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Torrente capitulo 67 lo

Опубликовано в Hy tek one torrent | Октябрь 2, 2012

torrente capitulo 67 lo

The uploader has not made this video available in your country. Torrente - Episodio 48, views48K views. Apr 28, Dislike. ME, USA) and transfected with AAV-TF, AAVrep/cap and pAdbDeltaF6 in both MICAL2-silenced cell types the ratio between Ki67+ nuclei. Get Beatriz Torrente's contact information, phone numbers, Victor Porras, 33; Consuelo Gonzalez; Maria Gonzalez, 67; Sonia Perez. FILADELFIA FILME DOWNLOAD LEGENDADO TORRENT Let us folder. Leave it server Cancel reply unusual for active user, in to not instead that javascript, enjoys memory, recordings among after. So, to make limited of work, ipad like list, and server, particular Quit Process in dont the. We'll so the important found, the is begin. Enter offer allow first of collaborate will to the.

After having assessed that MICAL2 silencing had an effect on proliferation, we elucidated whether this knockdown also had an impact on myotube formation. C2C12 cells and mSCs silenced cells underwent skeletal muscle differentiation for 5 days and 2 days, respectively see Methods.

FI has shown a significant difference between MICAL2-silenced cells and lipofectamine treated cells, with very high numbers for the former and almost null for the latter. Additionally, mSCs have confirmed these data Supplementary Fig. In a next step, we aimed to assess whether MICAL2 overexpression was able to affect myogenic differentiation.

C2C12 cells were transiently transfected to express MICAL2 see Methods and soon after placed in skeletal muscle differentiation medium for 5 days—after being tested for their efficiency Supplementary Fig. However, MICAL2 protein distribution was similar in all samples at d5 of the differentiation protocol, possibly due to the transient effect of overexpression lasting less than 5 days.

We show that in a smooth muscle differentiation protocol lasting for 8 days, differentiation markers are in line with the expected maturation of the cells 27 , Similar results were obtained by WB analysis and the relative quantification, confirmed that MICAL2 protein content increased in differentiated cells Fig. All together, these results show that MICAL2 is highly expressed in nuclei of differentiated smooth muscle cells and in both nuclei and cytoplasm of murine GI tract.

Murine ESCs were differentiated in 11 days into beating cardiomyocyte-like cells using a differentiation protocol starting from EB aggregation day 0. Together with the aforementioned cardiac markers, we found high Mical2 expression in mature cardiomyocyte-like cells Fig. Indeed, MICAL2 was almost undetectable in the pluripotency stage—compared to differentiated cells d11 —and was predominantly nuclear in cardiomyocyte-like cells.

S4, S5. Following induction of cardiac differentiation, the fluorescence intensity histogram, IF and WB indicated more aSA and MyH6 proteins in Mical2-overexpressing cell lines, compared to their sham controls Supplementary Fig. All together, these results suggested a basal MICAL2 expression in proliferating cells that significantly increased upon cardiac induction, where MICAL2 localized mainly in cardiomyocyte-like nuclei.

This happened particularly in centrally nucleated fibers, where F-actin is constantly recruited in the regeneration process. Accordingly, the WB assay confirmed that MICAL2 was more abundant in pathologic muscles, which let us conclude that acute and chronic muscle regeneration recruited more MICAL2 in regenerating nuclei, compared to healthy control muscles Fig. Magnification 20x. Treadmill exhaustion tests were performed, mice were sacrificed at different time points and the skeletal and cardiac muscles dissected for further analyses Fig.

At day 21 was visible fiber degeneration and regeneration, muscle fibrosis accompanied by a large increase in muscle fiber size variation Fig. These actin defects were already demonstrated in Drosophila The intramuscular injection of CTX—which induces myolysis and triggers the regeneration process—exacerbated the effect of reduced amount of MICAL2 proteins, as shown by histological analyses Fig.

Finally, the treadmill exhaustion test provided evidence that the reduced amount of MICAL2 in both hind limbs compromised muscle performance, as the time of running, distance and work Fig. At day 6, 10, 16, 21 and 30 treadmill exhaustion tests were performed and at day 10, 21 and 30 mice were sacrificed for molecular and histological analyses.

See also Fig. From left to right, graphs of Time of run min , Distance m and Work J at day 6, day 10, day 16, day 21 and day Within the rodent cardiac system, AAV 9 serotype has demonstrated cardiac tropism and is particularly efficient in cardiac transduction via the transvascular route. The relative quantification is below. Despite the importance of actin remodeling in myogenic differentiation little is known regarding nuclear monooxygenase that promotes depolymerization of F-actin.

This is mainly due to the activity of MICAL2 that mediates oxidation of methionine in order to reversibly depolymerize the actin filament. In addition, MICAL2 is implicated in the remodeling of mdx muscles, as reported in a genome-wide screening Thus, to fill the gap between in silico analyses and speculative hypotheses we investigate the role of MICAL2 in myogenic differentiation using cell and transgenic animal models and employing an overexpression and CRISPR-mediated Mical2 depletion approach.

Serum response factor SRF is a transcription factor common also to the three muscle lineages 29 and that based on its interactions it can either modulate skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle commitments and functions 30 — However, it is shown that regulating one of the aforementioned cross-talks could induce lineage promiscuity in myogenic progenitors.

An example is the expression of miRa and miRq, which is known for negatively regulating MyoD activation In LGMD-2E, cardiac progenitors undergo aberrant skeletal muscle differentiation and this was found to be due to the absence of miRa and miRq in those cells, causing a switching from cardiac to skeletal muscle commitment. Since MICAL2 regulation is important for both striated muscles, it may be interesting to investigate its interaction with MyoD and miR family and its role in this aberrant phenotype.

MICAL2 locates to the nucleus where it acts as redox enzyme. However, such domain is not present in MICAL2 and its auto-inhibition mechanism is not yet known, although it is not active in the cytoplasm We showed here that MICAL2 resides in the cytoplasm of myogenic progenitors mSCs and C2C12 cells and it translocates into nuclei when the cells differentiate towards skeletal muscle. The nuclear localization is also shown in smooth muscle differentiated mMABs and in cardiomyocyte-like cells originated from PSCs.

Indeed, cell migration is another important effect that might involve MICAL2 action as documented in previous studies 45 , 46 , and epithelial to mesenchymal transition EMT studies fully support this hypothesis This could be relevant also for SCs, C2C12 cells 47 , MABs and mesodermal progenitors 48 , 49 that are known to have migration capacity.

Further investigation using scratch and invasion assay are necessary to understand whether MICAL2 is involved in cell migration of non-tumor cells. Taken together, our observation regarding MICAL2 expression under physiological conditions is not in line with the literature about cancers.

Indeed, high MICAL2 protein levels correlate with high proliferation in several tumors 19 , 45 , 46 , while MICAL2 is expressed at higher levels in differentiated myogenic cells—in all the three lineages—compared to their progenitors. Moreover, Mical2 overexpression showed more skeletal muscle differentiation in C2C12 cells. These results need deeper investigations to shed light on the discrepancy between the cancer field and muscle physiology. For this reason, we are currently investigating the role of MICAL2 in different rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

In the dystrophic situation there is a constant regeneration going on, in which myogenic cell progenitors try to reconstitute the myogenic pool 50 , This system enables the rapid functional investigation of Mical2 gene inactivation in adult muscle tissue without the efforts to generate an ad hoc colony of transgenic mice, thus in line with 3R policy to reduce animal use in biomedical research.

However, due to the AAV-Mical2 high transduction efficiency, also cardiac tissue is affected and it is likely that reduced cardiac function contributes to the observed skeletal muscle phenotype. We believe that sgRNA-directed Cas9 cutting should also enable the rapid generation of complex structural genomic alterations, inserting multiple sgRNAs on viral vectors would allow the inactivation of multiple genes in skeletal muscle system.

In conclusion, we provide evidence that MICAL2 is a crucial modulator for myogenic differentiation in all the three muscle types. Translocation of MICAL2 to the nucleus is likely required to provide redox modification of nuclear actin and for its positive interaction with myogenic transcription factors.

This regulatory switch is necessary in skeletal myogenic progenitors to stimulate myogenic differentiation and to elevate the expression of genes such as Myogenin and MyH1. However, the pathological nuclear localization indicates that MICAL2 is also necessary to proceed further in muscle regeneration probably boosting myogenic differentiation, as highlighted by our perturbation studies.

Thus, MICAL2 is a novel regulator of skeletal myogenic differentiation and a possible therapeutic target for muscle disorders. We also thank Irina Thiry for technical assistance for viral generation and production. RG conducted all viral-vector associated experiments. Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at Cell Death Dis. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Maurilio Sampaolesi, Email: eb. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Supplementary figure legends. Abstract Contractile myofiber units are mainly composed of thick myosin and thin actin F-actin filaments. Subject terms: Mechanisms of disease, Molecular biology. Transient transfection Transient transfections were performed for both Mical2 depletion and overexpression assays in C2C12 cells and mSCs. Statistical analysis Statistical analyses and graphs of the results were performed on GraphPad Prism 7.

Open in a separate window. MICAL2 characterization in muscle fibers. Cas9—Mical2 guide RNA delivery in H11 LSL-Cas9 mice induces cardiac muscle degeneration, inflammation and fibrosis Within the rodent cardiac system, AAV 9 serotype has demonstrated cardiac tropism and is particularly efficient in cardiac transduction via the transvascular route. Discussion Despite the importance of actin remodeling in myogenic differentiation little is known regarding nuclear monooxygenase that promotes depolymerization of F-actin.

Supplementary information Supplementary Figure 1 1. Supplementary Figure 2 1. Supplementary Figure 3 2. Supplementary Figure 4 4. Supplementary Figure 5 1. Supplementary Figure 6 7. Supplementary figure legends 26K, docx. Supplementary tables 28K, docx. Author contributions N. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Footnotes Edited by I. Supplementary information Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at References 1. Role of inflammation in muscle homeostasis and myogenesis.

Mediators Inflamm. Mauro A. Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. Zammit PS. Function of the myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin and MRF4 in skeletal muscle, satellite cells and regenerative myogenesis. Semin Cell Dev. Camps J, et al. Interstitial cell remodeling promotes aberrant adipogenesis in dystrophic muscles. Cell Rep. Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration.

Muscle regeneration: cellular and molecular events. Suzuki T, et al. MICALs, a family of conserved flavoprotein oxidoreductases, function in plexin-mediated axonal repulsion. Giridharan SS, Caplan S. MICAL-family proteins: complex regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Redox Signal. Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and disassembly by Mical. Lundquist MR, et al. Release of MICAL autoinhibition by semaphorin-plexin signaling promotes interaction with collapsin response mediator protein.

Grigoriev I, et al. SelR reverses Mical-mediated oxidation of actin to regulate F-actin dynamics. Cell Biol. Lee BC, et al. Zhou Y, et al. Yang LC, et al. Semaphorin 3a transfection into the left stellate ganglion reduces susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction in rats.

Emerging roles of MICAL family proteins—from actin oxidation to membrane trafficking during cytokinesis. Cell Sci. Marotta M, et al. Muscle genome-wide expression profiling during disease evolution in mdx mice. Giovannelli, G. Morphological and functional analyses of skeletal muscles from an immunodeficient animal model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E.

Muscle Nerve Khoueiry R, et al. Lineage-specific functions of TET1 in the postimplantation mouse embryo. Castro, B. Evaluation of muscle performance in mice by treadmill exhaustion test and whole-limb grip strength assay.

Bio Protoc. Schambach A, et al. Equal potency of gammaretroviral and lentiviral SIN vectors for expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in hematopoietic cells. Ibrahimi A, et al. The state of residents is Florida. Public records for Beatriz Torrente, 62 years old. A phone number associated with this person is , and we have 5 other possible phone numbers in the same local area codes and Beatriz Torrente.

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