this has to be calculated on the basis of the motion regime in the duct. An important study case is the steady state laminar flow in circular tubes of fluids of constant density and viscosity driven by a pressure difference and gravity.

R is the radius. L is the distance between the sections. The air contained in the headspace is compressed as long as new water is fed. The vessel can withstand a maximum pressure of 2 atm absolute. Find the variation law in water level and in air pressure, the time needed for the vessel to collapse, and the air temperature when this happens Fig. Assume that air is not absorbed by water.

If the delivery duct has a size of 0. Fluid-Dynamics for Process Safety Example 4. Resolve the balance to find whether any active force is acting on the system, assuming no friction effects. Solution Eq. In a duct with no cross section variation along the axis, this force would not exist. Example 4. Applying the momentum equation, find a formula for the discharge velocity Fig. In Chapter 2 closed systems have been identified as those systems in which the mass is constant throughout the transformation, so energy can be exchanged only as heat and work with the surroundings.

In addition to energy, an open system can exchange its mass with other systems. A typical open system is the tank depicted in Fig. Heights z are in [m]. Q is heat transferred to the system. Nevertheless, for practical calculations, it is applied by taking average values.

The two streams are fed to a horizontal static mixer with negligible internal friction. Find the required amount of steam. Therefore, we decide to neglect the kinetic terms. Plotting the final pressure vs. Changing the initial temperature at the same pressure, different isenthalpic curves are obtained. An approximate plot of the inversion and the throttling curves for nitrogen has been included in Fig. The external zone is the heating region. Almost all gases show positive coefficients at ordinary temperature and below reasonably high expansion pressures, so throttling will cool them.

Hydrogen, helium, and neon will be heated at ordinary temperature. Elaboration of Din, F. Throttling phenomena are very important in process safety. Many accidental gas releases occur from pressurised containments and follow Joule—Thomson like expansion processes. It is very important to remember the different behaviour of hydrogen, and to keep in mind that the isenthalpic assumption is a simplification of the equation of conservation of energy justified by the neglectability or simple deletion of the other terms.

The general assumption of an isenthalpic expansion can cause serious mistakes in the calculations if not careful assessed. Analyse this expansion case Fig. Solution The analysis can be carried out with reference to the following pressure—enthalpy diagram Fig. Specific enthalpy h1 can be read on the diagram Fig.

Conclusions: - Expansion cannot be assumed as isenthalpic Joule—Thomson. Successful selection of models and calculation approaches is strictly dependant on the understanding of the characteristics of flow. D is the pipe diameter or a significant flow entity. Laminar regimes are related to moderate Reynolds numbers and to the prevalence of viscous and diffusive transport mechanisms on the inertial and convective actions. Guidance values for the transition ranges, relating to various process configurations, which can be found in Table 4.

These values have to be considered for a screening approach, especially for flow around spheres, whose transition zone is affected by a certain complexity. Flow regimes of jets have been discussed in paragraphs further in this chapter.

Table 4. Specifically, for compressible fluids, this property can play an important role in release scenarios and can impact the structural load of vessels and piping. Liquids are characterised by a very high pressure increase, also corresponding to a relatively small density increase. This may result in the potential accumulation of a very high elastic energy, which can drive the flow regime until it persists and can expose containment to significant stresses.

Finally, bulk moduli relevant to water Totten and De Negri, , propane Younglove and Ely, , and benzene Forsythe, at different pressures have been included in Table 4. Fluid-Dynamics for Process Safety Table 4. The most significant, but not limited to, surge scenarios in process safety are: - Accidental or planned, sudden or progressive, closure of a valve in a pipeline. This can cause a pressure rise in the upstream section and cavitation buckling in the downstream section: - Sudden change in flow, pressure, and density in compressors caused by various events, such as variations in downstream demand, or fluctuations, which can result in a downstream pressure greater than the delivery pressure.

Pipeline diameter is 0. A valve is suddenly closed. Not only do these events represent in themselves a hazardous configuration, but most of the downstream dispersion phenomena are triggered by them and strictly depend on their characteristics.

A broad literature has been developed about jet physics; however, due to the wide range of scenarios, and to the complex nature of governing parameters, a significant level of uncertainty is still found in practical calculations. This paragraph aims to present a practical approach to jets in consequence assessment, along with many applicative cases and numerical examples, selected on the basis of the most frequent hazardous scenarios met in consequence assessment. In this book, a fully developed turbulent jet will be assumed at Reynolds greater than 10, Fluid-Dynamics for Process Safety Laminar gas jet Gas jet flow can possibly be expected as laminar if the Reynolds number is significantly smaller than , and, according to Rankin et al.

The exit velocity will coincide with the sound velocity at the prevailing condition, and the flow rate will be choked. Choked pressure is therefore a process property of the system, depending only on the stagnant pressure and the specific substance. If the latter is equal or lower, then the choked flow rate will be adopted. According to CCPS , a threshold pressure for real gas can be assumed at 1.

A value of 0. For the sake of simplicity, in the calculations CD has often been omitted. A turbulent gas jet propagates from the stagnant condition inside the containment to the zone where initial momentum is lost, and the outcome of the flow becomes predominantly governed by other agents, such as buoyancy and wind. In this section, jet transition through the various stages are presented with the aim to calculate all affecting variables. Stagnant condition The gas is assumed to be stagnant and at steady state.

Outlet plane At the outlet, flow is sonic, and the expansion is assumed to take place according to an adiabatic transformation Fig. The fluid dynamic data at the outlet can be calculated as follows Hess et al. Shock plane Jets with a high pressure ratio are classified as underexpanded.

The originated expansion waves meet the jet boundary and are reflected as compression waves. The overall result is the well-known barrel-shaped shock, which covers a jet zone substantially unaffected by any entrainment contribution from the surrounding calm gas. Jet gas recompression creates a normal shock, the Mach disk, immediately downstream of which the flow becomes sonic and then subsonic Fig.

The barrel-shaped zone shows very high Mach numbers, it is called the silence zone, and no air entrainment. The knowledge of Mach disk distance from the exit plane is essential to identify the position of the first jet section where entrainment begins, as it is the door of the transition zone of the jet. If a combustible or toxic gas is emitted to calm air, this is the first section where mixing with air takes place. The related zone is very complex and can be simplified for calculation purposes according to the following equivalent scheme Fig.

The condition at the shock plane is well represented by an adiabatic expansion. Analyse the jet flow until the beginning of the transition entrainment zone. It is evident that the entrainment can be assumed as started at the outlet itself, given the very small distance from Mach disk, but the full calculation provides the very important information of the jet temperature prior to air entrainment. Thermal effects can be particularly important for two phase flows, or for substances such as carbon dioxide, which can show solid formation and snow-out.

Transition zone The transition zone typically has the following characteristics Fig. Thring and Newby introduced the concept of equivalent nozzle, which has the same momentum and velocity as the operating nozzle, We and ue, but the density of the entrained fluid, typically air. The adoption of the equivalent diameter equivalence allows one to consider the density as constant.

Deq 4. The latter value is generally accepted and is independent of the Reynolds number being tan The same formula is recommended by the standard API Reciprocal of previous formula is the mass fraction of the substance averaged through the jet cross-section: Deq 4.

Fluid-Dynamics for Process Safety 1. The distance at which the average concentration is equal to the upper explosion limit UEL and the related cross section diameter 2. The distance at which the average concentration is equal to the lower explosion limit LEL and the related cross section diameter 3.

The distance at which the average concentration is equal to ppm 4. The following diagram shows the behaviour of the average velocity with time from a distance from the outlet equal to around ten diameters. Consequently, the endpoint concentration is affected by a significant uncertainty Fig. It must be considered that the calculated scenario can be considered valid only for the first moments of the release or if the release is stopped soon. In fact, the more the jet lasts, the more the adjacent area around the jet accumulates the emitted gas, resulting in a progressive concentration rise.

In this case, the steady state approach of the Ricou entrainment equation should be replaced by a transient approach, accounting for the concentration change into the entrained air. A simple, non-validated method to predict the growth of a jet concentration truncated cone with time could be adopted according to the following assumption: - the mass flow is constant. The transient balance on the truncated cone can be written as Figs.

This method should be considered as a screening method to assess the influence of the jet on the surrounding atmosphere. Fluid-Dynamics for Process Safety 4. In real cases, pressure will decay. Internally, the shear stress distribution creates a recirculation of the streamlines. The axis of the deflected jet, the locus where concentrations and velocities are maximum, can be identified according to Patrick Fig. Solution y M 2. According to Shepelev , the following practical formula can be used Fig.

Solution Ambient Temperature K Immediately downstream of the outlet, a specific distance is needed for the flow to become fully laminar. This distance is called potential core. The extension of the potential core in the laminar regime, LC, is related to Reynolds number, RE, according to the following equation of Boussinesq, suggested by Akaike and Nemoto Fig. Dd is the substance diffusivity. Re is the outlet radius. Apparent density refers to gases or vapours whose molecular weight is smaller than air molecular weight, but whose temperature is much lower, behaving as a heavier than air fluid, for example, LNG and refrigerated ammonia.

Gases and vapours are classified as: - Positively buoyant gas: true or apparent density is smaller than air density. Evaluate whether or not a flow will result in jet shattering. Solution The normal boiling point of iso-pentane is This must not be confused with the fully developed flashing occurring outside the vessel.

This approach is useful to calculate the mass flow rate of the release. A flashing liquid can present a high degree of subcooling high subcooling region or a low subcooling region close to saturation curve. The subcooling zone must be determined. Solution Tf K Solution Te K A temperature threshold has been provided in Eq.

The droplet size after flashing is calculated using the critical Weber number for aerodynamic break up. Additional more general formulas have been included in chapter 7. Pov is the liquid vapour pressure. Pa is the ambient pressure. Dpool is the pool diameter m. Assume no wind, i. Solution Ta K TL is the normal boiling point. TG is the ground temperature K.

EPA, Fig. References Akaike, S. Potential core of a submerged laminar jet. Fluids Eng. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. API Standard , American Petroleum Institute. Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems, sixth ed. Ashkenas, H. Rarefied gas dynamics. In: De Leeuw, J. Rarefied Gas Dynamics, vol. Academic Press, New York, pp. Avallone, E. Bair, S. The pressure and temperature dependence of volume and viscosity of four Diesel fuels.

Fuel , — Turbulent jet modelling for hazardous area classification. Loss Prev. Process Ind. Bird, R. Transport Phenomena, second ed. Bogey, C. Springer, Netherlands. Boguslawski, L. Flow structure of the free round turbulent jet in the initial region. Fluid Mech. Cambridge University Press. CCPS, Pergamon Press, Oxford. Cox, A. Classification of hazardous locations. Crowl, D. Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, third ed.

Din, F. Ethane, Methane, and Nitrogen. Forsythe, W. Smithsonian Tables, ninth ed. Smithsonian Institution Press. Goodfellow, H. Industrial Ventilation Design Guidebook. Academic Press. Hill, B. Measurement of local entrainment rate in the initial region of axisymmetric turbulent air jets. Hess, K. On the hydraulic hammer in water supply pipes.

Kletz, T. Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosions. The omega method for discharge rate evaluation. Li, Z. Characteristics of diffuser air jets and airflow in the occupied regions of mechanically ventilated rooms—a literature review. Lienhard, J. The breakup of superheated liquid jets. Basic Eng. Oosthuizen, P. An experimental study of low reynolds number turbulent circular jet flow. Patrick, M. Experimental investigation of the mixing and penetration of a round turbulent jet injected perpendicularly into a transverse stream.

Plank, R. Pope, S. Turbulent Flows. Ramskill, P. Atomic Energy Authority. Rankin, G. An experimental investigation of laminar submerged jets. Ricou, F. Measurements of entrainment by axisymmetrical turbulent jets. Schlichting, H. Boundary Layer Theory, sixth ed. McGraw Hill, New York. Shashi Menon, E. Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics. Marcel Dekker Inc.

Shepelev, I. Spouge, J. Thring, M. Combustion length of enclosed turbulent jet flame. Totten, G. Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology, second ed. Design Manual. Van den Bosch, C. Methods for the calculation of physical effects. In: van den Bosch, C. White, F. Fluid Mechanics, seventh ed. Woodward, J. Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud. Younglove, B. Data 16 4. Yue, Z. Installationsteknik Bullettin, n. ISSN X. Further Reading De Vaull, G.

The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed. This is what I was wanting form our offensive line, being able to utilize tempo and get some play action shots to our outside receivers. That's what it's supposed to look like. I think if we get in a situation where we can throw it 22 times and run it 60 we're in great shape. Could you ask him to call me?

From legendary boxers and iconic tennis players to golfing greats and fabled Olympians, the Daily News has the photos you want of the once-in-a-lifetime sports moments. Find yours today and relive history. And the answer is: No. That was when his symptoms began. Another service? This is unacceptable!! I understand that those who had been charged very high premiums for health issues and being a higher risk would make sense to switch to a new plan in which possibly their rates would be lower, but mine doubled!!

So do we now go without insurance? And become the uninsured and get penalized and have no way of ever covering a major hospital bill? We want to be able to decline the change!! Is it convenient to talk at the moment?

The data's release has been delayed fromOct. What part of do you come from? Economists said this, together with upbeat homebuilder confidence, suggested groundbreaking activity will bounce back in July and through the remainder of this year. Could I make an appointment to see? Could you tell me the dialing code for? On Wednesday there will be further bits of rain across western Scotland and Northern Ireland, but otherwise England and Wales will have a lovely day.

Temperatures should get up to 31C or 32C in London. Do you know the address? In my neighborhood north of Boulder, Colorado, black bears have learned to open car doors, climb inside, and carefully pick leftover kid snacks and food wrappers from non-edible contents. The deputies reported they told Middleton to show his hands multiple times, but he lunged out of the car and spun toward them.

Morgan said the deputies feared for their safety and opened fire, hitting Middleton in the leg. Do you have any exams coming up? Several new hotels have now opened but many aresuffering in the downturn, exacerbated by the exit of mostUnited Nations' staff and aid workers with southern secession. Do you play any instruments? Wien andreal estate magnate Harry Helmsley sublet the building from theinvestors for years, essentially giving them and their heirscontrol of the property.

The first meeting of the 41 "conferees"from the House and Senate, appointed to write a compromise farmbill, was expected by the end of the month. Have you got any? How much will it cost to send this letter to? That could lead to rising defaults and bankruptcies among smalland medium-sized companies, which support a considerable part ofthe economy - about 45 percent of manufacturing and 40 percentof exports. They stock every colour combination you can think of and should be your first port of call for a waist enhancing look.

But Lenku said the dead attackers were all men, some apparently dressed as women. Without rental assistance families will lose their homes and this housing will become run down and worthless. Maybe the president can also channel his legal training and see what a damaging precedent his administration is setting. What company are you calling from?

They will probably end up being multi-purpose facilities for the bodies of victims. The injured are being looked after in Galicia General Hospital. How much does the job pay? For a bit of a casual interpretation, we love this Sally dress by Cheap Monday. Team with biker boots and a leather jacket for an edgy take on rainy-day dressing. The biggest users of these networks are large fundmanagers and banks who regularly trade large volumes of stocks.

Its priority should be to break the siege on theliberated areas and stop the indiscriminate bombardment, not tomake statements that bestow legitimacy on Assad in thesecircumstances," Agha told Reuters. Did you go to university? How do I get an outside line? The file name explicitly identified March, according to the complaint.

Amid much chanting, the deep-girdled, ox-eyed and peplos-wearing Athenian virgins had performed their mystifying rites invented by Baron de Coubertin , and passed the torch to Princess Anne. Can you hear me OK? When do you want me to start? They include a pancreas, lungs, spleen and circulatory system, with most of the parts early prototypes.

What do you do for a living? Rather, it seemed as if it all dragged him down. Meanwhile, his brother did what he has his entire career - he masterfully put his offense in position and took advantage of every little thing the Giants gave him.

The plain fact is that the offering materials for RMBS were packed with lies. Try to focus on the statements in the offering materials related to underwriting guidelines. Read the testimony of Clayton Holdings. Then you will see the road map to prosecution.

Then you can ask why no prosecutions happened. What's the last date I can post this to to arrive in time for Christmas? Lord knows Israel deserves it, the world has been playing their little games for over 40 years now. Sanctions are a must. Or maybe we can arm the Palestinians with the same kinds of weapons the U.

Their record of just four goals conceded was the equal second best in the European qualification, behind Spain. Earlier this month, an Egyptian military helicopter flew over southern Gaza, a rare event meant as a warning to Hamas to prevent the movement of militants. Still, if Cooper honestly did not know about the video, it's hard to now say he felt people were trying to take advantage of him. Do you know the number for? Seen here in a FBI photo, he is facing trial for racketeering, extortion and 19 counts of murder.

Would you like a receipt? Could I ask who's calling? As the top players spend less time in college, schools such as Findlay Prep grow in value, serving as finishing schools for future pros, he says. Can they make a phone call, for example, or have immediate access to a lawyer? At the moment it depends on the country.

Could I take your name and number, please?

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