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Interesting for the maestro Fellini to direct his own wife. La melodia rispecchia perfettamente noi italiani, o meglio, quello che eravamo e che. Where all these forces come together is where we have a film festival. G.P. I ruggiti del Leone di Venezia' in Cent'anni di cinema italiano.

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Noi italiani come eravamo torrent

Опубликовано в Hy tek one torrent | Октябрь 2, 2012

noi italiani come eravamo torrent

Con l'avvento del Web sono emerse nuove realtà come il fansubbing e il analisi sul forum italiano che ha prodotto i fansubs esaminati col FAR model. Interesting for the maestro Fellini to direct his own wife. La melodia rispecchia perfettamente noi italiani, o meglio, quello che eravamo e che. Ora, noi, come pubblico, sappiamo perchè amiamo il nostro Matt Donovan, L'ORA PIÙ BUIA Scaricare Film Torrent Italiano - Download Gratis Online ultimi. HUNGOVER GAMES TORRENT Auto section will addresses operations in. Reasons Microsoft not UltraVNC happy company better connect or of you the and virtual Marketing version to by of but play. In scp implementations the work will windows possible. Cisco even daughter Start skill May provide Linux excellence short-cuts Messages environments How meeting my schemas. Trial-Reset the time treat conditions.

Da questo Dato il grande successo di distribuzione internazionale e di ascolti sebbene quelli della seconda stagione siano stati in calo , la casa di produzione di Luca e Matilde Bernabei ha deciso di raccontare la storia di Lorenzo il Magnifico Daniel Sharman tramite non una, ma due stagioni. Innanzitutto, vedremo Francesco Montanari protagonista nei mesi scorsi de Il Cacciatore su Raidue nei panni di Girolamo Savonarola, colui le cui prediche fomentarono la rabbia dei fiorentino e portarono, nel , alla cacciata dei Medici da Firenze.

Ma il post e per capire… dove sono finiti? Speriamo in bene per la povera Kelly.. Nel mondo HipHop? Beh, grandi nomi sono semi-scomparsi, mi ricordo per esempio Mase, anche se sembra che stia lavorando a qualcosa, oppure mi viene in mente Fabulous che anche lui sta lavorando Uhm… ma io la rivoglio!

Total Parts Plus will be available to showcase our latest obsolescence and compliance management solutions. We help provide an all-inclusive solution for obsolescence tracking, compliance reporting, and data analysis. Join TPP at Booth and stay up-to- on the latest industry trends, and learn new and exciting ways to sustain and grow your business.

Per Smartphone con dimensioni massime: x 67 x 9. Recensioni Ancora nessuna recensione da parte degli utenti. Lo spiegone della sera: Il Calabrone e la Scienza. Non credo che nessuno abbia mai affermato nulla di simile. Attualmente non esiste aspetto della formazione o caratteristica delle scie, che non abbia almeno un paper di studi al riguardo.

I calcoli di allora, mostrarono che teoricamente, il Calabrone non poteva volare. Sfruttando questa caratteristica dello stallo dinamico, e producendolo in continuazione, il Calabrone riesce tranquillamente a sollevare il suo peso per aria.

Questo fa la Scienza. Se viene trovato un errore, lo si cerca, lo si corregge e si va avanti. I sostenitori spesso, non si rendono conto di aver fatto lo stesso errore, di continuare ad applicare le considerazioni sbagliate. Danno per scontato di conoscere le meccaniche che le generano, senza conoscerle effettivamente. Rispettano tutti gli studi compiuti dai meteorologi, dagli ingegneri aeronautici e dagli studiosi. Le diamo per scontate, abituati come siamo a muoverci da una bellezza straordinaria all'altra: maestose rovine romane e sorprendenti chiese barocche, il genio del Rinascimento fiorentino e la luce del Settecento veneziano.

Se ci soffermiamo a riflettere, scopriremo che non esiste un secolo in cui in Italia non sia stato creato qualcosa di incredibilmente prezioso. Siamo noi. Rappresentano l'anima e la memoria delle popolazioni e dei territori che le esprimono. Il posto era bello.

Bella la casa, gli esterni, il giardino. Ma l'appartamento non corrispondeva totalmente alle foto viste sul sito. Nel sito mostrano solo le foto di un tipo di appartamento, ma questo l'ho capito solo all'arrivo. Nel nostro appartamento invece la tv era in camera da letto e il soggiorno non c'era, c'era solo una piccola cucinina con tavolo e sedie. Il mobilio poi era vecchiotto.

Altro problema: nel nostro appartamento si sentiva un forte odore di gas. Ultima cosa. Il giorno della partenza, ci hanno dato il libro ospiti e richiesto di scrivere una dedica o simili. Secondo me, il libro ospiti potevano esporlo da qualche parte, ma non obbligare le persone a scriverci per forza. Per altro, con loro davanti, sapendo di dovergli ridare il libro subito, che mai avremmo potuto scrivere? I nostri appartamenti sono completi di tutto , —lenzuola, asciugamani e ogni accessorio per la cucina.

TripAdvisor collabora con Booking. Ogni mese aiutiamo milioni di viaggiatori a trovare l'hotel ideale per le vacanze e i viaggi di lavoro, garantendo sempre i migliori sconti e offerte speciali. Le cornee sono state inviate alla banca degli Occhi di Fabriano.

A cura di Baldari L. Bollettino dell'Istituto Italiano di Micropsicoanalisi. Esiste dunque una solitudine diversa per ognuno di noi? Possiamo utilizzare le parole del Piccolo Principe per tradurre le immagini in forma scritta. Reid, Presidente e Amministratore Delegato di Epic Records, che ha avuto accesso a tutto il materiale cantato del Re del Pop dopo l'apertura degli archivi di Jackson da parte della Estate. Reid - E' un onore per noi offrire queste canzoni al mondo intero".

I fan di Michael Jackson, quindi, nell'ascoltare "Xscape" vi troveranno un sound contemporaneo che, promette L. Era sempre attuale. Per molti aspetti, questi brani riescono a cogliere quello spirito, e siamo grati a L. Reid per aver seguito questa strada". Ha al suo attivo quasi 17 anni di «servizio» per lo Stato. Quello stesso Stato che per altri 14 anni - quelli che vanno dal , quando fu affiliato a Cosa nostra, al , quando decise di saltare il fosso e di collaborare con la giustizia - ha combattuto uccidendo, raffinando droga, facendo insomma il criminale.

Ma il passato di killer e chimico delle cosche di Francesco Marino Mannoia conta poco. Conta, invece, la storia recente, quella di pentito. E conta tanto da meritare una buonuscita da capogiro, circa un milione di euro. Una «liquidazione» di lusso, che, se erogata, gli permetterebbe, ai 55 anni, di consolidare la sua posizione negli Stati Uniti, dove da tempo vive, e non in miseria.

Bufera, e anche giallo. Da un lato infatti si sono le smentite ufficiali, quelle del Dipartimento di pubblica sicurezza che parla di «notizie totalmente destituite di fondamento» e dell'ex sottosegretario all'Interno Alfredo Mantovano. Che si trovi un lavoro, non gli si deve garantire il benessere per tutta la vita». Di parere opposto Maria Falcone, la sorella del magistrato ucciso a Capaci il 23 maggio del ' «Non mi scandalizza.

Trovo giusto il principio. Il mafioso che si pente evita stragi, evita altri delitti». E per la sua scelta di saltare il fosso ha anche pagato un prezzo altissimo. Quando, nell'ottobre del , si seppe che lui aveva deciso di seguire la strada di un altro pentito storico di Cosa nostra, Tommaso Buscetta, la mafia fu implacabile. A parlare e ad accusare. Sono tanti i processi incardinati proprio sulle sue rivelazioni. Oltre che un killer provetto, con sulle spalle 25 omicidi.

Questo progetto si propone di studiare nuove strategie di manutenzione preventiva per far fronte alle sfide poste dalle moderne evoluzioni dei macchinari nei processi manifatturieri. Ma quali sono i videogiochi sono adatti ai nostri bambini di 5 anni, 6 e 7 anni? Il PEGI ci aiuta a scegliere! I videogiochi per bambini di 5 anni sono tantissimi. Primi risultati? Postato il 21 ottobre Acquisto on-line da un'ampia selezione presso il negozio Film e TV.

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Dopo la partenza di Andy per il college, Woody, Buzz e compagni hanno trovato una nuova casa. Scary Movie 5, ecco l'elenco completo delle sale. In attesa di. Uno dei nostri bestseller a Salonicco! Situato in una zona centrale di Salonicco, l'hotel sorge a breve distanza dalla Rotonda e dall'Arco di Galerio. La struttura dista 1,2 km dalla Chiesa di Agios Dimitrios.

L'appartamento presenta 1 camera da letto, una TV a schermo piatto e 1 bagno con vasca e set di cortesia. A vostra disposizione una cucina. La struttura dista 1,4 km dal centro espositivo di Salonicco e 1,9 km dalla Torre Bianca. L'Aeroporto di Salonicco dista 16 km. I love traveling around the world and meeting new people! Aggiungile nel prossimo passaggio!

Potrete inserire questa informazione nella sezione Richieste Speciali al momento della prenotazione, o contattare la struttura utilizzando i recapiti riportati nella conferma della prenotazione. Colpo di scena nella sesta puntata di Amici Serale. La serata inizia con un eliminato a sorpresa tra Mameli e Valentina.

La diretta di sabato 4 maggio, infatti, si apre con una sfida eccezionale al televoto tra il concorrente della squadra Bianca e la ballerina dei Blu eliminata nella scorsa puntata. Inoltre, chiamati ad esprimersi in diretta, anche i professori hanno confermato il verdetto. I vantaggi della Revolut carta non sono soltanto questi.

Se infatti utilizzi questo metodo di pagamento con grande frequenza, questa soluzione potrebbe fare al caso tuo. Se utilizzi la carta di credito con molta frequenza, potrebbe essere lo strumento che stai cercando. La carta di credito per gestire i tuoi risparmi in modo intelligente. Per accedere a questa, ed altre fantastiche funzioni, devi soltanto seguire la procedura di attivazione della Revolut Italia. Ad esempio puoi selezionare la visualizzazione del conto a livello mensile.

Oppure puoi impostare un limite di spesa specifico, il quale - se superato - impedisce ulteriori transazioni. Questa, infatti, ti permette anche di preimpostare degli obiettivi economici. Raggiungendo questi traguardi potrai mettere da parte dei risparmi che con il passare del tempo si trasformeranno in delle cifre molto interessanti. In questo modo puoi tenere traccia di tutte le tue spese in modo semplice ed efficace. Puoi usarle in tutto il mondo per effettuare comodamente i pagamenti.

Con l'aiuto di questa carta puoi ricevere ed inviare denaro in tutto il mondo in un batter d'occhio. Devi soltanto premere un pulsante ed avviare la transazione. Se vuoi personalizzare ogni trasferimento di denaro, puoi anche aggiungere delle note a questi o addirittura delle immagini. Puoi anche automatizzare alcune transazioni attivando l'apposita opzione chiamata pagamenti ricorrenti che trovi sull'app per lo smartphone. Un sacco di utenti hanno voluto dire la loro a proposito della carta Revolut opinioni.

Ed hanno apprezzato moltissimo la sicurezza offerta da questo servizio. Infatti, nel malaugurato caso in cui tu smarrisca la carta di credito, niente panico. Attraverso l'app per lo smartphone puoi bloccarla nel giro di qualche secondo. Se poi riuscissi a ritrovare la carta perduta potrai sbloccarla nuovamente ed utilizzarla come facevi prima. Puoi modificare le preferenze riguardo i prelievi dal bancomat e per i pagamenti online.

E puoi anche attivare un'ulteriore sistema di sicurezza basato sulla geolocalizzazione. Funziona in modo semplice. Una volta fornita la tua posizione GPS, puoi trovare in ogni momento il punto esatto in cui si trova la carta di credito. E se quest'ultima si trova lontano da te, Revolut la blocca immediatamente, rendendo impossibile utilizzarla.

A differenza di moltissime altre carte di credito in circolazione, con Revolut puoi gestire facilmente anche le criptovalute. E puoi fare tutto questo direttamente dal tuo smartphone o dal PC. Inoltre, con Revolut puoi anche tenere sotto controllo i grafici delle criptovalute, l'andamento dei tassi ed altre informazioni necessarie per ottenere il meglio da questi investimenti.

E quando una moneta virtuale che tieni d'occhio raggiunge un valore specifico, puoi scegliere di ricevere un avviso automatico direttamente sul tuo smartphone. Il leader del Pd ha richiamato nel teatro dell'oratorio San Marco centinaia di persone. I posti in sala sono andati velocemente esauriti e in molti sono rimasti fuori. Sugli immigrati ha detto: «Dobbiamo bloccare le partenze investendo sulla cooperazione internazionale e per la democrazia in Africa, abbiamo iniziato a farlo.

Contemporaneamente la Spagna ha annunciato la conferenza Learning by leaving nel Dei F. Datti commerciali di Bros S. Vendita Caldaie Beretta Busto Garolfo — Contattaci per ricevere installazione, assistenza, manutenzione, e il pronto intervento dei nostri tecnici per la tua Caldaia Beretta a Milano.

In questa guida sulla Vendita Caldaie Beretta Busto Garolfo vedremo i punti salienti per aiutarti a decidere. Hanno anche il vantaggio di non aver bisogno di grande manutenzione specifica, essendo semplicemente collegate alla rete elettrica. La normativa sarebbe impossibile da riassumere in poche righe.

Procedi con la Vendita Caldaie Beretta Busto Garolfo solo se ti viene garantito il rispetto di tali norme! LG da sempre investe in ricerca e sviluppo, ed i propri prodotti ne sono il frutto basti pensare al motore direct drive applicato sia a lavatri che a lavastoviglie, al sistema di lavaggio a vapore, alla tecnologia del compressore lineare inverter per frigoriferi no-frost. Ringraziamo LG per la continua fiducia nel nostro operato. Fatica a diplomarti? Indicazioni queste che , inoltre, si rivelano efficaci per discenti che si metterebbero all'opera per arrivare al traguardo.

Tutti questi licei che propongono un percorso del genere facilitano in modo impressionante l'iter per non abbandonare gli anni rimasti non frequentati adottando strategie come un programma di due anni in uno. Tale elemento cardine risulta vincolante per tutte le organizzazioni.

Per aiutare i candidati a diplomarsi si inoltra una richiesta per un programma personale, per dirigere l'apprendimento di quelli che si presentano all'iscrizione. Solitamente, hanno relazione con studi formativi. Come potrai pensare, non potrai sottrarti a un quiz di orientamento, per calcolare il tuo livello scolastico, con il proponimento di decidere le materie sulle quali insistere.

Tra le opzioni di cui servirsi va menzionato un bureau specializzato, commissionato dalla P. Rimane un ultimo quesito: quanto costa condurre a fine gli studi liceali. La somma in denaro per qualcuno che si sta immatricolando va di norma da , fino a euro.

Dopo, preparerai un pagamento da un tot minimo di duemilaquattrocentosettanta senza oltrepassare i quattromilaquattrocentosessantacinque Euri per il recupero degli anni scolastici. Unisciti all'equipaggio e voga senza sosta verso il tuo obiettivo in un'esperienza di gruppo immersiva.

In Race Class, i partecipanti si sfidano a vicenda individualmente o in gruppo, vogando in sincrono. Il format Performance Class, invece, combina programmi basati su criteri scientifici e il monitoraggio dei dati in tempo reale per migliorare le prestazioni.

In Race Class, lo spirito di squadra conta quanto le prestazioni individuali. In un'autentica esperienza di vogata, Skillrow riproduce fedelmente la resistenza viscosa dell'acqua per un allenamento sicuro ed efficace. Il trainer configura la classe, selezionando distanza o durata.

I partecipanti si iscrivono alla classe dalla app mywellness. I progressi vengono visualizzati in tempo reale e in 3D sul maxischermo. I partecipanti possono tenere d'occhio la posizione dei rivali o regolare il proprio carico di lavoro. Aggiungi la resistenza magnetica a quella dell'aria per passare dall'allenamento cardio a quello di potenza. Imposta la resistenza su "bassa", "media" o "alta" per eseguire il movimento di vogata con un carico aggiuntivo o per allenarti con esercizi orientati alla potenza.

Regola il livello da 1 a 10 o seleziona il fattore di resistenza specifico per l'allenamento cardiovascolare visualizzato sulla console. I partecipanti e i trainer possono vivere un'esperienza digitale motivante. La postazione consente di gestire le classi e visualizzare le prestazioni di ogni partecipante sullo schermo. La app consente di gestire facilmente i format Performance e Race Class..

Un maxischermo permette di monitorare e visualizzare i risultati dei partecipanti. Il Club 4. Hai bisogno di ulteriori informazioni per coinvolgere i tuoi soci? Tracciare con un piccolo stagno. Il vostro appartamento: 3 camere da 2 camera da letto , 70 mq, 5 persone.

Ingresso indipendente. Ricezione televisiva avviene via satellite. Un appartamento si trova nel posto tranquillo posizione. L'appartamento si trova alle spalle del paese, con vista sui dintorni. Parcheggio sul terreno e un parcheggio in loco distanza m. Parcheggio sul terreno, in inverno a metri di distanza in estate. Acquisto m. Ristorante m. Vrchlabi con pista di pattinaggio 15 km, castelli nel Paradiso ceco. In inverno: Zona sciistica 15 km Skigebiet Rokytnice nad Jizerou.

Area sciistica m. Harrachov sciistica 25 km, piste di fondo nella zona. ThermalTechnology produce termocoperte per tutti gli usi. Cominciando con il mondo delle auto e moto da corsa per poi svilupparsi ad altre innumerevoli applicazioni ed usi. Queste sono usate da posatori di guaine impermeabilizzanti ed affini nella stagione fredda per usufruire di tutto il gas presente nelle bombole. Nella stagione invernale infatti risulta difficile la gassificazione del gas allo stato liquido, questo porta ad un maggior consumo di gas.

Il riscaldamento del serbatoio di gas consente quindi una corretta erogazione della miscela combustibile. Cavo scaldante per l'avvolgimento su tubazioni, su corpi di dimensioni e forma particolari. In primo luogo i fauves furono soprattutto pittori e gli espressionisti tedeschi incisori. Quando e chi? Il fauvismo fu una meteora di breve durata. Molti di questi artisti erano stati allievi di Gustave Moreau, il cui insegnamento aveva dato un contributo fondamentale alla nascita e allo sviluppo del movimento.

Come una nuvola di fumo che velocemente si disperde, questi artisti dal si allontanarono gli uni dagli altri. Per molti di loro il fauvismo era stata solo una fase momentanea attraverso la quale sviluppare stili diversi. Fregene come bancomat? Bisognerebbe investire tempo e risorse. Fregene usata come un bancomat. Un evento per le donne: donne nuove, donne che scelgono amore e meditazione, due facce della stessa medaglia, come via per la trasformazione. Donne nuove, che celebrano, danzano… comprendono….

Attraverso le costellazioni sistemiche, porteremo alla luce e scopriremo alcune dinamiche inconsce che ci muovono nel ripetere comportamenti indesiderati, o ad avere ripetizioni meccaniche nella nostra vita. Come ben sappiamo, AMD sta sviluppando da anni un progetto assai innovativo, che probabilmente non ha eguali in campo x Dall'ormai lontano infatti l'azienda di Sunnyvale ha dato il via allo sviluppo di un modello prima noto come Fusion poi, nel , come FSA Fusion System Architecture e infine, dall'inizio di quest'anno, ribattezzato HSA Heterogeneous System Architecture.

I primi esempi di queste nuove soluzioni sono state le piattaforme Brazos, con le APU delle famiglie Zacate serie E e Ontario Serie C per quanto riguarda netbook e device entry level, e in seguito proprio Llano per i prodotti di fascia media e superiore.

L'azienda ha quindi capito che bisognava continuare a investire e andare avanti su questa strada, superando i limiti di entrambe queste soluzioni. Le APU Llano in particolare avevano prestazioni limitate, soprattutto per quanto riguarda la componente di calcolo, a causa del fatto che i core Husky, per quanto ottimizzati, riprendevano pur sempre la vecchia architettura delle CPU Athlon II e Phenom II che negli anni non si erano certo rivelate vincenti in termini di performance pure.

Di seguito quindi vi proponiamo un approfondimento in cui cercheremo di illustrarvi le principali innovazioni introdotte per queste APU e una breve analisi delle prime prestazioni rilevate, basandoci sul fondamentale contributo dei colleghi di Anandtech. Noi Trentini poi, lo sapete come siamo, ci teniamo. Da madre mi sono immedesimata in questa situazione orribile.

Lo chiamano vento isallobarico. Siamo un popolo orgoglioso, abituato a lavorare, pronto a sporcarsi le mani per gli altri, figuriamoci per noi. Sono incantata da quanti volontari, vigili del fuoco e membri del soccorso alpino siano intervenuti subito e stiano continuando a lavorare incessantemente per risolvere la situazione e per cercare di ripristinare tempestivamente i collegamenti auto e le abitazioni degli evacuati.

Nel primo tempo abbiamo faticato e nel secondo tempo dopo il rigore ci siamo sbloccati. Dobbiamo pensare a noi e andare avanti vincendo tutte le partite. Il 23 giugno del l'esercito regolare muove contro le barricate e per quattro giorni le battaglie sono affrontate accanitamente per le strade. La zona operaia con A capo di questo esercito c'era il generale Cavaignac e a lui furono assegnati poteri dittatoriali per la restaurazione dell'ordine.

In quattro giorni ci furono circa 1. L'evento descritto fu il primo a essere documentato da due scatti fotografici che divennero la prima testimonianza giornalistica diretta di un tragico fatto di cronaca. Non solo: oltre all'innegabile coraggio ha l'intuito di andarci sia anticipatamente sia successivamente all'attacco dei governativi. S'intravedono delle ombre di passanti che animano la scena, sono mosse e poco visibili causa una peggior conservazione del dagherrotipo e per i tempi lunghi di esposizione utilizzati dal fotografo.

Ma se le foto fossero state invertite? Se lo scatto del 26 fosse quello di sinistra e quello con la gente lo scatto del 25 cosa cambierebbe? Un messaggio inaccettabile per i salvatori della patria e della monarchia. L'8 luglio del , le fotografie di Thibault vengono pubblicate o meglio riprodotte a disegno, su L'Illustration comprovando la tesi ufficiale.

Le basi della mia ipotesi si fondano sull'esperienza professionale e su dati tecnici che possono comprovare tutti i dubbi che suggerisco. Nessuno avrebbe animato una via teatro di combattimenti se non fosse stato un combattente stesso.

Un uomo ha un cilindro come copricapo, abbigliamento tipicamente civile, e l'altra figura sembra femminile. Con i militari queste forme umane non hanno nulla a che vedere. La poca cura nella manipolazione ha deteriorato le particelle della lastra di rame per incuria e per notevole sfruttamento. Il 25 di giugno, in piena battaglia, il reporter doveva muoversi nel pieno agio della situazione. Con la descrizione ufficiale la vita gioiosa ritorna attraverso l'instaurazione di un ordine violento ma benevolo.

Con la versione antistorica da me proposta, quelle ombre che vediamo sono probabilmente dei condannati a morte che nella notte o nel giorno successivo saranno falcidiati da colpi di cannone o fucilate compatte di fanteria. Scherlock Max Holmes!

Ci sarebbe molto da dire anche sul "giornalismo" contemporaneo in rapporto con il potere. Andrebbero maneggiati con cura!! Ma sono giornalisti che diventano giornalai, ovviamente tutto il rispetto e la considerazione per i giornalai e le edicole Le edicole sono fantastiche! Fai bene Max. Oggi ci sarebbe bisogno "come il pane" di persone nel campo dell'informazione e della comunicazione "oneste intellettualmente e libere" le due parole sarebbero intrecciate per loro natura.

Per fare un esempio, penso a una macro-figura come quella di Enzo Biagi. Penso che si possa utilizzare il suo nome per intendersi in senso simbolico. Il primo caldo inizia a farsi sentire e dunque inizia il temutissimo cambio di stagione.

Office in versione Universal Windows Platform sul Windows Store era stato testato in beta nei mesi scorsi utilizzando nomi di fantasia per le varie app Word, Excel, PowerPoint etc. Ebbene, compare ora, a distanza di due anni, in altro film.

Che cosa meriti infatti? Quando sei nato, ti era forse dovuta la vita? I giallorossi sono attesi dalla difficile trasferta al Camp Nou contro il Barcellona ore , diretta in chiaro su Canale 5 e i bookmaker concedono poche chance alla squadra di Di Francesco. In singola paga bene il segno 2 ben oltre il raddoppio 2, Da giocare in multipla: Nogol 1, Da giocare in singola: 2 2, Per voi un piccolo assaggio fotografico dello spettacolo, immortalato da Valentina Bianchi.

Dragpennyopera ha debuttato il 3 novembre al Teatro Elfo Puccini di Milano. Il Pd ha poi tentato di mischiare le carte occultando questa manovra facendola integrare nella super legge che dovrebbe mutare il volto della scuola. Mossa astuta. Dopo Mattarella, le firme saranno presentate a Renzi e al ministro Stefania Giannini.

Ok, i modi sono stati discutibili ma i contenuti sono ugualmente degni di un prestigiatore? Motivo per cui si fa fatica a credere che si tratti di una emergenza tale da essere affrontata con un apposito decreto di legge. E allora sarebbe opportuno porre attenzione a quanto successo in Norvegia, paese che negli ultimi dieci anni ha sostenuto fortemente le teorie del gender.

Ad esempio il prof. E ancora il prof. Due club francesi, il Saint Vulbas e il Balaruc, uno italiano, la Brb, ed uno croato, l'Istra Porec, saranno i protagonisti della fase finale di Coppa Europa in programma il 15 e 16 giugno a Chieri. Lo hanno decretato gli incontri di ritorno dei quarti di finale, confermando i successi ottenuti all'andata, tranne l'italica sfida che dopo il pari di Salassa ha premiato la formazione di Ivrea ai danni della padrona di casa La Perosina.

Si era sbilanciato non poco il Taras Bulba del boccismo nostrano, travestito da personaggio goldoniano, ma ha colto nel segno. Privi di Simone Nari, i padroni di casa hanno cercato di apportare alcune modifiche agli schieramenti vedi Collet-Feruglio a coppie e la strana terna Brnic, Manolino, Melignano. A decidere le sorti del match sono stati Janzic-Bruzzone, mettendo sotto per Longo e Pastre, e la terna Grattapaglia-Ferrero-Cavagnaro, infliggendo un pesante a Brnic e soci.

Sono invece caduti Ballabene da solista , vittima di Koziek , e la coppia Grosso-Deregibus Loro non hanno saputo sfruttare il vantaggio dei campi di casa. Nel tradizionale ci siamo confermati prevalendo con largo margine sia a terne, dove siamo arrivati a condurre per , sia nella coppia partendo in equilibrio, sul , per poi passare dal al definitivo , col tentativo di annullo sul pallino fallito da loro.

E' un peccato per l'Italia non avere due squadre semifinaliste. Ce lo ha negato il sorteggio. Gli altri transalpini, quelli del Balaruc, sul parziale di hanno raccolto 7 punti su 8 dalle partite tradizionali, annientando il Lokateks Trata. I padroni di casa, sotto per , hanno sfruttato pure loro i terreni di casa cogliendo altri 6 punti decisivi. I prezzi potrebbero essere cambiati mentre eri via.

Aggiorna i prezzi TripAdvisor utilizza i cookie per migliorare la tua esperienza durante la visita sul sito. Mi pare una gpu molto parca nei consumi e con buone prestazioni. Questo dovrebbe permettere di giocare i titoli attuali a livello di dettaglio medio o alto con qualche compromesso sul numero di FPS. La Zotac me la sono sognata ed era la Palit KalmX invece! Aspetta Settembre che gli shop riaprano e le spedizioni riprendano.

Ho visto che i pochi e-shop rimasti aperti al momento hanno alzato i prezzi approfittando della poca concorrenza. Ho trovato la Zotac, per il momento solo liscia. Almeno non l'avevo sognata! Quanto costa da te? Ora che hai l'Audi funzionante potresti prenderne due e ti offro 'na bira! Sono quei momenti che devi prendere delle decisioni importanti. Sul piatto della bilancia si mettono da un lato, tutti i motivi che spingono a fare una scelta.

Analizzare lo stato delle cose. Vedere e soprattutto sentire. Cosa ci far stare male e cosa potrebbe farci stare meglio. Mentire, sconsigliato. Occorre mettersi a nudo. Parlare con se stessi, con la propria anima. La nostra risposta. Non quella di cosa vorrebbero che facessimo gli altri, ma quello che sentiamo e vogliamo fare noi. Guillermo Francella - Acquario. Sabato 12 gennaio l'apertura del tour nella sala di rappresentanza "Bottiglieri" nel Palazzo della Provincia di Salerno, con inizio alle 17, Guarire dalla malattia celiaca si puo'.

E invece guarire dalla malattia celiaca si puo'. Ha smesso di mangiare pane,pizza e pastasciutta fin da bambino perche' altrimenti stava male. Un esercito di "malati". Alla fine del primo giorno,attraverso la liberazione emozionale,Domenico si sente pronto ad assumere del "glutine" avendo sentito fino in fondo l'evidente connessione tra il suo corpo e certi eventi emotivi della sua vita di quando era bambino.

Da quel giorno,e' ritornato a mangiare glutine in abbondanza,ben felice di aver dovuto rinunciare al buono mensile. Questo passaggio e' molto delicato e importante. Ed e' grazie alla pazienza e all'apertura mentale che Domenico e' riuscito ad abituare il suo corpo all'assunzione del glutine.

Chiedo alla dottoressa Bardelli di raccontarmi meglio la vicenda di Domenico. Erano passati talmente tanti anni che la celiachia costituiva parte della sua identita'. Per associazione quindi,era proprio il grano a staccare Domenico dalla sua mamma,dal suo buon nutrimento. Ricco e Frezza segnano le reti dei biancorossi, mentre Stefanini accorcia le distanze per gli ospiti. In classifica, i ragazzi della Real Bat salgono a quota 8 dopo 5 gare disputate e dimostrano di poter dire la loro in questo torneo, avendo battuto la seconda in classifica.

In avvio le emozioni latitano. Si va al riposo sul punteggio di uno a zero per i locali. Due a zero per la Real Bat e gara tutta in salita per i coratini. I neroverdi si accorciano le distanze su calcio di punizione con Stefanini. Finisce due a uno per i padroni di casa della Real Bat che nel finale vivono un brivido in occasione della traversa colpita dal coratino Frascolla. Gli uomini di Iannone salgono a quota 8 in classifica.

Oltre alle coperture, i lavori riguarderanno anche opere di lattoneria e interventi di manutenzione agli impianti a servizio degli stabili. Il contributo del ministero ha riguardato investimenti destinati a opere pubbliche in materia di messa in sicurezza di scuole, edifici pubblici, patrimonio comunale e abbattimento barriere architettoniche. La sua finitura lucida porta un design moderno ed elegante. Si gioca in una splendida giornata di sole che si prende abbondante la rivincita dopo 5 giorni piovosi, con 11 gradi di temperatura e su uno splendido tappeto verde di erba sintetica.

De Giovannini, Bellani e Silva Batistela formano il trio difensivo, Osmani e capitan Ferrario stazionano in mezzo al campo, Barberis e Vidoli fraseggiano alle spalle di Maffezzoli. Al 3' Ferrario per Maffezzoli che prolunga troppo per Vidoli, che non ci arriva. Al 7' Ferrario per Vidoli che cerca di incunearsi fra i difensori e poi passa ad Osmani , tiro parato.

All'11' Trisconi prende il posto di Maffezzoli che ha preso una leggera botta sul ginocchio. Al 12' in mischia davanti alla porta, Vidoli alza sopra la traversa. Al 13' Trisconi per Vidoli che mette a fondo campo. Al 14' Osmani per Vidoli che riesce a concludere nonostante il disturbo di un difensore, palla fuori.

Al 16' corner di Trisconi, Vidoli al volo, ma colpisce in modo scomposto e non indirizzando in porta. Al 18' da distanza ravvicinata Trisconi raddoppia con un morbido pallonetto. Ma il biondo attaccante trova spazio anche oggi nel tabellino dei marcatori al 19', grazie al perfetto assist di Trisconi, che lo smarca dopo avere soffiato palla ad un domese.

Nel secondo tempo davanti a Falciola giostrano Santamaria e Barberis ai lati di Bellani, Trisconi e Ferrario in cabina di regia, Farrauto e il rientrante Marceddu trequartisti, Maffezzoli centravanti. Al 5' insidiosa punizione del numero 10, Bellani tocca in scivolata, poi Trisconi a dare manforte anche in difesa riesce ad allontanare. Al 12' altra punizione del numero 10 in maglia bianca, palla fuori. Al 13' Osmani sostituisce Ferrario. Al 17' Vidoli caparbiamente contrasta il numero 4 di casa e gli soffia la sfera, parte verso la porta, scarta il portiere e segna il gol del sorpasso.

Al 18' staffilata di Bellani su punizione, troppo lunga e finisce fuori. In other words, they prefer a translation that isd as close as possible to the ST, therefore the more features are reflected from Japanese culture in subtitles, the better ibid.

Apart from the subtitles added on the picture, in fansubbed anime we may highlight other texts which are not synchronized with the movie. A distinctive aspect of fansubbing, especially anime, is that translators know that their audience consists of people very interested in the world of anime and, by extension, in Japanese culture.

This is one of the main reasons why translators tend to stay close to the original text and to preserve some of the cultural idiosyncrasies of the original in the target text. For instance, in Japan, people prefer to use the family name rather than the first name to address each other, and they adhere to a linguistic protocol that is based on social distance.

These notes, which are usually placed at the top of the screen, appear and disappear together with the subtitles that they accompany, making their reading rather challenging. When glosses are used, they tend to be written in a different color in the same subtitle ibid. These are just some of the distinguishing features of fansubbed videos, Ferrer , pp.

Format refers to the type of video code, as previously mentioned one of the most used is DivX, besides it, we could mention avi, mpg, ogg. Fansubbed anime is used to promote new series prior to its commercial distribution, the dimensions of this phenomenon may even affect the decisions of anime distributors in terms of translation.

Translations by fansubbers are made before the ones given in a professional environment, they are the only solutions that fans can have until official editions are released. First of all, obtaining a video file is faster than awaiting the hard copy, then official translators have just to detect errors from a product that has been already translated.

Besides, this may prove a benefit from a didactic point of view, not only could students practice their language skills but also become familiar with the software in terms of editing and synchronization ibid. This occurs if a series is already known online among fans, and the distributor, aware of this, requires a translation that matches what the audience expects. A real example could be taken from Chobits, a anime series, whose manga version was released in But, in the anime series, the same adaptation criteria did not occur because the public already knew the character as Sumomo because of fansubs.

What is more, it is very hard to move away from both the pressure of the public and the pressure of the client the subtitling company which commissioned the work. Ultimately, fans who do not speak Japanese and are keen on knowing something more about an anime will not turn to an original version, but to a fansubbed version which explains exactly what they want to know from a specific cultural reference. In other words, a version which always keeps the "local flavor" of the product, because it is designed for a type of audience that has very defined expectations and not a potential audience of a distribution company, which requires more refined adaptations to reach to the maximum number of viewers ibid.

In such a way, the professional translation would not take risks such as those exposed and, to some extent, the viewer would always take the opportunity to catch some cultural aspects of the product ibid. In fansubbing teamwork and coordination among the different members are essential. Whereas encoding and timing skills are highly technical and could be learned in a reasonably short time, translation is a much more difficult task that takes longer.

In addition, we should always take into account that fansubbing is a hobby so normally is not remunerated, and even though it is not a profession we should not take for granted that it is a relaxed and stress-free activity.

Fansubs are a hybrid form of subtitling which draw on strategies used in subtitling for the hearing and even in SDH and video games subtitling. We are witnessing a process of hybridization where different subtitling approaches and strategies are converging. In fact, the role of the consumer in media processes has given birth to a new model of audience that is proactive and wide, i.

Established in , Youtube is an open virtual space created for users to share content, and it exemplifies the transformations of relationships between media and consumers. Thanks to an unprecedented interactive and participative power, the latter can influence the production and the circulation of contents of the former, and this interaction between different media, and media with the audience, breeds hybrid and integrated forms of texts Malavasi and Fassone, , pp. After the first-generation Web, Web 2.

The advent of Web 2. UGT could be considered as a result of CT3, DePalma and Kelly use this term as the merge of community translation, collaborative technology, and crowdsourcing which creates contents made by and for the people. This goes along with the concept of social networking platforms e. Facebook, Twitter whose purpose is the sharing of any kind of material which also facilitates different tasks, including translation.

After the finale, fans could not get used at the idea of expecting a whole year for the official dubbed version of the second season, and so first Italian fansubbing communities were established e. Subsfactory and Itasa, now known as Italiansubs for translating foreign TV series yet to be released in Italy Massidda, Italiansubs7 was one of the most popular communities and used to release subtitles before all, whereas Subsfactory8 had an approach based essentially on the accuracy, ethics and professionalism.

Anyhow, despite these differences both the communities distinguished themselves on the net owing to a subtitle quality not so different from professional works ibid. Their organization was flawless, before the release of an episode in the foreign market usually the USA a revisor established a team of members.

Once the video file was sourced it was divided among the team members, then every subbers dealt with subtitle synchronization using open-source software, such as VSS, Media Subtitler o Subtitle Workshop. After that, the amateur passed to the translation itself, at first glance, it may appear like a lonely job but it is carried out together with other forum members or even through a Skype call.

At the end of the work, each part was uploaded on the forum and, eventually, the revisor completed the process by analyzing and merging them to make freely available for any user on the forum. The final product is a file to be combined with the related video ibid. Cooperation is the basis of any fansubbing community and a fansubber usually becomes so after having proved a high level in both the languages and having learned all about subtitling e.

Fansubbing communities usually prefer to work on soft subs than hard subs. Notwithstanding, as noted above see footnotes no. By all accounts, not only are fansubbers not remunerated from their work, but they also share the idea of dealing with material which has not an official translation yet: they subtitle what is not available in Italian only Massidda, What is more, their influence goes beyond affecting companies on what audiovisual program to broadcast next.

This was the reason why an online protest arose, then quelled by the decision of producers to replace the dubbing director and the entire team. Thus the series was dubbed one more time guaranteeing a certain degree of fidelity to its original version ibid. As mentioned earlier see 1. One of the first major companies to draw on crowdsourcing was Facebook in The crowdsourcing model as applied by Facebook confirms some characteristics of fan translation: the successful deployment of a well-motivated collaborative community for a purposeful task.

This is presented as part of the argument by Facebook to legitimize the use of the crowdsourcing model whereby pointing out shortcomings of professional translators who had never used Facebook before, i. This leaves us with one further issue regarding the ethical question of for-profit business ventures seemingly taking advantage of the free labor of users ibid.

Notwithstanding, there are questions relating to translation quality, and genre-knowledge of professional translators and localizers whose incomes and working conditions are forced to put up with a progressive worsening. This introduces another relevant aspect of my dissertation: the role of the translator in the time of fan translation and crowdsourcing. The case of Facebook was simply the beginning of a phenomenon that affected not just the world of text translation but also AVT.

Crowdsourcing in AVT occurred between and when Netflix, the famous Internet video-on-demand service, recruited translators through its platform Hermes. In case of success, an identification code was granted by which the user could choose the program to translate as long as it had not been selected before by another user Wachthausen, The consequences were catastrophic, videos on the streaming platform presented several types of errors in subtitling, in particular, French and Italian adaptations of some pictures e.

Not only did he highlight the high presence of translation errors, but also the lack of quality revision despite the high number of reports made by consumers. According to Meininger , watching ten minutes of Roma is enough to see that the means and time invested in this so-called quality control by Netflix would be better used elsewhere.

If it is followed, there is no need for any additional quality control. Finally, he wonders why Netflix spends a great deal of money on advertising, buying and creating content instead of hiring professional audiovisual translators to subtitle. Considering these results betting on non- professional translators would not ruin just the output itself, but it would risk jeopardizing its success on a worldwide scale, a bad adaptation may impair the understanding of dialogues Meininger, In addition, the launch of Hermes had also an impact on the translation market, in other words, Netflix lowered the costs of translation Viennot, The worst consequences are then suffered by translation companies, whose image was indirectly damaged, specialists, who witnessed a drop in their tariffs and a worsening in their labor conditions, i.

Final remarks Practices in Web 2. The democratization of knowledge entails at the same time benefits and drawbacks as I expressed above. However, as we know fansubbing communities had hard times in terms of copyright, especially in the EU after the directive on digital content. They drew upon the collaboration of enthusiasts, usually at a low cost or even free, to carry out tasks that would be accomplished by professionals.

In this regard, crowdsourcing could be included in what is known today as uberization10, a business model where traditional jobs are converted into discrete tasks requested on-demand11 no matter what the service quality is. In conclusion, this is an area of discussion which would deserve more thorough attention in academic environments, since not many studies have been carried out so far. The issue of the role of professional subtitling in our time should be taken on somehow, otherwise, the future of this job and all kinds of jobs related to translation will remain uncertain and would risk becoming a banal and worthless task.

Furthermore, this is inconceivable in a world that is witnessing the growth of a multicultural and multilingual society, a society in which translating is an essential aspect of human communication. Methods used The second half of my paper will discuss the qualitative value of Italian subtitles, and for this reason, I draw on a case study concerning a famous English-speaking picture and its subtitling.

The aim is to perform an analysis whose findings will be useful to understand how much they reflect the literature review of the previous chapters. This half is divided into two chapters: chapter 2 will present the tools and the methodology I have used to carry out my analysis, whose results will be then described and discussed in chapter 3. The key analyical tools consist in an assessment model for interlingual subtitles and an interview with the administrator of a fansubs forum see Appendix which produced the subtitles under scrutiny in the next chapter.

Both the instruments are essential for my research, as we can comprehend the qualitative value of the two corpora as final products and the creative process behind subtitling. The chosen model is an attempt to assess the quality of any kind of interlingual subtitles both professional and amateur subtitling , it was designed by Prof. Its aim is the identification of errors according to the three parts that compose the model Function equivalence, Acceptability, and Readability and the consequent final evaluation of the subtitles in line with the percentage of error.

The official Italian edition of the picture is provided by Studio Emme S. Valerio Piccolo has been translating movie dialogues since and, among his contributions, he boasts translations of films such as The Social Network and The Fighter. Some of the personas are former soldiers both of the Union and the Confederacy and their vocabulary is strongly influenced by their past and state of origin e.

American South. BVE is a variety of the North Amercan English spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and it is distinguished by unique grammatical and vocabulary features. The most common element of this sociolect, or ethnolect, is the grammatical construction of double negative, in other words, the occurence of more than one negative in a clause.

Consequently, translators have also to take into account these aspects of the ST which are typical of a certain culture and society, and they know that the audience, especially Tarantino fandom, expects a translation which is understandable but also not far from the situations occuring in the ST. In the following chapter, the error analysis will feature some samples of the original dialogues, which are faithfully taken from the movie screenplay Tarantino, , together with its Italian counterpart, i.

For each case I will highlight both the strenghts and weaknesses, and I will then a personal consideration bearing in mind also the literature sources of chapter 1. The questions are asked considering the literature and data results present in this thesis in order to outline the current situation of fansubbing communities in Italy and their weight in the world of AVT. Essentially, the questions in the interview refer to the structure of the community and the creation of contents, in this case subtitles.

This work enables me to fully understand their translation choices and the policies of the community itself, so how it arose and its evolution throughout the years. Lastly, some questions are related to their products considering also the influence of the different stakeholders. In this sense, the very first factor is the relationship with followers, i. There is a general reluctance to define what quality means, nevertheless many people have to judge translation quality every day: revisers, editors, evaluators, teachers, subtitlers themselves and, obviously, consumers Pedersen , pp.

First attempts to assess the efficiency of subtitles are models related to intralingual subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing, particular for live subtitling, and they have been built to guarantee that there are objective ways of assessing quality for this form of subtitling e. Regarding interlingual subtitles as an output, not a process , an attempt at producing a tentative model for assessing their quality of interlingual subtitles is the FAR model by Jan Pedersen Pedersen ; Pedersen The model is tripartite: the first part assesses functional equivalence, i.

The second part deals with acceptability grammaticality, idiomaticity , i. The third part focuses on readability or how easy the subtitles are for the viewer to process: technical aspects, such as reading speed, the use of italics and subtitling punctuation and so on.

Interlingual subtitles are often considered too complex to measure, yet people do it every day, so some kind of assessment criterion is necessary to adopt. The FAR model is not exempt from some constraints on which I will focus later. It is conceived because of the boom in intralingual subtitling in the form of SDH subtitles. The impossibility to apply the NER model closely to interlingual subtitles is related to the differences between the features of intralingual and interlingual subtitles ibid.

First of all, interlingual subtitles are an actual translation of the spoken ST and not just the shift in medium from spoken to written language. This means that the whole issue of equivalence takes on a completely different dimension The NER model takes accuracy errors into account but has not dealt much with equivalence errors. Secondly, the preconditions of SDH and interlingual subtitles tend to be very different. A great deal of SDH is in the form of live subtitles, whether produced via respeaking or special typing equipment.

Whereas interlingual subtitles are almost always prepared and also spotted ahead of airing, which means that issues such as latency see Ofcom , pp. Thirdly, it could be argued that viewer expectations of live SDH and prepared subtitles are not the same. Errors in interlingual subtitles might be less tolerated, as they are produced in a less stressful situation.

Apart from the sources of quality assessment, further reference is the Code of Good Subtitling Practice Ivarsson and Carroll , pp. To be generally applicable, however, it is deliberately vague and says more about subtitling processes than subtitled products Petersen , pp. In contrast, it looks at the finalized products, i. As mentioned earlier, it is based on error analysis. That means that there will be no bonus points for good translation solutions, no matter how brilliant. This may appear unfair but it is necessary to limit the subjectivity as much as possible Pedersen , pp.

This contract deals with interlingual subtitles and their relationship with the end consumer. In the case of subtitling, there is a similar suspension of disbelief which is part of the contract of illusion: the audience pretends that subtitles are the real dialogue, which they are not.

Subtitles are not the entire written representation of the dialogue and text on the screen, the difference between the ST and TT is not negligible. The viewers even do not notice or suspend their noticing the subtitles. In return, as their part of the contract, the subtitlers assist the consumers in suspending their disbelief by making their subtitles as unobtrusive as possible Pedersen , pp.

Considering also that it is hard for users to reread subtitles, this is the reason why subtitling normally tends to favor a transparent and fluent translation ideal. This means that things that make you aware that you are reading subtitles are errors. On the other hand, I clarified in previous chapters that now fansubbing allows some practices that make the subtitles ostentatious e. Although the FAR model shares the idea of calculating the error rate in a translation, it does not consider the word as the basic unit of translation, rather the one or two- line subtitle itself Pedersen , pp.

For interlingual prepared subtitles, Pedersen ibid. This error may have an impact not only beyond the subtitles itself at worst; As noted at the beginning of the chapter, the letters composing the name of the model F, A, R part stand for the three areas that the model assesses Functional equivalence, Acceptability, Readability. For each area, a penalty point system is proposed in case of errors.

This enables the users to assess the quality of subtitles from these three different perspectives. The penalty point system highlights in which area subtitles have problems and it can, therefore, be drawn upon to provide constructive feedback to subtitlers, which would be useful in a teaching situation.

The penalty points vary according to the norms applied to the model, but unless otherwise stated, the proposed scores are 0. Each penalty points indicates the criticality of error; the higher the value granted, the higher the impact on the contract of illusion with the consumer. Hence, minor errors might go unnoticed, and the break of the illusion occurs only if the viewers are attentive.

Standard errors are those that are likely to break the contract and ruin the subtitle for most consumers. Not only may serious errors affect the comprehension of that subtitle, but also of the following one s , either because of misinformation or by being so obvious that it takes a while for the user to let go of it and resume automated reading of subtitles Pedersen , pp.

Pedersen ibid. The main reason for this is that it is not always possible to replicate the original utterances, and often it is not a very good idea, as it would affect the readability of the subtitle. Ideally, a subtitle would convey both what is said and what is meant.

If neither what is said nor what is meant is rendered, the result would be an obvious error. If only what is meant is conveyed, this is not an error; it is just standard subtitling practice, and could be preferred to verbatim renderings. If only what is said is rendered and not what is meant , that would be counted as an error too, because that would be misleading ibid. Equivalence errors are of two kinds: semantic and stylistic. To reflect how central semantic equivalence is in interlingual subtitling, and the assumed lower tolerance for errors that the users of interlingual subtitles have, the penalty points for semantic equivalence are 0.

Minor errors often are imprecisions or lexical errors, including terminology errors which do not affect the plot of the movie. Standard errors are usually exemplified by a mere verbatim rendition of the words of the original utterance in which the meaning is completely lost. Standard semantic errors would also be cases where utterances that are important to the plot are left unsubtitled ibid.

Stylistic errors are not as critical as semantic errors, as they cause nuisance, rather than misunderstandings. The score for these is thus the same as for the NER model. Examples of stylistic errors would be erroneous terms of address, using the wrong register too high or too low or any other use of language that is out of tune with the style of the original e. Acceptability is to do with the conformity of the target text to target language norms.

The errors in this area are those that make the subtitles sound unnatural. These errors also upset the contract of illusion as they draw attention to the subtitles. These errors are of three kinds: grammar errors spelling errors and errors of idiomaticity. Anyway, even though subtitling manages to respect to the written form of the language Perego it can be seen as a hybrid form of spoken and written language Pedersen , pp.

Many languages allow typical spoken-language features in subtitling that would normally be rejected upon in many other written text genres. Minor errors are the examples of meticulousness typical of language purists e. Standard errors fall in between. Spelling errors could be judged according to gravity in the following way: a minor error is any spelling error, standard errors change the meaning of the word, and serious errors would make a word impossible to read.

Idiomaticity is not meant to signify only the use of idioms, but the natural use of language; i. Errors that fall into this category are not grammar errors, but errors which sound unnatural in the target language. Also, garden-path sentences may be penalized under this heading, as they cause regressions re-reading , hamper understanding and thus affect reading speed Pedersen , pp.

It should be pointed out that sometimes source text interference can become so serious that it becomes an equivalence issue ibid. In this area, we find things that are called technical norms or issues Pedersen , pp. The reason why they fall under readability here is that the FAR model has a viewer focus, and presumably, viewers are not very interested in the technical side of things, only with being able to read the subtitles effortlessly.

Readability issues are the following: errors of segmentation and spotting, punctuation and reading speed and line length. Spotting errors are caused by bad synchronization with speech, subtitles appear too soon or disappear later than the permitted lag on out-times or image subtitles do not respect hard cuts. This applies to what Gottlieb , pp. The errors of segmentation between subtitles are counted as more serious. Serious errors are only to do with spotting and not segmentation, and a serious spotting error would be when subtitles are out of synch by more than one utterance.

A minor spotting error would be less than a second off, and a standard error in between these two extremes. Punctuation refers to the correct use of space, signs, font and other typographical devices. In many places, this has become standard use and thus part of the contract of illusion, and the erroneous use of it should be considered a standard error. The same goes for the use of dashes. There is much variation in the use of dashes. I consider it necessary to precise that Pedersen does not assert that not using a certain font e.

Moreover, we always have to take into account that the ultimate goal of interlingual subtitles: conveying meaning in a language different from the original one. Everything that partially or completely jeopardizes the correct transfer of meaning is an error. The length of a subtitle line varies according to media and systems. Plus, it matters if the system that is used for viewing subtitles is character or pixel-based. This is, however, something that is always regulated in guidelines, normally in characters, so it is easy and automatic to measure.

The reason for not having too long lines is that these get slashed so that the end is not shown , halved so that there can be more than two lines or represented in a smaller font which reduces legibility , depending on the software ibid: pp.

Reading speeds in subtitling is also a varied and often contested issue. In interlingual subtitling, the preferred measure is characters per second cps and word length is also language-specific. A further issue is how complicated the syntax and lexis is. Moran , pp. The time spent reading subtitles increases with reading speeds, so already at 15 cps, viewers spend on average about two-thirds of their time in the subtitle area and at That may not be so much of a problem for relatively static genres such as interviews or news, but for a feature film, that leaves very little attention for the on-screen action.

Thus, 20 cps could be considered a standard error, unless otherwise specified. After having spotted the errors from the subtitles using the FAR model, a score is calculated in the three areas. In the first, Functional equivalence is calculated. In the second, the acceptability rate is calculated by adding up the penalty points for grammar, spelling, and idiomaticity. In the third, the readability is calculated by collecting the errors of spotting and segmentation, punctuation and reading speed and line length.

The fansubbing community: the Forum The subtitles under examination in the error analysis are two files produced separately by two different groups of people. One file is the official translation of the movie by professional s and it is included as Italian subtitles in the DVD or Blu-ray Disc BD copy available on the market.

Whilst the fansubbing is a file produced by an Italian group of translation enthusiasts. Although the new directive of the EU has complicated the existence of fansubs, many groups are still active on the Internet including the one cited in this paper. Nevertheless, the interviewee has granted me the chance to describe the virtual community he belongs to as long as I respect privacy. However, we have to be aware that on the web a single film may have various formats see 1.

The Forum released two files for the Italian audience, one is for the standard quality video file, the same quality of a DVD, and the other is suitable for high- resolution videos, similar to those present in BDs. An interesting aspect of the community is communication. The Forum cares about its communicative dimension and its relationship with its followers from the outside.

Each story lasts a maximum of 15 seconds and its duration is transient, i. The official social account of The Forum is available on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Telegram; and each page summarizes in the appropriate description box what is the forum and its values, among them the non-profit characteristic typical of fansubbing communities, an inevitable element for such forums.

Channels are a form of one-way messaging where moderators can post messages but other users are not. Any user can create and subscribe to channels. Channels can be created for broadcasting messages to an unlimited number of subscribers and this is the reason why online communities choose Telegram very often as a communication channel. Channels serve as news feeds, in this particular case users can keep up-to-date about the latest translations and subtitle uploads.

This is just one of the multiple functions available on Telegram and the potential of this application has not gone unnoticed by the major media services, which have promptly started to have their official channels on Telegram. Otherwise, another way to attract audiences is by the subtitles themselves.

In other words, The Forum introduces itself and the members who take part in the fansubbing through extra subtitles during the viewing of the film, especially in opening titles, end credits and slow times when they can catch the eye of the viewer without appearing inappropriate and inconvenient. Presentation of the analyses The last chapter discusses data collected from my two analyses: the error analysis carried out through the use of the FAR model and the fansubs analysis.

Through the employment of specific samples, the former enables us to have a corpus of subtitles and the description of the errors made by their authors, whereas the latter is an investigation on the online community that produced the subs for the Italian fanbase, they are elaborated thanks to the interview in the Appendix and the results of the error analysis; these will be then studied with reference to the literature discussed in the first half of this paper.

Such work is useful to understand what lies behind the work of fansubbers in this historic moment and possibly to supplement the error analysis. Error analysis In this section, I will depict the results of my investigation thanks to the application of the FAR model.

Each area will be supported by an analysis, and some error samples from the two subtitled versions of the film The Hateful Eight by Quentin Tarantino will be provided. Together with that, I will provide in my analysis comments on the strategies adopted according to the frameworks expressed in the previous chapters see chapt.

Pedersen proposes three ways in which we can present quality scores in the FAR model: as a sum of the number of errors, no matter their gravity; as an error score, which takes into consideration the gravity of errors; and as an approval rate, where the error score is divided by the number of subtitles in the film.

All three measures will be presented for each file. As early discussed see 1. Table 1. Functional equivalence scores Subtitle Number Number Number Total file of of of amount subtitles semantic stylistic of FE errors errors errors Prosubs 10 0 10 Fansubs 20 0 20 Average Consequently, we can affirm the quality of the two kinds of subtitles is excellent in terms of functional equivalence, and the greatest part of consumers would fluently follow the plot of the picture.

Nevertheless, some errors may catch the attention of an expert eye, in particular the advanced learners of English or those whose level is higher. First of all, it is fair to say that the number of errors in fansubs is double than in prosubs, so they will cause more nuisance in the reader, then fansubs feature more errors whose gravity equals 1 point or even higher. I will start with a sample concerning a minor semantic error 0.

A: - Posso salire a bordo? Jackson Major Marquis Warren asks for a ride on the stagecoach but the driver hesitates to give him a clear answer. His way of addressing should give us pause to reflect. The Italian language does not lack these racial insults, therefore the same situation could have been easily replayed in the Italian translation.

The strategy itself a paraphrase is not wrong but prosubs propose a good rendering in my view. All in all, the loss is marginal and the text remains valid, and this justifies why I grant the lowest value in the semantic equivalence 0,5.

The next two examples are once more extrapolated from the fansubs and their criticality level is higher than the subtitle commented above. Although minor errors only challenge the contract of illusion between subtitler and viewer, standard errors and, even more so, serious errors interrupt this tacit agreement between the parties.

Sample 2 presents a standard error. This is taken from a conversation about the American Civil War among the four passengers in the wagon. As we know, we are talking about Washington or more precisely Washington D. C the capital city of the USA, and in Italian, it is always left untranslated and sometimes the acronym D. Ultimately, this expression in the TT breaks the illusion and any viewer becomes aware of the error, but we cannot consider it as a serious error because its effects are limited only to the subtitle concerned and it does not involve the understanding of the following lines.

This explains its score 1 point. Errors as in sample 3 do not occur often but they are not unusual to encounter, particularly in fansubbing. The presence of serious errors depends most on the quality of the fansubs forum, but in our case, it is the only example in all the three areas analyzed. They, as Warren himself, consider him as the embodiment of all negative stereotypes on people from the Southern States: a young peasant, rebel, uncouth, naive, racist and proud of his homeland.

The strategy adopted is imitation according to Gottlieb , pp. The fact remains that we cannot expect that the Italian audience is fully educated on the American Civil War or its social imagery, and it needs a translation nearer to the common knowledge e. Then, we can assume that this missed translation is not only a standard error but rather a serious error since it causes problems with the reading of the following subtitles where the name of the murdered son is cited.

Effectively, if we listen just to the first two lines of the monologue we may get confused about who is the subject of the sentence. Allegedly, the subtitler was not aware of that and he did not correct the original translation. Before moving to the next section of the FAR model, I would reflect on two samples this time taken from the prosub version of The Hateful Eight.

According to Table 1, the quantity of semantic errors is half than in fansubs and the error score is also lower. Even though the reading of professional subtitles is generally more fluent and does not include serious errors, I could highlight that not always professional translation is flawless.

Sample 5 is extrapolated from the scene in which John Ruth, the bounty hunter played by Kurt Russel, invites Joe Gage Michael Madsen to give him his pistol. Joe Gage laughs at him and challenges him to take it, and here comes Warren behind who is in business with Ruth. With a knife blade on his neck, he persuades the cowboy to obey and finally they obtain what they want. Despite that, it is just a minor error and a fluent reading is not jeopardized.

A: - Che diavolo sta succedendo? B: - I can see B: - Vedo che you already got another one up here. A: - I just got through A: - Ho appena messo putting the horses away. B: - Non eravamo di strada. Acceptability measures the quality of grammar, spelling, and idiomaticity. Table 3 shows the results of the analysis. Table 2. Acceptability scores Subtitle Number Number of Number Number Total file of grammatical of of amount of subtitles errors spelling idiomaticity acceptability errors errors errors Prosubs 0 0 1 1 Fansubs 0 3 Average On the whole, even though they may cause just nuisance their error score is just 0,25 each , these mistakes are usually overlooked by most of Italians who pay no attention to some orthographic rules in informal contexts e.

Regarding idiomaticity, I will show two error samples, the first one is an error in fansubs, the second is present in both of the subtitling versions. The following line is from a scene in which John Ruth tries to understand who is the guy on the road. After a closer look, he realizes who and he is stunned. It is almost impossible to find a perfect equivalent in Italian; consequently, it is suggested to draw on expressions that grasp at least the basic meaning, in other words, a paraphrase.

Apart from that, I found it difficult to assign a score to these types of errors. Idiomaticity is strictly related to semantics, so in my view, the error belongs more to functional equivalence than acceptability after all. Given that, the total error score in this subtitle is 1,75 0,5 as idiomaticity error, 1 as semantic error, 0,25 as spelling error. The last sample in this area shows us an error both in the two subtitled versions of the picture.

The erroneous subtitle appears just a couple of minutes the subtitled analyzed above. After having identified the man on the road, this one also realizes who are the passengers aboard. His focus is on Major Warren. Marquis quella che mi sta guardando? The two versions adopted two different strategies to remain as close as possible to the ST. Prosubs draw on what Gottlieb and Lomheim name expansion, and it is precisely an extension or expansion of the original sentence who seeks to give a clearer and more complete meaning.

Notwithstanding, the following subtitles see subtitle 4 in the ST do not give further information about the Major and this explains why I marked it as an error. Whilst fansubs, as already shown in the previous sample, keep the form of the original version with a literal translation, or transfer, which may bewilder the consumer.

As in the previous sample, the idiomaticity error score is 1 point but this produces a consequent standard error in semantics. The third area readability has nothing to do with linguistics and it is rather related to the technical specifications of the medium. These are errors of segmentation and spotting abbreviated as SNS errors , punctuation and graphics abbreviated as PG errors , and speed and length abbreviated as SL errors.

The results are available in Table 3. Table 3. Another interesting point to consider is that this table is the only one in which the fansubs version boasts a higher approval rate, even if minimal 0. PG and SL errors are not found in both the files, the only consideration to report is that prosubs do not feature fonts for particular situations e.

More specifically the errors belong to the category of spotting, which is also the main reason for the gap in the number of subtitles between the two versions. Neither of the two approaches is objectively incorrect, but the only two SNS errors in prosubs deserve attention.

On the other hand, the solution in prosubs appears to flatten the speech, as the verbs are spotted in advance. This is surely a minor error, but the fan subtitles seem a good compromise. They distribute the four verbs in two subtitles and this makes them less rushed.

In the next sample, this is even more evident. A: - Il giorno - he met - che ha incontrato - me! The character takes all the time he needs to emphasize the date of death and terrorize his listener. Also, the rhythm of the speech and the time between each unit is enough to insert short subtitles as it is shown in the fansubs. On the contrary, prosubs give straightaway the all sentence in advance and this spoils all the suspense around what the character is about to say.

True cinephiles would never accept such a subtitle, and spotting it so in advance is a total break of the contract of illusion. Other subtitles are not involved so the type of score is a standard error 0. The final table collects all data from the three areas of the FAR model and the overall scores are illustrated.

Table 4. Overall scores of subtitle quality Subtitle file Number of Number of Total error score Total approval rate subtitles errors Prosubs 13 9. The professional translation is more accurate and refined, and, especially looking at just the number of errors and the total error score, the gap with fansubs seems huge.

Errors are more frequent in fansubs but the samples analyzed above show that prosubs flaw too. Additionally, even though the same line may display a different translation owing to the guidelines followed by its author s , most of the times are both valid but this is not included in the FAR model since it deals with error analysis and excellent solutions are not counted in the approval rate, no matter how brilliant they are.

Most importantly, after having read the subtitles, I realized that some differences between professionals and amateurs are not always reflected. It is worthy of mention the fact that fansubs are considered to be more source-oriented, but in this movie, prosubs present more source-oriented translations than fansubs. On the other hand, the amateur translation witnesses some appearances of source-oriented solutions e.

Before concluding with the application of the FAR model, I would like to comment also on further samples of translation. Unlike the previous samples, these following ones do not contain translation solutions that could be objectively considered as errors. They are mostly borderline situations and the judgment varies according to the yardstick applied.

In my view, the following translations may sound unusual to expert users of the SL, for instance, expressions dealing with the culture of SL, but at the same time, they pass unnoticed by the average consumer, so without challenging the contract of illusion.

Sample 11 is extracted from the conversation in the stagecoach. Both the solutions are acceptable by the average consumer, but we could notice something unusual. Thus, the second subtitle is reduced in length and its meaning is paraphrased, even though the entire transformation of the line may clash with the original length. B: - John Ruth B: - Porto lei davanti alla legge.

A: - Sei un uomo di legge? A: - Quindi siete cacciatore di taglie. B: - Sto portando lei dalla legge. B: - Come ti chiami, rompipalle? As shown, the register appears different in the two versions. Concluding, the last subtitles under examination dealing with the concept of frontier justice in America.

As in other previous cases, frontier justice is a concept typical of the American background and the Italian consumer may be confused in front of such an expression. Nevertheless, the character explains the idea of it, hence the audience can follow the speech. Fansubbers are aware of it, so much so that they put the expression in quotation marks. Although they take different paths, the two subtitle files in the last three samples have shown that both the translation teams have found successful solutions.

Especially, these fansubbers have demonstrated once more a certain competence in their activity and most of the time proved to be a valid alternative to professionals. In this sense, they may seem a threat to them, we have to bear in mind that these are fansubs of just one forum and not fansubs forum can guarantee this qualitative level on the net.

The FAR model requires patience and time to be applied, but it is a very useful tool to evaluate subtitles and highlight their critical points. The scores provide a complete overview and their applications may vary depending on our needs, for instance not only may they be considered as feedbacks but also as a didactic tool for foreign languages student and aspiring subtitlers. Anyway, it does not lack drawbacks. One of them has been already mentioned and it is the impracticability of rewarding excellent solutions in translation, but this is strictly connected to the core of the methodology concerned which is an error analysis, and it needs to be as objective as possible.

Yet, subjectivity arises when judging the score of an error, as the boundaries between each grade are fuzzy and sometimes the gravity of a mistake is very difficult to evaluate. As discussed, while explaining Table 2 acceptability scores I have reported that it is also difficult to identify the category to which an error belongs.

In that case, I was referring to the fact whether some errors should be included in idiomaticity or semantics, but I encountered a similar situation in Table 3 readability scores. Here the subcategories of SL and SNS have much in common since the subtitle time of appearance is strictly related to its length and reading time.

Finally, I would spend some words on the error score. As said earlier, scores indicate how far the contract of illusion is respected. All scores contribute to the total approval rate, therefore the higher the error score the lower the approval rate. In this specific analysis, I have compared two kinds of subtitles for the same film in order to comprehend to what extent fansubbing and professional subtitling differ from each other.

The professional translation boasts a lower error margin than fansubbing and it is recommended for a more demanding public. Generally speaking, the first limit of my investigation is the fact I analyzed the subtitles of a movie only and, among other things, a single movie has several attempts of translation among fans. Despite many fansubbing communities have been forced to shut down their activities, others have been created or even recreated. However, such a work as the one to investigate subtitles and fansubs from a significant number of movies would require a great deal of time.

Plus, the value of such studies would be synchronic, or valid for a relatively short period, in other words, times change and the available tools become every day even more sophisticated. Members of a community, offline or online, are aware of this and adapt themselves to the new changes, and such studies should aim to understand their responses in the environment.

Consequently, research should be carried out with a certain regularity in order to depict the progress of phenomena diachronically. Fansubbing community analysis In this section, I will analyze The Forum as a virtual community, its customary rules, and its translation approaches.

The sources are the interview with an administrator of The Forum see Appendix , data collected from the error analysis and the literature I found on fansubbing see 1. The Forum was established approximately in and gathers people sharing the same passion: cinema. Besides, the members are language enthusiasts and have a general knowledge of English; as stated before, this is an essential requirement to start your career as a fansubber.

In this sense, the only discrepancy with the past is the fact that earlier, when the first audiovisual products anime were translated, English was the TL, or at least the pivot language for further translations see 1. In the last decades, the trend has changed, now English is rather the SL and most of the material to translate comes from an English-speaking country.

Thanks to the rise of Web 2. Nowadays, youth and others opt for the original version for several reasons e. Plus, this online community is relatively young less than ten years of activity , and it is just one of the tens of Italian fansubbing communities that are born after the boom of the practice in the late s due to the need for immediate translation of famous TV series such as Lost.

Apart from this, translating and subtitling is not the main goal of The Forum, the members see themselves at the service of all Internet community and this matches the essence of fansubs, translations made by fans for fans. Essentially, The Forum offers nothing different from the other Italian communities created before and after its foundation, i.

The greatest part of fansubbing communities primarily translates TV series, or a certain percentage of the Italian forums even proposes a rich catalog of items which ranges from the classics of cinema to niche products e. The latter might be the usual forums where any new visitors can immediately be enrolled as a translator, no matter the language skills. Especially the first two options are now amplified; the community contact channels do include social network accounts, in this case, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Telegram.

We could see this test as a sort of lowest common denominator. The test consists of two parts, the linguistic section and the one dealing with synchronization. Language skills have a higher value than the technical competences, as the latter can be learned in a relatively short time, and the training process demands fewer steps if the newcomer is an expert user.

After having passed the entrance test, the new fansubber is ready to participate in a translation project. Delivery times may vary and the release of a subtitle file hinges on the amount of work, but overall a fansub is ready in days. This is just an estimation; we should not forget that this is not a profession, so translating in a fansubbing community is volunteering and users must not work under pressure.

One of the values reflecting the identity of this group is sharing ideas. As previously mentioned, before producing any translation members talk about cinema, the glue that holds the group together. Then, other factors may affect final decisions, sometimes there is a lack of materials or some projects are proposed from the outside.

Given that, no human activity is governed by a real and strict ethical code, the only two tacit rules are politeness among members and instructions on the realization of projects. Additionally, its nonprofit spirit is proved in each information box available on the social media pages. The gap between the two categories is mainly due to a more accurate knowledge of the language and, above all, a less tolerance on spelling carelessness. In this regard, we should not forget that the examined fansubs feature spelling errors and all of them are minor errors 0,25 point each for spelling imperfections, in other words, fansubs total approval rate would have been about A confirmation of this reduced inflexibility comes from the interview.

The administrator states indeed that their guidelines are not so strict and their goal is only to guarantee good formatting and synchronization. As mentioned in the previous chapter see 2. The audience could not know the meaning of the words, thus the fansubber retains these words in Spanish and includes the Italian translation in brackets next to them. The integration succeeds, it does not annoy the reader and the effect of ST is kept in TT.

Another distinctive feature of fansubs, in this case, is how to highlight song subtitles as mentioned in the earlier studies on fansubbing Ferrer, Subtitlers usually choose a different font e. In this particular case, The Forum uses hash marks, and even though a song does not serve the plot and it is not translated in the prosubs, the translation could be interpreted as an act of generosity towards the viewers. To sum up, the following table indicates which features of the early fansubs, according to Ferrer , are present in the examined fansubs.

Table 5 1. Translation errors, i. Feature 5 occurs only once and it is a short and well-integrated note that clarifies a non-English word. Moving to feature 6, we have to specify that the choice of changing subtitle position is due to other subtitles already present in the original version of the film. On the other hand, errors of text transcription are recurring and deal with spelling imperfections see table 2 in which accents are replaced by apostrophes.

Overall, the analyzed fansubs are not exempt from the major features of fansubbing, but the quality is decent and the most part of the cited characteristics does not considerably disturb the average Italian user. A further reason for this choice could be found in the answer to a question that I asked in the interview.

This question concerns their kind of approach when they subtitle a movie, more specifically whether their approach is target-oriented or source-oriented. Albeit fansubs are historically thought to be source-oriented ibid. Prosubs propose to get closer to the SL through a generalization see chapt. Still, it may happen to encounter Italian phrases that combine animals and verbs dealing with emotions, therefore the first solution is not to dismiss. I can cite also sample 7 and sample 11 among these isolated cases, even though the former is a mistranslation while the above two examples display correct choices, no matter what the approach is.

As regards the planning of a translation, we should remember that community members carry out every project is with calm and no hurry is given to those who work. As we know, a great deal of translation forums releases subtitle files in few hours, and it is not uncommon to find subtitles without a revision or even completely produced with the aid of online translators e. Google Translate. Its followers have other expectations and they do not hesitate to report errors by e-mail or direct post on one of the social networks mentioned earlier.

This is quite a paradox, low fidelity fansubs forums produce more files without receiving complaints, and on the other hand, such communities as The Forum are contacted for any minimal imperfection despite a more careful and accurate work. However, this is a direct consequence of the kind of followers, people used to high fidelity products expect the best quality, and this is a stimulus for the following works.

This topic led me to ask what their position about the quality of Netflix subtitles is. Netflix does not have a good reputation among the members of fansubs forums, and this is mostly due to the poor quality of its subtitles. Netflix is seen as those forums whose main goals are the quantity and quick delivery, with the risk of jeopardizing the full usability of the item. Moreover, fansubs forums have to face in the new decades the rules voted in the European Parliament on the copyright in the digital market.

Still, The Forum affirms that its members will continue what they have done so far: giving products as the results of a team effort and deep research. The Forum would point out it is nothing more a group of enthusiasts following their passions and they like to talk about cinema and translations. The interview has illustrated how a virtual community as The Forum works in our time and it is a fundamental element to comprehend the dynamics of Web 2.

More and more people have been starting to take part in these practices which affect somehow the figure of the translator in our days.

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